Difference between revisions of "Carlosian War"

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(The Weissburg Campaign)
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===The Weissburg Campaign===
 
===The Weissburg Campaign===
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Over the winter of 1867-68 (DI 67-68), the geopolitical situation in Eastern Meridon became increasingly unstable. Valden Grand Prince Hildebert Udo Gwerde made diplomatic overtures to other nations in the the region in an attempt to open another front in the war. In particular, Valden experts and weaponsmiths were responsible for the the overhaul of the Treleini Army. Further, Carlos XII pressured the Verdean General Staff to prepare for further invasions in Sumaaväa and [[Davidos]]. The General Staff, as a result was pressured to end the war in Valden as quickly as possible, so that the Verdean Empire could avoid fighting a war on multiple fronts. It was decided that a lightning campaign to take Weissburg would be the most likely means of knocking out the Valden government, and forcing a favorable peace treaty. General de Elena was given the
  
 
==The Isarlo-Treleini Border Campaign==
 
==The Isarlo-Treleini Border Campaign==

Revision as of 21:45, 14 June 2019

The Carlosian War
Collage of the Carlosian War
Clockwise from Top Right: Treleini soldiers entrenched outside the city of Matanzas, a Valden ironcland under construction in Roslinburg, the Valian Expeditionary Brigade near Leeds, the 52nd Del Marva Regiment at the battle of Fort Naranja, the Ruins of Weissburg after the evacuation and looting of the city, The Verdean 10th Regiment of Regulars at the battle of Regenstadt Heights.
Date6. May. 1865 (23 de Mesjandra, DI 65) - 20. June. 1872 (15 de Mestor, DI 72)
Location
Eastern Meridon and the Verdean Archipelago
Result

Triple Pact Victory

  • Decline of Verdean Power in Mainland Meridon
  • The establishment of Valden as the region's preeminent military power.
  • The creation of the Treaty of Corazón del Río and the Laws of War.
Territorial
changes
Isarlé loses territory in the Lowlands region to Valden and Tallonius, and border territories to Trelein.
Belligerents
  • Valden The Grand Principality of Valden (1866-1872)
  • Capisaria The Divine Imperium of Trelein (1865; 1868-1872)
  • Finorskia The Republic Sumaaväa (1868-1872)
  • Tallonius The Kingdom of Tallonius (1870-1872)
  • Los Cuarzos The Cuarzan Confederacy (1868-1872)
  • Commanders and leaders
    • Verde Carlos XII Parisa  
    • Verde Vanessa I Dreyfus Parisa
    • Verde Manuel Antonio Cuervo  
    • Verde Antonio Cruzado de Elena  (POW)
    • Valden Hildebert Udo Gwerde von Valden
    • Capisaria Olrich II Pinkerton
    • Capisaria Thomas Windham
    • Capisaria Jackson Sunderson
    • Los Cuarzos Hernando Garza
    Strength

    Initial Strength
    386,715

    Peak Strength

    • 5,171,891 Verdeans
    • 2,431,121 Isarléans
    • 3,196 Valians

    Total Manpower

    11,785,934

    Initial Strength
    152,171

    Peak Strength

    • 3,101,951 Valdens
    • 2,105,111 Treleinis
    • 415,106 Sumaaväans
    • 51,781 Tallonians
    • 4,101 Cuarzans

    Total Manpower

    11,761,721
    Casualties and losses

    13,000,515

    • 4,119,242 Killed
    • 7,161,115 Wounded
    • 1,720,158 Captured

    8,667,168

    • 2,810,967 Killed
    • 3,741,091 Wounded
    • 1,115,110 Captured
    Triple Pact statistics do not consider civilian losses in their casualty statistics; modern estimates place the number of civilian deaths of Triple Pact nations in the Carlosian War at roughly 1.71 million.

    The Carlosian War (Verdean La Guerra de Emperador Carlos, Isarléan Le Guerre d'Empereur Charles, Valdens Der Karlkrieg), also known as the First Meridonian Great War, was a seven year and one month long war fought between the Isarlo-Verdean Alliance, led by the Second Verdean Empire and the Triple Pact of Trelein, Valden, and Sumaaväa, over several territories along the coastline of eastern Meridon, most notably, the provinces of San Lumen, and Roslinburg, which were historically Verdean colonies taken over by the mainland powers during the Imperial Period, but that the First Verdean Empire, and successor regimes never ceded claim to. The conflict was immediately sparked by the sabre-rattling declaration of intent to retake lost territories, made by Verdean Emperor Carlos XII Parisa, and the subsequent invasion of Treleini San Lumen.

    On May 6th, 1865 (23 de Mesjandra, DI 65 in the Verdean Calendar), The Verdean Imperial Navy formally declared war on the Divine Imperium of Trelein, preparing an invasion of San Lumen twenty days later. The Verdeans unleashed a number of secret weapons during the opening phases of the war, devastating the outdated Treleini military, and quickly seizing victory over Trelein over the course of a few months.

    The Verdean Empire subsequently invaded Valden which proved a more lasting conflict; with campaigning in Valden proper lasting nearly three years, before the capital; Weissburg was seized. The Valdens however, refused to surrender, even as the Verdeans launched their ill fated first invasion of Borealés del Norte, then the Sumaaväan capital of Viime Satama. Coupled with the re-entry of Trelein into the war with their new puppet state of Los Cuarzos, as well as the alliance between Isarlé and Verde the war entered it's second phase; as the two alliances fought the bloodiest battles of the war.

    The turning point of the war ultimately came with the disastrous failure of the second invasion of Sumaaväa, and the near complete destruction of the entire army sent to take Viime Satama; with the collapse of that front, and the freeing up of Sumaaväan reserves; 1870 and 1871 saw the complete collapse of the fronts in mainland Meridon, and exit of Isarlé and the Vale from the War; and after the campaign to liberate Los Cuarzos; the death of Emperor Carlos XII, and some campaigning in the Verdean Archipelago proper, the war was end by an armistice on the 31st of December (52 de Mesvacío; Verdean Time) of 1871 (DI 71), with the conflict formally coming to a conclusion with the Treaty of Corazón del Río the following year.

    The Carlosian War saw the dramatic re-balancing of power in Meridon; with the Verdeans permanently losing their claims to the Mainland, and losing power and influence more generally; seeing the modernization Trelein, paving the way for Capisarian re-unification a few decades later; and establishing Valden became the preeminent continental power until the end of the Valden War in the 1930s.

    Causes

    The causes of the Carlosian War were rooted firmly in the slow decline of the First Verdean Empire during the Imperial Period, the birth of Nationalism, and growing anxiety about the loss of influence and economic might to the mainland powers. The newly crowned Emperor of the Second Empire, promised a restoration of Verdean power and glory, by seizing historically claimed territories, occupied by mainland powers, and humiliating and weakening said powers, thus re-establishing Verdean hegemony over the entirety of Greater Meridon. On the other side, a number of the Triple Pact powers were among the ascendant Meridonian nations, with the Valdens in particular seeking establish themselves as a major regional power after their empire broke up in the Liberal Revolutions of the late 18th century; and the Divine Imperium of Trelein, as well as the Republic of Isarlé which were in conflict over the nature of Capisarian culture, and both sought, to some extent the re-establishment of the Capisarian Empire. The growth of nationalist sentiment in many of the warring nations made a major conflict in Meridon largely inevitable in the eyes of contemporary and modern scholars, and re-establishment of the Verdean Monarchy by such a militant personality as Carlos XII was simply the spark to start the conflict.

    Prelude

    Carlos Parisa (front and center) during the "Quiet Coup" of 1850 (DI 50)

    The fall of the Imperial Administration in the Verdean Revolution, led to the short lived Verdean First Republic. The Imperial colony of Los Cuarzos seceded shortly afterwards, forming the Cuarzan Confederacy, a move which the Republic, still in chaos, could not react to. Over the next few decades, the Republic struggled to maintain a balance of power between the various factions of Verde, with growing instability resulting in the end of democracy with the election of the Unity Party, and the establishment of the year long Directorate, whose brutality and corruption led to the "Quiet Coup" of Carlos Parisa, a young military officer in 1850 (DI 50), and the establishment of the Second Verdean Empire.

    The newly crowned Emperor Carlos XII, upon coming to power promised a restoration of Verdean glory, and the re-establishment of Verdean hegemony over the whole of Greater Meridon, immediately embarking on a campaign of military re-armament, reorganization and modernization. Many Meridonian nations responded with concern; with Isarlé in particular worrying for the future of peace in Meridon. Nations such as Valden on the other hand, saw Verdean saber rattling as a chance to similarly build up military strength, with the resulting industrial boom rapidly building up armaments production throughout the region, as well as increasing the strength of standing armies. The Treleinis on the other hand refused to modernize their army, believing that their strength would come through faith rather than technology.

    Carlos XII established the first modern system of conscription in 1853, replacing the outmoded model of levying as a means of mass recruitment. Similarly a major naval rearmament program commenced with dozens of new steamships replacing the sailing ships of the standing Republican Navy, culminating with the commissioning of the new flagship Corazón del Río, a 150 gun super battleship of the line. Similarly, the reorganization of the Verdean Army was completed, along with new tactics and strategies developed during the intervening years. All of which were in preparation for the first act of aggression made by Carlos Parisa.

    Cuarzan soldiers defend Matanzas in 1859 (DI 59).

    The Verdean Empire would have a chance to test out its new model military when in 1859 (DI 59), the Second Empire invaded the Cuarzan Confederacy, and overpowered the much smaller nation with little effort. The invasion was met with condemnation by many Meridonian nations, however, few were willing to push their objection beyond words, even as the Cuarzan government fled to Trelein with the intent to someday reclaim their homeland. The invasion did, however cause Sumaaväa, and other Meridonian nations to better prepare for war.

    After the Verdean Invasion of Los Cuarzos, the Imperial Military underwent further modernizations integrating new technologies notably early bolt-action, and tubular magazine, rifles, steel breech loading cannon, as well as secretly completing the Bestio Ferro class of ironclad warships, which were never before seen in Meridon. Changes to tactics also followed the invasion, as well as updates to mobilization time tables, and transport plans to maximize speed of mobilization. Similar developments would occur among the Valdens, though not to the same extent.

    The final prelude to war came in early 1865 (DI 65), when Carlos XII made his famous "Verde Irredenta" declaration, essentially stating his will to press the Imperial claim to its lost colonies. The Isarléans made a desperate attempt to seek a peaceful resolution to the conflict. The Verdeans would make limited overtures to peacefully annex the territories, even as they secretly mobilized their army, and prepared for the invasion of San Lumen. As these offers would be flatly rejected, which was expected, final preparations for war were made.

    Opposing Forces

    The Isarlo-Verdean Alliance

    Before the war, the Verdean Imperial Navy was the preeminent military force in Greater Meridon, with several ironclads, modernized artillery, a fleet over two hundred strong, and the largest effective warship in the region, the Corazón del Río. Working closely with the Navy, the Imperial Marines was similarly a formidable force, standing over one hundred thousand strong well trained, and equipped with early models of bolt-action, tube magazine rifles, as well as modern artillery, and led by several capable commanders, most notably General del Mar Luciano Ruíz Contreras. The army was the largest force in the Verdean military, standing at roughly three hundred thousand strong, with vast reserves, equipped with fairly modern equipment. At the outbreak of the war, the Verdean Empire maintained the strongest single military force in Greater Meridon, and among its best led.

    Imperial Warship Bestio Ferro in port circa 1866 (DI 66).

    Isarlé's peacetime army was comparatively small, professional force backed by a pool of conscripted reservists having replaced traditional levée systems with conscription shortly after its adoption by the Second Empire. The new conscription system was not, however, tested by conflict, and mobilization timetables and standing orders were lacking, meaning that the professional force would have to wait for an extensive period of time before reservists could assist them in the defense of the nation. They were however, fairly well equipped with modern weapons, and often supported with training from experienced foreign officers. The Isarléan Navy was fairly sizable, but dwarfed by its ally in this respect, possessing several dozen steamships. Isarlé also maintained an alliance with the Crowned Republic of The Vale, though the Valian military was quite small, and they sent only a single Brigade to fight in the Carlosian War under the command of Isarléan generals.

    The Triple Pact

    The Valden Royal Army was, before the war, the largest mostly professional land army in Meridon standing at a little over three hundred thousand strong. A small cadre of experienced officers and NCOs, veterans of long completed wars, and bold, well educated officers managed to maintain a solid training regime, as well as establishing the first modern general staff system in Greater Meridon twenty years before the outbreak of the war, which was an inspiration for Verdean and Isarléan militaries before and during the war respectively. It was similarly well equipped with modern rifles and artillery. The Valden Navy was somewhat neglected by comparison, though having a general staff, who frequently pushed for modernization, the Prince was reluctant to shift efforts from the Army to the Navy for a proper modernization, as a result, the Valdens were still largely reliant on sailing ships with older guns, supplemented by a limited number of modern steamships.

    Valden regulars on review in 1864 (DI 64)

    The Divine Imperium of Trelein was badly outdated before the outbreak of the war, relying heavily on what was essentially the feudal levying system to maintain the army's strength. The army, standing at fifty thousand before the outbreak of the war was equipped with largely with older rifle muskets, with no modern artillery to speak of. The levies which were significantly larger, having a mobilization pool of almost half a million, relied on even older technology. Training was also lacking in the Divine Imperium, with religious indoctrination taking greater import than tactical drill in many training centers. The Navy was likewise outdated, but large, relying on a vast fleet of sailing frigates, and a few ships of the line. It is widely believed that the inadequacies of the Treleini armed forces contributed significantly to their rapid defeat at the hands of the Verdeans in the campaign season of 1865 (DI 65).

    Sumaaväa's military was comparatively small, being a solely professional force in peacetime. Due to the relatively small industrial base of the Republic of Sumaaväa, modern equipment was somewhat uncommon. This was compensated for by the skill of Sumaaväan leadership, and innovative tactics developed by the high command specifically to defend their nation from incursion by much larger nations. The Sumaaväan army was also supplemented by a large National Guard, similar to conscripted reserves or levies from other nations which could be mobilized and integrated into the Army command fairly quickly in the event of invasion. Similar to the Army, the Sumaaväan Navy was comparatively small and somewhat behind the cutting edge, Sumaaväan vessels on the other hand were extremely well adapted to fighting in the often frozen waters of their home territory, much better so than the nations from warmer climates.

    The Invasion of San Lumen

    Lithograph of Verdean Marines landing outside San Lumen.
    Treleini dead after the battle of Corrido del Toro.

    Shortly after the "Verde Irredenta" declaration, Verdean military forces began secretly mobilizing and staging for an invasion of the Meridonian continent. At the same time overtures were made to annex the claimed territories peacefully, all of which were rejected. Trelein in particular was firm in its rejection, slighting the Verdean ambassadors making the attempt. In response to the Treleini rejection of the Verdean ultimatum, the Verdean Second Empire declared war on the Divine Imperium of Trelein on the 6th of May, 1865 (23 de Mesjandra, DI 65). At this time, invasion preparations were finalized and the assembled fleets set out to take the province of San Lumen. It would however, take a few weeks for the invasion force to arrive in the San Lumen region, giving the Treleinis valuable time to reinforce their positions in the area with troops mobilized from the territorial levies.

    The Imperial Navy would clash with the Treleini fleet outside San Lumen on the 26th of May (43 de Mesjandra). The unveiling of Imperial ironclads and overwhelming force proved utterly devastating to the Treleini fleet, forcing them to rout after taking heavy losses. The Treleinis did however manage to single out and damage the Corazón del Río forcing it to retreat from the theater for several months. By day's end however, the way was clear for the ground invasion, and two days later the Verdean Marines landed just south of San Lumen. Over the 28th and 29th (45th and 46th de Mesjandra), the Verdean invaders swiftly crushed Treleini resistance in the city of San Lumen, forcing the defenders to surrender or else withdraw to defensive lines in the countryside.

    Over the course of the summer of 1865 (DI 65), the Imperial Army delivered a disastrous and humiliating defeat at the battle of Corrido del Toro where the Treleinis lost nearly a third of their fielded army before successfully evacuating. They did however manage to hold their ground at the Battle of Richmond, turning the Imperials back with their fortifications in the area around Richmond. The Imperials would however, withdraw in good order, and circumvent the fortifications; forcing an engagement in the open, over seven days in early and mid July (Mestor), breaking the Treleni Army and forcing them to retret into Englen. Though the Divine Imperium would launch a counter-attack, their defeat at the Battle of Willemshire resulted in the Yugal Council forcing Olrich II to sue for peace, ceding the province of San Lumen in the Treaty of Richmond; Olrich himself was removed from office shortly thereafter.

    The Isarléans pressured the Verdeans into establishing a quasi-autonomous, Republican provincial government shortly after the Treaty was signed, with the Sun Lumen Provincial government meeting for the first time on the 16th of September (51 de Meseva). The Verdeans however, had a light hand in overseeing this government, rapidly building up military presence in the area instead. Having secured a quick victory, the Verdeans were emboldened to retake their second lost province in Roslinburg, and plans to invade the province were pushed up to early 1866.

    The Valden Campaigns

    The Invasion of Roslinburg

    In the early morning of 24th February 1866 (2 de Mesorge DI 66), a small contingent of Verdean Marines raided and destroyed coastal artillery batteries surrounding Roslinburg, an action which was followed up by the swift destruction of Valden fleet guarding the port of Roslinburg, and landing of Verdean soldiers in the city. Throughout the day, Verdean soldiers clashed with the remaining Valden defenders, but were unable to do so by nightfall resulting in sporadic fighting within the city throughout the night. The formal declaration of war would come at 22:00 that night, as both Verdean and Valden reinforcements began to arrive in close proximity to the city. The next day, the reinforcing forces met outside the city proper in the Battle of Roslinburg, resulting in a significant Verdean defeat, and the Imperial Army forces retreating into the city, as the Valdens laid siege to Roslinburg.

    Over the course of the next three weeks, the Valden Army attempted to break the Verdean forces holding the city of Roslinburg, which was outnumbered, and after a naval counter-attack a week into the siege, cut off from resupply. The Valdens themselves brought in tens of thousands of mobilized reservists to continue applying pressure to the besieged Verdeans, who were driven slowly back towards the port of Roslinburg. An Imperial relief force arrived on the 16th of March (23 de Mesorge) however, and in spite of a final Valden counter-attack, successfully relieved the defenders on the following day. The Valden Army withdrew in bad order, after taking significant casualties; and was incapable of defending against incursion attempts outside the city proper before they joined with another Valden Army staging further north.

    The 10th Regiment of Regulars at the Battle of Regenstadt Heights.

    Verdean troops continued to arrive in Roslinburg, fortifying the city against further attacks, and reconstructing the port, which had taken severe damage in the fighting for the city. Smaller raiding parties were also dispatched into the countryside to secure forage, and to probe for Valden resistance. When one of these raiding parties was eliminated with no survivors in a skirmish with advancing elements of the Valden Army just north of Regenstadt, a larger Imperial Army was sent to fortify the Regenstadt Heights, hills overlooking Roslinburg and Regenstadt. A very large Valden Army assaulted these fortifications on the heights on the 2nd of April (40 de Mesorge), using artillery to blow open holes in the line and overwhelming the defenders, nearly overrunning the entire defensive line. Only the timely arrival of Imperial Reserves, including several regiments of Imperial Regular troops managed to stem the Valden advance and repulse the assaults over the course of two further days of bloody fighting. Offers from the Second Empire of peace, made after the battle were flatly rejected, forcing Carlos XII to plan for a more ambitious campaign to seize the Valden capital of Weissburg.

    Campaigning in 1866

    Valden Cavalry pursuing retreating Verdeans after the Battle of Grunfeld.

    After the Battle of Regenstadt Heights, the Verdean Army advanced northward towards the River Edelweiss. The Valden Army in the area withdrew before the advance, with some units breaking off and harassing the Verdeans, raising irregular units, and slowing the advance of the Verdeans while the main body of their army retreated towards a Valden force preparing for a counteroffensive North of the Edelweiss. The Verdean Army, exhausted and under-strength from the summer's campaign encamped for the winter outside of Grunfeld. The Valdens however, were preparing for a winter counteroffensive, and as the Verdean offensive stalled, the Valdens were gathering the rest of their reserves, and readying troops for the counteroffensive.

    In secret, the Valdens had delayed the attack in order to train artillerists on a new weapon they had developed, the Drehkanon or Rotary Cannon, an automatic weapon that may have proved devastating in combat. Throughout the summer campaigning season Valden regulars held North of Weissburg trained on the new weapon under heavy guard, secrecy was maintained even among the Valden Army. Delays in the manufacture of the ammunition necessary to use the Drehkanonen, resulted in the pushing back of the day of attack, and later the decision to commence without them.

    Starting on the 23rd of December (44 de Mesvacío), Valden troops began crossing the River Edelweiss under the cover of darkness attempting to mask their movements toward the Verdean encampment a mere 50 kilometers south of Weissburg. In the early morning the 25th of December (46 de Mesvacío), the Valden Army launched a surprising attack on the Verdeans at Grunfeld who were quickly overrun by the fierce and massive attack, and forced into a panicked retreat while hotly pursued by the Valden cavalry. The Valdens successfully manage to chase the Verdeans to the sea before Verdean reinforcements and naval gunfire from Verdean warships managed to slow their advance. However, substantial losses and declining morale convinced Verdean General José López del Marva to retreat to more defensible highlands to the South.

    The Winter Retreat and the Fourteen Days Battles

    Throughout the winter months of 1867 (DI 67), the Verdean Army would engage in a fighting retreat southward, as they attempted to lure the Valden Army to a defensive line being erected on heights between the towns of Kolinburg and Triessfeld. Over the course of January, February, and March (Mesjula and Mesorge), the steady advance and frequent skirmishes began to wear down both armies. The Valdens however, were more significantly impacted by this, and attempted to cut off the line of retreat for the Verdeans by using their cavalry to cut the rail-line that had been used as the axis of retreat. They were met by Verdean Engineers in the Battle of Schwarzekaff, where the two forces clashed inconclusively for several days until the main Verdean Army arrived, forcing the Valdens to retreat.

    Verdean and Valden cavalry clash outside Kolinbug.

    The Verdeans would halt their retreat and stand to engage the Valdens along the Kolinburg-Triessfeld line. The Valdens launched their attack on the 3rd of March (10 de Mesorge), the initial frontal assaults are repulsed easily by the Verdean defenders. As the Valdens continued the attack however, two major flanking attempts occurred a few days later nearly broke the line. At the Battle of Kolinburg, sixty thousand Valden cavalry, and fifty six thousand Verdean Cavalry clashed in the largest cavalry battle in Meridonian history, with the Valdens narrowly repulsed. On the other side of the line, the Verdeans were pushed off the heights at the Battle of Triessfeld. Reserves pulled from the center managed to contain the breakout from Triessfeld, however a Valden attack down the center nearly breaks the line, with several days of bitter close quarters fighting resulting in slow Valden gains at tremendous cost.

    The timely arrival of Verdean reinforcements from Roslinburg allowed the Verdeans to regain the initiative, and over the next few days, the Verdeans began to push the Valdens out of the defensive line. Further attacks by the Valdens, attempting to retake the initiative would occur; mounting casualties however would result in the Valden commander calling off the attack, and retreating to lower rises just north and east of Kolinburg awaiting a Verdean counter-attack. The Verdeans, exhausted by the previous fourteen days of fighting, failed to follow through with a proper counter attack, allowing the Valdens to withdraw in good order the next day. The Verdeans reinforced their line, awaiting fresh supplies and reinforcements for the start of the summer campaigning season.

    The Summer Campaign of 1867

    Verdean regulars rout after they are attacked with rotary cannons.

    The Valdens would attempt to regain the initiative at the start of the 1867 (DI 67) summer campaigning season, by moving around defensive lines established at Kolinburg-Triessfeld, and the Regenstadt Heights, to directly assault the city of Roslinburg. Verdean reconnaissance elements did succesffuly report on the movement of the Valden Army, allowing the Verdeans to assemble a defensive force in time to block the Valden offensive. The two forces clash on the 4th of May (21 de Mesjandra), at the Battle of Rövershagen, where the Valden assault would be stalled for a day before the Valden Army would fall back, pursued by Verdean Cavalry for ten days, before they re-establish a defensive position on the Ützi Heights. The main body of the Imperial Army in the region arrives, attacking them at the Battle of Ützi Heights, where after a poorly executed assault, that was easily repulsed by the Valden defenders, on the first day; heavy Verdean artillery arrived, destroying Valden defensive positions and allowing for the follow-up assault to knock the defenders off the heights. After Ützi Heights, the Valden Army in the region broke into its constituent corps to engage in harassment attacks after the Verdeans established strong defensive positions on the western perimeter of Roslinburg.

    Verdean Cavalry overrun a Valden artillery position at the Battle of Der Gelb Kaffen.

    After Ützi Heights, the Verdean Army launched its own offensive towards Weissburg. Over the first three weeks, the Verdeans encounter no resistance as they advance, with even the usual irregular harassment absent. The Valden Army in the North had chosen to retreat towards the Edelweiss to rendezvous artillery regiments trained in the use of the Drehkanonen, which were, at that point, ready to fight. As the Verdeans began to overtake the retreating Valden Army, the Valdens detached a blocking force to slow down their pursuers. The blocking force attempted to stand and stall the Verdeans at the June 20th (15 de Mestor) Battle of Frühlingfeld. Though they had to give up the field of battle, the Valdens had successfully managed to slow the Verdean Army down long enough for the Valden Army to join with Drehkanonen Regiments 60 kilometers north at Nordkaff. As Verdean cavalry pursued the blocking force, they came into contact with the main Valden Army, and after a brief skirmish at Mitte, retreated towards the main Verdean Army, reporting the Valden positions. A few days later on the 1st of July (26 de Mestor), the Verdeans attacked the Valdens encamped in the hills north of Nordkaff. Over the first two days the Verdeans slowly pushed the Valden flanks back, pushing from one hill to another, and it was thought, forcing the Valdens to weaken their center. On the third day, General José López del Marva launched a major frontal assault from Nordkaff itself with the largely Regular Second Corps of his Army. It was at this point that the Valdens unveiled their rotary cannons, which combined with canister shot from traditional artillery and volley fire from Valden rifles, forced the Verdeans back with massive losses, leaving 2,156 Verdeans left dead on the field. The Verdeans retreated from Nordkaff the following day, the Valdens were slow to pursue, recuperating for two days, but eventually advancing to the South as the Verdeans retreated. After Nordkaff, General del Marva was relieved of command by Emperor Carlos XII, and replaced with General Antonio Cruzado de Elena, the architect of the invasion of Los Cuarzos, and a corps commander during the invasion of San Lumen.

    The Valdens and Verdeans fought several skirmishes as the Verdean Army once again retreated towards the coast. As the Verdeans reached the coast, they began to engage more directly with the Valden Army, stalling the Valden advance at the Battle of Kremmen. As further reinforcements arrived, the Verdeans launched a counter-attack at the Battle of Der Gelb Kaffen, overrunning Valden positions, and even capturing two Valden rotary cannons, which the crews had not managed to successfully destroy. Over the next couple of months, the Verdeans, once again on the offensive pursued the Valdens, specifically attempting to capture and destroy as much of the Valden artillery as was possible. The Valdens retreated towards Grunfeld, near the outskirts of Weissburg proper, chasing off Verdean Cavalry sent to disrupt Valden lines of supply and communication, and breaking off blocking forces to slow the advance of the Verdean Army. As the autumn came to Valden, the campaign slowed, with Verdeans ceasing offensive operations in late October (mid-Mesisa) to establish winter camp near Nordkaff. Skirmishes would continue through the winter, but both the Valden and Verdean armies were exhausted, and unable to prosecute major operations.

    The Weissburg Campaign

    Over the winter of 1867-68 (DI 67-68), the geopolitical situation in Eastern Meridon became increasingly unstable. Valden Grand Prince Hildebert Udo Gwerde made diplomatic overtures to other nations in the the region in an attempt to open another front in the war. In particular, Valden experts and weaponsmiths were responsible for the the overhaul of the Treleini Army. Further, Carlos XII pressured the Verdean General Staff to prepare for further invasions in Sumaaväa and Davidos. The General Staff, as a result was pressured to end the war in Valden as quickly as possible, so that the Verdean Empire could avoid fighting a war on multiple fronts. It was decided that a lightning campaign to take Weissburg would be the most likely means of knocking out the Valden government, and forcing a favorable peace treaty. General de Elena was given the

    The Isarlo-Treleini Border Campaign

    Diplomatic Overtures

    Treleini Incursion

    Isarléan Counteroffensive and Stagnation

    The Invasion of Sumaaväa

    Initial Invasion

    Occupation of Viime Satama

    Verdean Withdrawal and the Destruction of the Borealés Army

    Triple Pact Counteroffensives

    The Collapse of the Northern Front

    The Isarléan Collapse

    The Fall of San Lumen

    The Evacuation of Roslinburg

    The End of the War

    The Liberation of Los Cuarzos and the Death of Carlos XII

    The Culebra Campaign

    Aftermath

    War Crimes and Civilian Casualties

    Memorials

    Military Significance

    Press and Publicity

    The Isarlo-Verdean Alliance

    The Triple Pact

    Uninvolved Nations

    Geopolitical Impact

    Cultural Impact