This article belongs to the lore of Musgorocia and the Southern Furukuran Sea.


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Federal Republic of Carloso

República Federal de Cárloso
Flag of Carloso
Coat of arms of Carloso
Coat of arms
Motto: "Nation, sovereignty, unity"
"Nación, soberanía, unidad" (Spanish)
Anthem: "The Vencedor's Song"
"La Canción del Vencedor" (Spanish)
Location of  Carloso (dark blue), in Musgorocia & Novaria (light blue)
Location of  Carloso  (dark blue)

in Musgorocia & Novaria  (light blue)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
98.7% European
0.3% Non-European
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Cárlos Tobón
• Deputy President
George Spalding
• Writ of Union
1 February 1581
• Dissolution of the Carlosian Empire
29 May 1932
• Federalisation
20 June 1956
• Total
2,979,063 km2 (1,150,223 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 census
• Density
120.8/km2 (312.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$19.147 trillion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$19.234 trillion
• Per capita
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 28.7
HDI (2016)Steady 0.917
very high
CurrencyCarlosian dero (D£) (DER)
Time zoneUTC±0 (GMT)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+296
Patron saintSaint Thomas Aquinas

Carloso (/kærls/; Spanish: Cárloso), officially the Federal Republic of Carloso (Spanish: República Federal de Cárloso), is a transcontinental sovereign, federal parliamentary constitutional republic composed of twenty-four provinces located in Western Musgorocia, each exercising a limited degree of autonomy from the central government based in the nation's capital; Madrigal. The South Liskeard Islands, located in the Novarian Ocean, on the continent of Novaria, are governed as an unincorporated territory directly administered by the Carlosian government. The mainland portion of the country is bordered by Agostinia to the south, Ortecuria and Sarabagia to the east, Acrary, West Laurentia and Taliaferro to the north and the Musgorocian Ocean to the west. With an area of 2,979,063 square kilometres (1,150,223 sq mi) and a population of 359,726,397 according to the most recent census, Carloso is the third largest country in Musgorocia, after Bourgougia and Barssois, and the most populous. Much of the nation's population is centred around extensive metropolitan areas such as Madrigal, Ebon, Secano, Toro, Lagosa, Preston, Valdehuesa and Castillo de Zamora, though there remains a sizeable rural population. Carloso is a largely bicultural country, with both very large Hispanic and British communities that have generally intermixed, though English remains the dominant language. The country's climate is mostly temperate, while both its geography and wildlife are diverse.

The first humans migrated to modern-day Carloso around 41,000 BC, most likely from across the Musgorocian Ocean by dugout canoe. After Musgorocia was discovered by European explorers, large-scale colonisation was spearheaded by Castile, with the Spanish colonial territory becoming Nueva Murcia. In the War of the Carlosian Secession against the Iberian Union, the colonists emerged victorious in 1581, forcing the kingdoms to formally recognise the new country in the Treaty of Madrigal. An interim government passed the Writ of Union to reform the disparate Seven Colonies into a single political entity; the First Carlosian Republic. The revolution sparked off a wave of similar wars of independence across the entire continent, meaning that, by 1625, European powers had little presence in Musgorocia. From its independence, the country expanded rapidly, constantly fighting native kingdoms. In 1629, the First Republic was ended in a violent coup d'état lead by General Miguel Astacio de Abaroa, which itself was overthrown five years later in a large popular revolution lead by Eberado Lardizábal de Encarnacion, who founded the Carlosian Empire and ruled it as Emperor Charles I. For the next two hundred years, the Empire existed and expanded in relative peace and stability, while immigration from Europe steadily increased, particularly English speaking migrants from Great Britain and Ireland, with English becoming the majority language of the Empire by the end of the nineteenth century. The advent of the Industrial Revolution saw the economy grow exponentially in strength.

Beginning with the War of the Sovereigns in 1847, imperial power began to decline considerably and a series of political and civil conflicts occurred, culminating in the 1919 coup d'état attempt by Estefania Luciano, 5th Marchioness of Toro and the Carlosian Civil War of 1932, which ultimately ended in the dissolution of the Empire and the foundation of the Second Republic of Carloso. At the same time, almost all of the country's foreign possessions were ceded to other countries. The devastating Emergency War of 1946–1951 in Musgorocia saw the re-emergence of the nation as a regional superpower, the first country in Musgorocia to develop nuclear weapons and, so far, the only one to use them against another country. The nation soon became the dominant economic and military powerhouse on the continent. In 1953, a process of devolution of power to the provinces began, finishing in 1956 with the adoption of a new constitution and the foundation of the Federal Republic. The next few decades brought relative peace and stability to the nation, ending with the Acrary Civil War of 1985–1992, the unexpected Bourgougian invasion of Victory in 1987, and the resulting Bourgougian Blitz, the Carmine War of 1991–1994 and the subsequent dissolution of the State Union, as well as the Lavikonan invasion of the Leclerc Islands in 1996. Going into the twenty-first century, the country experienced a period of rapid economic growth, solidifying its position as the dominant regional power. The new century also saw Musgorocia enter a period of geopolitical calm and the normalisation of relations with Barssois, allowing Carlosian governments to develop the nation's interests on the international stage.

Carloso is considered a very highly developed country, ranking well in gross domestic profit (GDP) per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI). Carloso has the largest national economy in Musgorocia, and is characterised by a mixed market, a significant degree of reindustrialisation and very large secondary and tertiary sectors. The country has a noticeably protectionist international trade policy, is a net exporter and ranks highly in self-sufficiency indexes. The nation's currency, the Carlosian dero (£D), is widely circulated around the world and is the most traded currency regionally. Carloso's military expenditure overwhelmingly surpasses that of all other countries in Musgorocia, with an unmatched ability to project power and a large stockpile of modern nuclear weapons. Globally, the country is a major cultural, economic and political force. The country is a former member of the World Assembly (WA), withdrawing in 2011 after a national plebiscite voted in favour of leaving. It was also a very prominent member of the International Freedom Coalition (IFC), but withdrew unilaterally in early 2016. In March 2017, it became a signatory to the COSTAL Accords, redefining its maritime boundaries. In May of the same year, Carloso became a member of the Santiago Anti-Communist Treaty Organisation (SACTO), signifying the complete reorientation of the nation's geopolitical alignment. Bar these exceptions, nation has historically shied away from joining any international organisations and, much like its trade policy, has preferred bilateral diplomacy with other countries.


Cárlos de Oso, the country's namesake.

The name "Carloso" is derived from the name of Cárlos de Oso (Charles the Bear), who is considered the country's founding father, having led the rebelling colonial forces against the Spanish, Portuguese and English armies. The name was agreed upon by representatives from the seven rebelling colonies as a tribute to de Oso, who was killed on the front line during the Battle of Madrigal.



Fornaris Caves, Madrigal contain the earliest known evidence of human habitation in Carloso, as well as the earliest known cave paintings in Musgorocia.

During the last glacial period, most of modern-day Carloso was covered in a thick layer of ice. The more southerly parts of the country experienced a humid continental climate, with vast boreal woodlands. The lowered sea levels allowed a wide landbridge; Sentarsica Minora, to exist, linking Musgorocia to the now submerged continent of Sentarsica. Rising sea levels cut the two landmasses off around 9,000 BC. The landbridge made it possible for humans to colonise Musgorocia in a series of migratory waves. The earliest evidence of the human settlement of modern-day Carloso has been found in Fornaris Caves, Madrigal, where two skeletons and cave paintings were discovered in 1987 during an expedition into a previously unexplored cavern. The two individuals; a young male and female, were dated to have lived around 41,000 BC. The retreating glaciers allowed humans to travel further north and colonise the newly habitable land so that, by 13,000 BC, humans had spread to most of the continent, including all of modern-day Carloso.

Up until the arrival of European settlers, Musgorocia remained very sparsely populated, with a population believed not to exceed 2 million at any one time. Most of these settled on the coast, including that of contemporary Carloso, where it is believed between 150,000 and 300,000 lived. While it is known that the indigenous people of Carloso developed their own languages, because they lacked any form of writing system, almost nothing is known about them besides some poorly transcribed examples recorded by European explorers. Like all Musgorocian natives, they are almost certainly related to the Yupik or Inuit people.

European colonisation

Soon after the arrival of Admiral Juan de Beldad's fleet in Musgorocia on 1 January 1500, the Crown of Castile constructed a series of military fortifications along the Musgorocian coast. Following these, smaller colonies were established, but most failed. The most northerly settlement at Castillo Llanuras, in present-day Malaledo, Secano, was founded in 1508 as Castille's northernmost settlement on the continent. Its strategic position and cooperation with the natives transformed the distant outpost to a thriving settlement and trading post, attracting hundreds of immigrants from the Iberian peninsula. Shortly afterwards, dozens of smaller settlements were founded, spanning most of the modern day Carlosian coastline, including Arrolobos, Batalla, Toro and Zamora. After the union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon under the Habsburgs, the population began to grow rapidly. King Charles I authorised the creation of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Murcia, with Pedro de Obregón serving as its first viceroy.

San Juanacio fires its guns to announce the discovery of Musgorocia on the morning of 1 January 1500, painted by Josué de Santigo (1592).

In need of an administrative capital, a new settlement called Nuevo Tierracarlos, later renamed Madrigal, was founded on the Santángel Peninsula, now the Madrigal Peninsula. Nuevo Tierracarlos quickly grew into an important centre of trade, with a population of 80,000 by the year 1534. de Obregón mandated a policy of exploration and expansion inland, founding the outpost of Valdehuesa in 1537. The native inhabitants were forced to retreat northwards as outbreaks of European diseases killed much of their coastal population. Mixed units of local mercenaries and veteran soldiers called Vencedores acted as the de facto security forces for Nueva Murcia, combating natives, expanding territories and acting as an irregular police force. The discovery of silver and iron deposits attracted more settlers, and the prosperity of the colonies increased considerably, with territories stretching from Secano in the south-east to Zamora in the north-west to Madrigal at the foot of the Andalucian Mountains.


After its independence, Carloso expanded its territory rapidly.

Expansion (1581–1798)


Imperial decline

Imperial soldiers walk amongst the ruins of Madrigal Metropolitian Hall in the aftermath of the 1919 coup d'état attempt.


A unit of Carlosian Army armoured personnel carriers patrolling the streets of Arceneaux during the Bourgougian Blitz.

On 4 January 1987, Carlosian President James Moran was killed during a visit to Brixten, Ebon when a series of explosions destroyed the bridge his convoy was crossing. The perpetrators were quickly caught, soon revealed to be agents of the Bourgougian foreign intelligence service. The new President of Carloso, TBA, demanded that the Bourgougians explain themselves and ordered for a massive military build-up along the Agostinia– Bourgougia border. On 10 February 1987, the Bourgougians invaded the Carlosian exclave of Victory, overrunning its small garrison. A day later, the Parliament of Carloso approved a formal declaration of war against Bourgougia, beginning the almost six-month-long Bourgougian Blitz. Fighting between Agostinia, Carloso and Bourgougian forces broke out all across the border, culminating in a combined invasion of eastern Bourgougia. While initially making huge gains, the advance of Carlosian and Agostinian forces was halted by reinforcements on Bourgougia's side from Barssois and the communist government of Acrary. Intense fighting throughout the summer resulted in casualties mounting on both sides, with the sinking of several Carlosian warships. In July, the Carlosian Armed Forces hatched a daring amphibious assault on the city of Victory, liberating it and beginning a new offensive into southern Bourgougia. Within a month, the Bourgougian government had surrendered and soon descended into civil war after the socialist government was deposed in a coup.

In 1991, the civil war raging in the neighbouring country of Acrary spilt into Carloso when a unit of the Acrary People's Army attacked and occupied the town of Stretton. Fearing an attempt to seize Ebon, President Copeland and the Carlosian Parliament declared a state of war with Acrary within hours of the attack and began a massive strategic bombing campaign against the country, commencing Carloso's intervention in the Acrary Civil War and the downfall of the communist regime a year later when the Carlosian Army and rebel forces entered Barton, the country's capital. Though it didn't get directly involved in the Carmine War within the State Union, Carloso started openly training and arming the various separatist factions in 1992 in retaliation for the military aid given by the State Union to Bourgougia and Acrary during their respective conflicts, ending with the dissolution of the State Union in 1994.

Early twenty-first century (2000–present)

After the chaos of the late twentieth century, Carloso's victory in the Bourgougian Blitz and Acrary effectively secured its position as the dominant regional power. The Democratic Party under Michael Gallagher came to power in 2001 for the first time in over forty years, leading a 'rainbow coalition' that included Socialist Republicans, Progressives, Liberal Conservatives and Independents. President Gallagher's term in office was marked by explosive economic growth in the first few years of the new millennium and diplomatic relations were restored with Barssois in 2002, effectively ending the three-way balance of power held in Musgorocia between Carloso, Bourgougia and Barssois since the 1800s. However, a series of corruption scandals led to the near-collapse of the government before the 2005 election, resulting in heavy losses for the Democratic party. The Conservatives under Montero Irizar returned to power, entering into a coalition with the Democrats. By 2006, economic growth had stagnated and there were concerns that the country could soon enter recession.



Hurricane Augustín hit the Carlosian mainland on 22 September 2007 as a Category 5 storm, doing immense damage to infrastructure and killing over 1,000 people. It remains the most destructive tropical storm on record.

Carloso is often affected by tropical storms that form in the Musgorocian Ocean and has suffered several destructive hurricanes in the past. By far the worst was Hurricane Augustín in 2007, which killed over 1,000 people and caused more than D£8 billion in damage.


Due to the geographic isolation of Musgorocia, Carloso's native wildlife developed separately to that of most of the world. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, bats were the only land mammals in the area. Due to a lack of predators, many bird species grew in size and developed flightlessness. This made them vulnerable to the introduction of invasive species when Europeans arrived in the 1500s, causing a large number of animals to go extinct. This was further exacerbated by the destruction of large amounts of forest to make way for farmland as Carloso expanded throughout the following centuries. Starting in the 1800s, efforts to conserve native species have been undertaken, with varying degrees of success.




Parliament of Carloso
     National Salvation (507)
     Conservative Party (183)
Other opposition parties
     Democratic Party (68)
     Socialist Republicans (30)
     Synarchist Union (24)
     Communist (18)
     Independent (29)
Cárlos Tobón, President of Carloso since 2010

Political divisions

Under the 1956 Constitution, Carloso is a federal, parliamentary, constitutional republic divided into twenty-four distinct and separate administrative provinces. The Constitution distinguishes between metropolitan and non-metropolitan provinces, though there is no difference in the level of autonomy granted to either. Though it is officially described as a federal state, in reality Carloso's political system can be regarded as 'quasi-federal' or a 'unitary state with a federal spirit', with only a limited degree of self-governance delegated to the provinces and supremacy of the central administration in almost all matters. While provincial governments have a significant amount of control over own health services, civil defence, law enforcement and housing, all decision making and policy can ultimately be dictated by the central government. Madrigal Metropolitan is the most populous of the provinces, encompassing just under 10% of the country's population, The provinces of Carloso are;

Province Capital Region Population Area Density
Madrigal Metropolitan Madrigal Central 33,194,295 TBA TBA
Outer Madrigal TBA Central TBA TBA TBA
Ebon Metropolitan Ebon Northeast TBA TBA TBA
Outer Ebon TBA Northeast TBA TBA TBA
Cadena Islands TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA
Castillo de Zamora TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA
Secano Secano South TBA TBA TBA
Toro Metropolitan Toro TBA TBA TBA TBA
Lagosa Lagosa TBA TBA TBA TBA

Parties and elections

Elections in Carloso are direct and held under universal suffrage, applying to both parliamentary and local government. The method used is proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (STV) with elimination transfers only. Under this system, voters rank each candidate on the ballot paper in order of preference. The papers are counted continuously and the candidate with the lowest number of votes at the end of each count is eliminated and their votes are redistributed to the other candidates according to the preferences of the voter. In the case of a general election, in each constituency the process continues until the top three candidates are remaining and these then go forward to be elected Members of Parliament. Even if a candidate reaches over 50% of the vote at any point in the counting process, they are not officially elected until all votes from every eliminated candidate are distributed. Since its implementation in the 1955 election, the system has been regarded as being representative of the Carlosian electorate, giving a slight advantage to smaller parties. However, it also means majority governments in Carloso are somewhat uncommon.

There are four primary political parties in Carloso, ranging from right-wing to left-wing; National Salvation, the Conservative Party, the Democratic Party and the Socialist Republicans. For most of Carlosian history, politics was dominated by the Conservatives and Democrats, however in 2010 the newly formed National Salvation party; led by members of a dissident faction within the Conservatives, crippled the establishment parties in the wake of the Blue Revolution and secured over 49% of the seats in Parliament, often attributed to mass defections from within the Conservative party itself in the run-up to polling day.

Law and criminal justice

The new Supreme Court of Carloso in Madrigal.

Carloso is a common law jurisdiction, inherited from the country's English colonisers. The common law; also referred to as judge-made law, is determined by countless judicial rulings spanning hundreds of years, even predating Independence. The nation's courts system consists of the District Court, Circuit Court, High Court, the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court and finally the Constitutional Court. The latter is regarded as the guardian of the Constitution of Carloso, and is charged with preventing radical reinterpretations of the constitution by the Supreme Court or rulings that are regarded as contrary to common or natural law. The Constitutional Court was established by referendum in 2015, though its powers can be traced back to those granted to the Privy Council of the Carlosian Empire. The Constitution of Carloso is the supreme law. After a national plebiscite, it was enacted in 1956 to replace the constitution of the Republic of Carloso. The 1956 constitution established the Federal Republic as the present form of the Carlosian state.

Capital punishment is legal in Carloso. It is the mandatory punishment for crimes including murder, capital murder, rape etc. There are two primary forms of execution; firing squad and hanging. The President may issue a waiver to commute a death sentence to life imprisonment or for an alternative form of execution to be used instead. The viewing of executions is open to the public in Carloso.

Foreign relations

Embassy of the Federal Republic of Carloso located in Nouvelle Bar, Barssois. It is the country's largest diplomatic mission in Musgorocia, employing around 2,000 staff.

The development of foreign policy and the maintenance of foreign relations is the responsibility of the Department of Foreign Affairs (DoFA), which is headed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, currently Aarón Delgado. It is also charged with the advancement of Carlosian interests abroad, in conjunction with the Department of Defence, and is one of the largest government departments, with an estimated 70,000 staff. Since the country has begun to take a more prominent role in international affairs, the Department's position in the government has increased in importance. The Department's many responsibilities include protecting the nation's foreign interests, negotiating trade deals and promoting consular services to Carlosian citizens in other countries.

As a military, economic and political great power, Carloso holds diplomatic ties with many countries around the world. The country has embassies and consulates in almost all countries in Musgorocia, with the exceptions of Bourgougia and Cispania. Likewise, almost all countries on the continent have embassies in Madrigal. Worldwide, Carlosian diplomatic missions are mostly present in nations that are similarly politically aligned or of international importance. Likewise, the country has shied away from establishing formal relations with countries it has historically had strained relations with, or possess generally incompatible or totalitarian systems of government. After leaving the International Freedom Coalition (IFC) in 2016, the nation has had mixed but mostly cordial relationships with most of the organisation's members. Originally seeking a central geopolitical alignment between the IFC and the Santiago Anti-Communist Treaty Organisation (SACTO), Carloso ended up joining SACTO itself on 20 May 2017. At home, Carloso has close relations with its neighbours, Acrary and Agostinia. Due to a series of wars in the twentieth century; the Emergency War and the Bourgougian Blitz, relations with Bourgougia are extremely sour, and Agostinian and Carlosian military forces regularly perform military exercises on the border between the two countries. After the deposition of the Bar military junta during the National Restoration in 1994, relations between Carloso and Barssois have returned to normalcy and have been quite constructive since, an event which has been described by many as the Pax Musgorocia.

Due to Musgorocia's relative distance away from the rest of world, foreign policy from the nation's inception into the late twentieth century was almost exclusively regionally-based. However, with the end of the wars and crises of the 1980s and 1990s in Musgorocia, stability returned and Carlosian administrations were finally allowed to look internationally to exert Carlosian economic, military and political power. In 2000, the country joined the World Assembly (WA), but after a heavily contested national plebiscite in 2011, it was decided to leave the organisation, with all connections between the country and the organisation being cut by the end of that year. Similarly, Carloso joined the International Freedom Alliance (IFA) in 2014. After the merger with the Western Coalition (WC) to form the International Freedom Coalition (IFC), Carloso became a very prominent member within the organisation. However, in March 2016 the government made the decision to unilaterally withdraw from the alliance, highlighting "the continued conflict between the current leadership and members of the organisation" as the reason for doing so. The move was seen as a last resort by many, with some condemning Carloso for destabilising the organisation, while others criticised the IFC's failure to diffuse rivalries and conflict within the alliance. Starting in March 2017, a year after distancing itself from the IFC, Carloso entered a period of geopolitical realignment, shifting to a more interventionist and aggressive stance in enforcing foreign policy. This has been marked by a warming of relations with SACTO-aligned nations, its historical adversaries. The process has involved the first visit of a Nifonese leader to Carloso, the signing of the COSTAL Accords, and finally Carloso's landmark accession to SACTO in May 2017, which sparked significant domestic and international outcry. Carlosian foreign policy is complex, but has been broadly described as interventionist in nature and based on the idea of 'big stick diplomacy', with a strong emphasis on 'peace through strength'. In line with the ideology of the current administration, foreign policy dictates active opposition to globalisation and the proliferation of social liberalism. It is strongly anti-communist and supports the continued growth of nationalist movements around the world.

The Carlosian International Aid Authority (CIDAA) was the government agency set up by the International Aid Act 1997 that was responsible for the distribution of development aid to developing countries and reconstruction projects across Musgorocia. In 2015, it was stripped of all its funding and its assets were sold off. From that point, it existed in name only as a 'phantom division' within the Department of Foreign Affairs. In 2017, CIDAA was formally dissolved.


Top to bottom: A FV4139 Aurochs main battle tank, a jet fighter during routine patrols, warships off the Carlosian coast

The Carlosian Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Carlosenses) are the military forces of the Federal Republic of Carloso. The President of Carloso is considered to be the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, though day-to-day operations are the responsibilities of the Department of Defence. As of 2018, it has a total of four active services; the Carlosian Army, the Carlosian Marines, the Carlosian Navy and the Carlosian Air Force, plus a number of associated reserve components. Carloso has the largest military in Musgorocia, followed by Bourgougia, and contributes significantly to the military forces of the Santiago Anti-Communist Treaty Organisation (SACTO).

Carloso is Musgorocia's primary nuclear power, alongside Barssois, and possesses large inventory of nuclear weapons. Most of these are either MRBMs, IRBMs or nuclear-tipped cruise missiles, though it maintains a small number of ICBMs. A stockpile of chemical and biological weapons also exists.


Carloso has a mixed-market economy that is the largest in Musgorocia, with a gross domestic profit by purchasing power parity of $19.147 trillion in 2016. Its currency, the Carlosian dero (D£), is considered to be of high-value and is a commodity-backed currency. The majority of Musgorocia's top one thousand largest companies are based in Carloso. Economic analysts have broadly described Carloso as being a state capitalist or distributist country, with the government exerting a significant degree of influence in the running of the market economy. Carloso is also noted for its strong competition law. The government maintains majority control over the country's railways, electricity networks, telecommunications and other essential services. Beginning in 2007, President Irizar implemented a more economically liberal doctrine, allowing the privatisation of many national industries. This was eventually halted in 2011 by President Tobón and these companies were subsequently renationalised.

Science and technology



Foreign trade

Rank Country Exports Imports Total Trade Trade Balance Rank Country Exports Imports Total Trade Trade Balance
TBA State Federation TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA Côte d'Emeraudes TBA TBA TBA TBA


Historical population
1947 119,414,268—    
1952 124,526,754+4.3%
1957 135,153,557+8.5%
1962 149,784,963+10.8%
1967 165,172,104+10.3%
1972 178,916,243+8.3%
1977 192,362,151+7.5%
1982 206,484,216+7.3%
1987 225,175,286+9.1%
1992 244,427,680+8.5%
1997 268,713,721+9.9%
2002 292,154,285+8.7%
2007 318,581,916+9.0%
2012 333,106,644+4.6%
2017 359,726,397+8.0%

A national census is conducted in Carloso every five years and is the responsibility of the National Census Authority (NCA) and its provincial branches. The NCA is an executive agency within the Department of Justice.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in 2017

  European (98.7%)
  Non-European (1.3%)

The people of Carloso are of overwhelmingly European descent, primarily from the British Isles and Iberian Peninsula. While almost all immigrants initially came from Spain and Portugal, there was always a significant minority of people with English, Irish or Scottish descent. However, it would not be until the 1700s that migration from these places would increase massively. Almost half of English immigrants were Roman Catholics who went to Carloso due to the persecution they faced in their homeland. In the 1800s, immigration increased from other European regions, in particular Spain, Italy and France. After the dissolution of the Carlosian Empire in 1932, successive governments put severe restrictions on immigration, reducing it to near zero. Several thousand Greek refugees were permitted to move to Carloso in the 1940s after the Italian invasion of Greece and outbreak of the Greek Civil War.

A number of Middle Eastern Christians and some Eastern Europeans have also settled in Carloso.

Reported ancestry of Carlosians in 2017

  Largely Spanish (41.62%)
  Largely English (20.71%)
  Largely Irish (11.55%)
  Largely Italian (7.24%)
  Largely Scottish (4.99%)
  Largely French (4.86%)
  Largely Portuguese (4.47%)
  Largely Greek (1.17%)
  Other (3.39%)


English is the first, national language of Carloso. Spanish is also spoken, mainly in the north-west around Zamora Province, and the vast majority of citizens are bilingual. All road signs are translated into both English and Spanish. The dialect of English spoken in Carloso; called Carlosian English, has spelling and pronunciation standards that align with British English, and has been noted as phonologically conservative, retaining several words and spelling that have fallen out of use in other varieties of English (e.g spelling of 'serjeant' rather than 'sergeant', use of the word 'ye' as a pluralistic form of 'you', as seen in Hiberno-English). The dialect of Spanish spoken in Carloso is predominantly influenced by Andalusian Spanish. The residents in the northern parts of Toro Province are known for code-switching between Spanish and English, producing a variant of Spanglish.


Religion in Carloso

  Roman Catholic (79.29%)
  Anglican (11.73%)
  Presbyterian (4.58%)
  Irreligious (2.97%)
  Other (1.43%)

The Constitution of Carloso recognises Christianity as the country's state religion, while providing for the freedom of religion. It acknowledges the special position in particular of Catholicism, Protestantism, Presbyterianism and Judaism. According to the 2017 census, Roman Catholicism is by far the largest denomination of Christianity in the country, with 285,227,063 (79.29%) regarding themselves as Catholic. The head of the Catholic Church in Carloso is Ezequiel Semprún, as Archbishop of Madrigal. The largest church in the country is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Victory.

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Victory in Madrigal.

Anglicanism is the next largest denomination, making up 11.73% of the population. Most of these are members of the Church of Carloso. Presbyterians make up 4.58% of the population, with almost all being members of the fundamentalist Free Presbyterian Church of Carloso.

While weekly attendance of Mass has dropped since 2000, it has not been to the extent seen in other developed countries and has since stabilised. In 2017 week Mass attendance stood at 71%, down from 89% in 1997. Recent years have shown a significant uptick in mass attendance amongst youth.




With 3,507 beds and over 7,800 staff, Madrigal General Hospital is the country's largest medical centre

Healthcare in Carloso is largely organised along provincial lines, the publicly-funded system being managed by the national National Health Board (NHB), which is directly subservient to the Department of Health, while the Minister for Health is responsible for health policy and regulation. Each administrative province has its own, largely independent, branch of the NHB. Only Carlosian citizens and non-national expats from SACTO-aligned countries are allowed full access to the public health system.

The average life expectancy at birth in Carloso is 83.4 years; 84.3 years for women and 82.4 years for men respectively. Obesity in Carloso has had a varied history, reaching a high of 21.4% of the adult population in 2009 but reducing since, thanks primarily to a government-lead programme that has imposed harsh sanctions on companies that refuse to reduce the fat and calorie content of their products. According to the most recent data that has been published, the most common cause of death in the country is coronary artery disease, followed by heart attack, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and stroke. The average infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births is 3.72. The Maternity Act 2005 allows for 26 paid weeks of maternity leave for women, in addition to another 16 unpaid weeks afterwards, while the father is entitled to 2 paid weeks of paternity leave only.

Abortion is illegal in Carloso, with a mandatory death sentence for anyone who performs one.




Visual arts