Difference between revisions of "Church of Nortend"

 
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The clerk is the Cardican equivalent of the historical 'minor orders'. They hold various roles, such as that of the crucifer, thurifer, cerofer, and particularly, lector and chorister. University undergraduates are ordained as academical clerks, which is normally conferred during matriculation. The parish clerk, commonly known simply as the Clerk, serves as {{wp|subdeacon}} and reads the Epistle at Mass. Ordination into the clericate entitles a commoner to sit in choir during the liturgy, without any other qualification necessary, with the permission of the incumbent. Compared with holy orders, a clerk is able to relinquish his clericate, generally by abandonment or by deed.
 
The clerk is the Cardican equivalent of the historical 'minor orders'. They hold various roles, such as that of the crucifer, thurifer, cerofer, and particularly, lector and chorister. University undergraduates are ordained as academical clerks, which is normally conferred during matriculation. The parish clerk, commonly known simply as the Clerk, serves as {{wp|subdeacon}} and reads the Epistle at Mass. Ordination into the clericate entitles a commoner to sit in choir during the liturgy, without any other qualification necessary, with the permission of the incumbent. Compared with holy orders, a clerk is able to relinquish his clericate, generally by abandonment or by deed.
  
===Liturgy===
+
==Liturgy==
 
The liturgy is organised around the traditional {{wp|liturgical year}} and the {{wp|calendar of saints}}.  
 
The liturgy is organised around the traditional {{wp|liturgical year}} and the {{wp|calendar of saints}}.  
  
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The rites for the ordination of bishops, priests, deacons and clerks are set out in the Book of Rites. Also included are the administration of the sacraments such as marriage and visitation of the sick, as well as processionales, blessings, prayers and thanksgivings.
 
The rites for the ordination of bishops, priests, deacons and clerks are set out in the Book of Rites. Also included are the administration of the sacraments such as marriage and visitation of the sick, as well as processionales, blessings, prayers and thanksgivings.
  
====Language====
+
===Language===
 
The official language of the Church of Nortend is (ecclesiastical) [[Court Latin]] .
 
The official language of the Church of Nortend is (ecclesiastical) [[Court Latin]] .
  
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Although the liturgy is said or chaunted entirely in Latin, homilies and sermons are said in English. Additionally, pew copies of the Books of Liturgy provide an authorised English translation, which most people read in their minds. This results in a simultaneous personal worship in English, and a corporate form in Latin. The Ordinary, specifically, is mandated to be said by the congregation to themselves in a low voice in English or Latin, whilst the Latin texts are chaunted by the choir.
 
Although the liturgy is said or chaunted entirely in Latin, homilies and sermons are said in English. Additionally, pew copies of the Books of Liturgy provide an authorised English translation, which most people read in their minds. This results in a simultaneous personal worship in English, and a corporate form in Latin. The Ordinary, specifically, is mandated to be said by the congregation to themselves in a low voice in English or Latin, whilst the Latin texts are chaunted by the choir.
  
====Offices====
+
===Offices===
 
Traditionally, there were eight canonical offices. These were Vigils (Midnight prayer), Mattins (Dawn prayer, also known as Lauds), Prime (Morning prayer), Terce (Late morning prayer), Sext (Noon prayer), None (Afternoon prayer), Vespers (Evening prayer) and Compline (Retiring prayer).  
 
Traditionally, there were eight canonical offices. These were Vigils (Midnight prayer), Mattins (Dawn prayer, also known as Lauds), Prime (Morning prayer), Terce (Late morning prayer), Sext (Noon prayer), None (Afternoon prayer), Vespers (Evening prayer) and Compline (Retiring prayer).  
  
 
Since the canon ''Quia solliciti'', these eight are combined into four offices in the Book of Offices, for use in all churches and chapels in Great Nortend, including [[Cardican religious foundations|regular foundations]]. These offices are Mattins, Nones, Vespers and Nocturns for prayer in the morning, at noon, in the evening and at midnight.
 
Since the canon ''Quia solliciti'', these eight are combined into four offices in the Book of Offices, for use in all churches and chapels in Great Nortend, including [[Cardican religious foundations|regular foundations]]. These offices are Mattins, Nones, Vespers and Nocturns for prayer in the morning, at noon, in the evening and at midnight.
  
=====Public offices=====
 
 
The public offices are derived from the condensation of the eight canonical offices; Vigils, Mattins and Prime are merged into 'Mattins'; Terce, Sext and Nones are merged into 'Nones', and Vespers and Compline are merged into 'Vespers'. Ordinarily, Mattins and Vespers both have five psalms and Nones two psalms. The entire psalter is sung through in four weeks.
 
The public offices are derived from the condensation of the eight canonical offices; Vigils, Mattins and Prime are merged into 'Mattins'; Terce, Sext and Nones are merged into 'Nones', and Vespers and Compline are merged into 'Vespers'. Ordinarily, Mattins and Vespers both have five psalms and Nones two psalms. The entire psalter is sung through in four weeks.
  
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Not many ordinary parish churches have the means to chaunt the three public offices daily. Despite this, canons require that Mattins and Vespers at least be said audibly in every parish church every day, even when there is no congregation. Most parish churches have at least a parson and curate (priest and deacon) who say Mattins and Vespers in church respectively, or vice versa, daily, whilst the other recites it privately. Nones is rarely chaunted in most parishes, unless served by a college or religious house, or of great size.
 
Not many ordinary parish churches have the means to chaunt the three public offices daily. Despite this, canons require that Mattins and Vespers at least be said audibly in every parish church every day, even when there is no congregation. Most parish churches have at least a parson and curate (priest and deacon) who say Mattins and Vespers in church respectively, or vice versa, daily, whilst the other recites it privately. Nones is rarely chaunted in most parishes, unless served by a college or religious house, or of great size.
  
======Mattins======
+
====Mattins====
 
Opening : Mattins begins with the Opening Versicles ''Domine labia mea aperies'' and ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''. Thereafter, the ''Venite'' with proper Antiphon is chaunted, followed by the Vigils Hymn of the day.  
 
Opening : Mattins begins with the Opening Versicles ''Domine labia mea aperies'' and ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''. Thereafter, the ''Venite'' with proper Antiphon is chaunted, followed by the Vigils Hymn of the day.  
  
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Closing : The ''Kyrie'', ''Pater noster'', ''Confiteor'', ''Misereatur'' and ''Absolutionem'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
 
Closing : The ''Kyrie'', ''Pater noster'', ''Confiteor'', ''Misereatur'' and ''Absolutionem'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
  
======Nones======
+
====Nones====
 
Opening : Nones begins with the Opening Versicle ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
 
Opening : Nones begins with the Opening Versicle ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
  
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Closing : The ''Kyrie'' and ''Pater noster'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
 
Closing : The ''Kyrie'' and ''Pater noster'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
  
======Vespers======
+
====Vespers====
 
Opening : Vespers begins with the Opening Versicles ''Converte nos Deus salutaris noster'' and ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
 
Opening : Vespers begins with the Opening Versicles ''Converte nos Deus salutaris noster'' and ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
  
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Closing : The ''Kyrie'', ''Pater noster'', ''Confiteor'', ''Misereatur'' and ''Absolutionem'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
 
Closing : The ''Kyrie'', ''Pater noster'', ''Confiteor'', ''Misereatur'' and ''Absolutionem'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
  
=====Nocturns=====
+
====Nocturns====
 
Nocturns is one of the offices found in the Book of Offices, ordered to be sung at midnight. Historically the office of Vigils was sung at midnight, but ''Quia solliciti'' merged it with Lauds and Prime to form Mattins, sung in the early morning. Instead, Nocturns was created along the lines of the little hours of Terce, Sext and None, albeit much longer. It consists of twelve psalms. Together with the other three offices, the entire psalter is sung through in two weeks. Unlike in the historical Vigils, the Invitatory, Venite and Opening Versicle ''Domine labia mea aperies'' is not said.
 
Nocturns is one of the offices found in the Book of Offices, ordered to be sung at midnight. Historically the office of Vigils was sung at midnight, but ''Quia solliciti'' merged it with Lauds and Prime to form Mattins, sung in the early morning. Instead, Nocturns was created along the lines of the little hours of Terce, Sext and None, albeit much longer. It consists of twelve psalms. Together with the other three offices, the entire psalter is sung through in two weeks. Unlike in the historical Vigils, the Invitatory, Venite and Opening Versicle ''Domine labia mea aperies'' is not said.
  
======Order======
 
 
Opening : Nocturns begins with the Opening Versicle ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
 
Opening : Nocturns begins with the Opening Versicle ''Deus in adjutorium meum intende'', followed by the ''Gloria Patri'' and then the ''Alleluia'', or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, ''Laus tibi Domine''.  
  
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Closing : The ''Kyrie'' and ''Pater noster'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
 
Closing : The ''Kyrie'' and ''Pater noster'' are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final ''Dominus vobiscum'' and ''Benedicamus Domino''.
  
====Mass====
+
===Mass===
 
The Mass is at the heart of the Cardican liturgy. At least one Mass must be celebrated monthly in all parish churches, and in many churches, they are celebrated weekly or even daily, perhaps at a collegiate church or chantry. The most common form of Mass is the Sunday Mass, which is celebrated on Sundays after Mattins and before Nones. The Mass on ''festa duplex'' and all Sundays is preceded with a procession of the choir, clerks and ministres from the chancel up and down the alleys and around the church.
 
The Mass is at the heart of the Cardican liturgy. At least one Mass must be celebrated monthly in all parish churches, and in many churches, they are celebrated weekly or even daily, perhaps at a collegiate church or chantry. The most common form of Mass is the Sunday Mass, which is celebrated on Sundays after Mattins and before Nones. The Mass on ''festa duplex'' and all Sundays is preceded with a procession of the choir, clerks and ministres from the chancel up and down the alleys and around the church.
  

Latest revision as of 15:10, 16 January 2020

Church of Nortend
Ecclesia Erbonica
WinchesterCathedral-north-wyrdlight.jpg
Sulthey Cathedral is the seat
of the Archbishop of Sulthey.
ClassificationWestern Orthodox
ScriptureBible
PolityEpiscopal
GovernourThe Sovereign
PrimateThe Lord Archbishop of Sulthey
RegionGreat Nortend
LanguageLatin and English
LiturgyCardican Rite
HeadquartersThe Cathedral and Abbey of St Laurence, Sulthey
Separated fromRoman Catholic Church
1614
Members29 million

The Church of Nortend is the state church of Great Nortend. It is established under the Proclamation of Manfarham, the Statute of Limmes and the Statute of Supremacy, and is an integral part of the Government of Great Nortend. The Archbishop of Sulthey is the most senior clergyman of the church, and is considered to be the Primate of Erbonia, although the Sovereign of Great Nortend is the Governour of the Church Mundane, holding the ecclesiastical title of Vicar of Christ.

History

Early Christianity

St Laurence is widely credited for the founding of the establishment of the modern-day Christian church in Great Nortend in the 8th century. Though Christianity had arrived in the Erbonian Isles around the 2nd century AD and converted much of the Ethlorek Hoebric people, the majority of the later influx of Arlethians, the Nords, Sexers and Cardes, practised pagan folk religions.

Early Middle Ages

An abbot, canonised as Laurence of Sulthey, was sent as a missionary in 774 by Pope Zachary I to convert Arlethic people from paganism to Christianity. The reigning King of Nortend at the time, Egbert, desired the support of the military power of the Church, permitted Laurence to proselytise the Nords and Cardes of his kingdom, although he himself was only baptised on his deathbed in 753 after being mortally wounded by an arrow during battle. Laurence founded a cathedral on the Isle of Sulthey in 749, the year which is now generally considered the start of the Roman church in Great Nortend. He also founded the first monastery, which became Sulthey Abbey, two years after in 751. St Laurence served for over thirty years as the Archbishop of Nortend. His mission was a great success and by the 10th century, most of the population had converted to Roman Catholicism.

Middle Ages

A typical late 12th century manor church. St Renwick's, in Culton, Southannering.

The Church flourished in the Middle Ages, in a frenzy of religious piety. By the 13th century, nearly every manor had at least one church and in many, a religious foundation. In Lendert-with-Cadell alone, 52 churches had been built by the time the Cathedral of St Peter was completed in 1272.

Independence from Rome

The pivotal moment in the history of the Church was the declaration of independence from the Bishop of Rome. There had been simmering tensions in Erbonian society in the decades immediately preceding, with controversy over the taxes payable to the Church and influence from Orthodox Christianity which supported the principles of national autonomous churches. From 1545 to 1563, Erbonian prelates attended the Council of Trent but no effective reform was forthcoming.

The Church of Nortend as an independent national church was declared with the proclamation at Manfarham by King Alexander I in 1614. The Statute of Limmes was formally promulgated later that year, and the Statute of Supremacy in 1615. These Statutes were passed with the consent of the Privy Council and later ratified by the Parliament in 1632. A legend surrounding the proclamation relates that the King and the then-Archbishop of Sulthey heard from the Holy Ghost in a dream commanding that, “Thine house shall be cloven and We shall make thee/thy Lord Our Governour and Vicar over Our flock”. The King and Archbishop of Sulthey, after public assent to the Statute, were excommunicated by the Pope.

The independence of the Church of Nortend was widely popular amongst the people and nobility, although it was opposed strongly by the clergy and monastics. Though loyalists were not initially legally persecuted for their support of the Roman Catholic church, the controversy was, in the early and mid 17th century, increasingly manifested through violence between both sides.

The Abbot and monks of the Abbey of Staithway captured and hanged the Duke of Cardenbridge in 1765 at the height of the Popish Wars.

The Acts of Cleaving forming the combined Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria in 1642 established the Church of Nortend as the established church of Hambria as well. Matters came to a head when the 12th Duke of Cardenbridge was captured and hanged by the Abbot and monks of Staithway in 1668. The 13th Duke introduced a Bill into the House of Lords after the death of Alexander I who had opposed criminalisation later that year, to criminalise allegiance to the Pope, leading to the use of the term 'Cardican' to refer to the Church of Nortend. Under the Act, many clergymen, such as the Bishop of Chepingstow, were executed for refusing to renounce against the Pope and escalated with the trial and execution of the Six Heretics, six clergymen who plotted with the Pope to invade Great Nortend and restore the Church in 1670 during the first few years of King William I's reign.

William declared that 'whosoever shall renounce the lawful catholic and orthodox Church of this Realm shall be put to death'. He noted in the Carta Erboniæ Ecclesiæ, or Charter of the Church of Nortend, that the Church before schism was in essence the same as the independent Church, save for the rejection of the Bishop of Rome as supreme head of the Church. This maintained the Alexanderian view that the Church was 'reformed, catholick and orthodox', in an attempt to appease both sides of the controversy. The position of the Roman Catholic Church is that the Church of Nortend is in schism but not heretical.

Post-schism

After schism, a new English bible translation, liturgy and missal was proposed in Parliament as necessary for cementing the King's identity as the Governour of the Church in Nortend. The King James's Bible had been published in English in 1611, a few years prior to the Declaration of Supremacy. The eventual Cardican authorised version of the Bible was dedicated to St Edmund in 1704 by King Henry V and drew heavily from the King James's Version for inspiration and guidance. Copies were disseminated freely to every church and school, leading to its widespread adoption.

Latin remained in use for the liturgy, and moves to publish the liturgy in English proved controversial at the time, as the Latin Rites of Chepingstow and Sulthey had been in use for many centuries prior and for nearly a century after schism. A compromise was established between those supporting the vernacular and the adherents to the Latin rites. The Latin text would be supplemented side-by-side with official English translations for the benefit of the people, but Latin would remain in use for liturgical purposes.

The Olnite Matter

The 'Olnite Matter' concerned the marriage of Queen Mary to the traditionalist Earl of Scode.

Since schism, the theology of the Church of Nortend had changed very little from the pre-schism Roman Catholic theology. Beginning in the 18th century, however, there was a growing popularity of Protestant theology amongst some intellectuals and reformists who sought to move the Church towards a more Protestant leaning.

Their cause received the tacit support of Queen Mary, who had through her youth and early reign displayed a reformist leaning in her faith, declaring the suspension of the initiation of any novices to religious establishments and appointing more protestant-leaning bishops. She, however, desired to marry Charles Oln, the 5th Earl of Scode, of the ruling House of Oln in Albeinland who was deposed in the Albish Revolution. Stuart was of the traditionalist branch of the Church of Nortend. This naturally led to controversy and there sprung up two opposing factions in Parliament, known as the 'Scodeliers' and the 'Droughers', which supported and wished to 'draw apart', viz. 'drougher', the marriage respectively. Ultimately, Mary rebuffed the Droughers and wed the Earl of Scode in 1742 at the age of 27. Thenceforth, the Scodelier faction grew to dominate the Church and remains to this day, one of the two major political parties in Great Nortend.

Reform

Despite the Scodeliers prevailing, most traditionalists recognised a need for some level of institutional reform. One matter which was heavily debated in the House of Lords and the House of Clergy in particular was the position of the vernacular tongues in the Church. English during the 18th century had came to be used, contrary to law, in some regions for chaunting the liturgy. In particular, since the publication and dissemination of St Edmund's Bible in the early 18th century, the various readings from the Gospel, Epistle, Histories and of other Lessons, as well as the Psalms began to be chaunted in English . This was followed by chaunting the rest of the liturgy in English as the English translations of the Book of Mass and Book of Offices were published and prescribed. The Archbishop of Limmes ordered that the abuses cease and the Lord Bishop of St Cleaves sent letters missive in 1740 to all priests commanding that they cease “chaunting in the English tongue contrary to the Canons of the Church and to the detriment of the understanding and proper instruction of the congregation in the Latin language of the Church”.

Many bishops were, however, sympathetic to need to appeal more to the ordinary person unlearned in Latin. In 1744, the newly wed Mary was petitioned by the Bishops of Corring, Mast, Polton, Staithway, Scode and Echester to amend the canons to permit the chaunting of the Offices and Mass in English. This was opposed by a minority of bishops, including the Archbishop of Sulthey, on the grounds that the official translations provided were sufficient for comprehension.

Nevertheless, Mary assented to canons which made licit for the first time the use of English in the liturgy. The canons provided that where Latin was not readily understood by the people, the Psalms, Antiphons, Gospel, Epistle and other Readings from Holy Scripture could be chaunted in English, and the Confiteor, Misereatur and certain other prayers said in English as well if they were not well-known, as the Pater noster and Ave Maria were. In 1750, the choice of English was extended to the Credo as well but only when chaunted by the people, and the next year the same to all Hymns, as well as Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei and the minor propers if chaunted by the people.

Non-conformity

Though the 17th century widespread religious conflict had largely abated, religious tensions throughout simmered under the surface and occasionally came to a boil. The Acts of Allowance in the 18th century permitted for the first time people to establish their own non-conformist 'chapels' and have preachers so long as they did not proselytise, build buildings that looked like places of worship or threaten the established Church. The last provision was used to shut down non-conformist chapelries that grew too large and popular, and ultimately resulted in their eventual decline in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Today here are only a number of non-conformist chapelries. Of these, the majority of chapelries are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. The vast majority of Erbonian Christians are members of the established Church of Nortend.

Structure

The Archbishop of Limmes, the Most Reverend John Williams

The Sovereign is recognised as the 'Vicar of Christ' and 'Governour of the Church', being the 'highest power under God in his Dominion' with 'authority over all persons in all matters, civil or ecclesiastical'.

The Church of Nortend is divided into three ecclesiastical provinces, sci. a metropolis in Orthodox terminology, headed by an archbishop. These metropolitan provinces are not to be confused with civil provinces. Each province is divided into dioceses, headed by an bishop. The Archbishop of Sulthey is the Primate of Erbonia, subordinate only to the Sovereign.

Map of the dioceses of the Church of Nortend.

Province of Rhise

  • Archdiocese of Rhise and Hoole
  • Diocese of Keys
  • Diocese of Oxley
  • Diocese of Corring (Rockleham) and Fivewells
  • Diocese of Rhighton

Province of Sulthey

  • Archdiocese of Sulthey
  • Diocese of Chepingstow
  • Diocese of Mast
  • Diocese of Polton
  • Diocese of Staithway

Province of Limmes

  • Archdiocese of Limmes
  • Diocese of Scode
  • Diocese of Echester
  • Diocese of Lanchester
  • Diocese of Lendert and Cadell
  • Diocese of Tow and St Cleaves
  • Diocese of Walecester

Each diocese is split further into archdeaconries, deaneries and parishes, administered by an archdeacon, a dean and a parish priest respectively. A parish is usually conterminous with a feudal manor, which are not to be confused with baronies, whilst a deanery is coterminous with a hundred.

A parish is the most local level of church organisation. The holder of a benefice is known as a rector, and is appointed by the bishop on nomination by the patron of the parish. He is charged with the cure of souls in the parish, and is supported by the parochial tithes. The benefice can be appropriated by a religious foundation in perpetuity. Thereby, the foundation is bound to nominate a vicar to the bishop in order to discharge spiritual obligations. The rector, being the religious foundation, is entitled to the tithes, but a portion thereof must be given to the vicar.

Doctrine

The doctrine of the Church of Nortend was and is modelled on the traditional teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church, with modifications especially during the period of the Reformation. These tenets are encapsulated in the Carta Erboniæ Ecclesiasticae, which has forty main articles. The main point of schism between the Catholic and Cardican churches stems from the authority of the Pope, which is rejected. Rather, the Pope is seen as simply the Bishop of Rome, and Primate of Italy. Other differences include the lack of mandated clerical celibacy, liturgical differences and minor differences in calendars.

Protestant principles as seen in some branches of Lutheranism and Anglicanism, such as the rejection of the devotion to Mary, and of the sacraments of matrimony, communion, unction and holy orders, are not recognised in the Church of Nortend. The Church adheres to the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus, however does not consider the Immaculate Conception of Mary to be dogmatic.

The Church of Nortend, unlike some more liberal churches, is highly conservative in social matters. It prohibits the ordination of women and takes a strict approach against homosexuality, adultery, fornication and the like. In some ways, the Church of Nortend retains many traditional 'mediæval' characteristics which the Roman Church has mostly done away with. This includes the use of Latin , chaunts and the thriving of religious life.

In relation to scientific fields, the Church is generally accepting of new ideas where they do not contradict scripture. It is heavily intertwined with the three universities, and actively encourages scientific pursuits, knowledge and scholarship. For example, though the theory of evolution on the macro-scale remains highly controversial, the position of the Church is that the Creation account in Genesis is not repugnant to the general theory of evolution.

Sacraments

The Church of Nortend recognises the seven traditional sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, Communion, Penance, Unction, Holy Orders and Matrimony. These are said to work ex opere operato meaning that they derive their power not from the holiness of the minister, but from Christ himself, with the minister acting in persona Christi.

Infant baptism is practised, with later confirmation around adolescence by a bishop to reaffirm the baptismal promises which were made on the child's behalf by his godparents. Communion is the sacrament which completes a person's initiation into the Church as a Christian. It is performed typically at Mass.

Penance and Unction are the two sacraments of healing. Both corporate confession and private confession are practised in the Church, the former in the liturgy of the Offices and the Mass. Unction is given to the sick to heal, strengthen and in extreme cases, provide absolution for sins.

The Church of Nortend recognises four orders of cleric, that of the bishop (episcopate), priest (prebyster), deacon (diaconus) and clerk (clericus). Of the four, only the first three are holy orders or in Latin, ordines majores. Bishops may only be ordained by three other ordained bishops, whereas a priest or deacon may be ordained by any single bishop. The Church of Nortend professes apostolic succession. The positions of archbishop, archdeacon, primate &c. are not considered sacramental but rather mere appointments.

Matrimony is considered sacramental in nature. Divorce is only permitted before consummation, although a marriage can be annulled by the Crown upon various reasons.

Clerks

The clerk is the Cardican equivalent of the historical 'minor orders'. They hold various roles, such as that of the crucifer, thurifer, cerofer, and particularly, lector and chorister. University undergraduates are ordained as academical clerks, which is normally conferred during matriculation. The parish clerk, commonly known simply as the Clerk, serves as subdeacon and reads the Epistle at Mass. Ordination into the clericate entitles a commoner to sit in choir during the liturgy, without any other qualification necessary, with the permission of the incumbent. Compared with holy orders, a clerk is able to relinquish his clericate, generally by abandonment or by deed.

Liturgy

The liturgy is organised around the traditional liturgical year and the calendar of saints.

The liturgical practice of the Church of Nortend is set out in three books, known as the Books of Liturgy. These are the the Book of Mass (Missale), Book of Offices (Officiale) and the Book of Rites (Rituale) which were promulgated in 1709, 1710 and 1713 respectively. The first two were officially authorised in 1711, by Henry V who issued the canon Quia solliciti which required use of the new books.

All three books are used conjointly with the St Edmund's Version of the Bible, and the Book of Chaunts (1730) which includes both plain chaunts for the ordinary and proper of the liturgy, including the psalms, antiphons, hymns, canticles, texts, introits, graduals, tracts, alleluias, sequences, versicles, responses and the ordinary, with and without tropes, for every day, feast and other especial day.

The rites for the ordination of bishops, priests, deacons and clerks are set out in the Book of Rites. Also included are the administration of the sacraments such as marriage and visitation of the sick, as well as processionales, blessings, prayers and thanksgivings.

Language

The official language of the Church of Nortend is (ecclesiastical) Court Latin .

Texts are divided into the accentus and the concentus. The former includes the text said by the priest, deacon or clerk, including the Major Propers, being the Preface, Collects and Prayers, as well as any Directions, Readings, Lessons, and Chapters.

The latter includes the texts said principally by the choir and congregation, being the Ordinary, being the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, as well as the Minor Propers, being the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Tract, Sequence, Offertory and Communion, and the Hymns, Canticles, Psalms and Antiphons.

Although the liturgy is said or chaunted entirely in Latin, homilies and sermons are said in English. Additionally, pew copies of the Books of Liturgy provide an authorised English translation, which most people read in their minds. This results in a simultaneous personal worship in English, and a corporate form in Latin. The Ordinary, specifically, is mandated to be said by the congregation to themselves in a low voice in English or Latin, whilst the Latin texts are chaunted by the choir.

Offices

Traditionally, there were eight canonical offices. These were Vigils (Midnight prayer), Mattins (Dawn prayer, also known as Lauds), Prime (Morning prayer), Terce (Late morning prayer), Sext (Noon prayer), None (Afternoon prayer), Vespers (Evening prayer) and Compline (Retiring prayer).

Since the canon Quia solliciti, these eight are combined into four offices in the Book of Offices, for use in all churches and chapels in Great Nortend, including regular foundations. These offices are Mattins, Nones, Vespers and Nocturns for prayer in the morning, at noon, in the evening and at midnight.

The public offices are derived from the condensation of the eight canonical offices; Vigils, Mattins and Prime are merged into 'Mattins'; Terce, Sext and Nones are merged into 'Nones', and Vespers and Compline are merged into 'Vespers'. Ordinarily, Mattins and Vespers both have five psalms and Nones two psalms. The entire psalter is sung through in four weeks.

The public offices must be sung daily by all secular clergy, preferably publicly in their parish church or chapel. Mattins, should generally be said at dawn, but this is not usually the most convenient time and very commonly, Mattins is chaunted up to an hour after. Similarly, Nones is often chaunted at 1 o'clock, or thereabouts, to accord with the common luncheon hour.

Not many ordinary parish churches have the means to chaunt the three public offices daily. Despite this, canons require that Mattins and Vespers at least be said audibly in every parish church every day, even when there is no congregation. Most parish churches have at least a parson and curate (priest and deacon) who say Mattins and Vespers in church respectively, or vice versa, daily, whilst the other recites it privately. Nones is rarely chaunted in most parishes, unless served by a college or religious house, or of great size.

Mattins

Opening : Mattins begins with the Opening Versicles Domine labia mea aperies and Deus in adjutorium meum intende, followed by the Gloria Patri and then the Alleluia, or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, Laus tibi Domine. Thereafter, the Venite with proper Antiphon is chaunted, followed by the Vigils Hymn of the day.

Vigils : A Vigil comprises of three Psalms under the same Antiphon followed by three Lessons. After each block of Psalms, the Gloria Patri is chaunted, before the Antiphon is repeated. After each Lesson, a Responsory is chaunted, followed by a short Versicle. On festa duplex, there are three Vigils, with a total of nine Psalms and nine Lessons. On festa simplex and feriæ, there is only one Vigil. The last Responsory in the last Vigil is the Hymn Te Deum.

Mattins : One of the eight Old Testament Canticles is chaunted with the proper Antiphon. Two more psalms are chaunted, each with their own Antiphon. After the Psalms, the Chapter follows, and then the Mattins Hymn of the day. The Canticle Benedictus follows, with its own Antiphon.

Closing : The Kyrie, Pater noster, Confiteor, Misereatur and Absolutionem are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final Dominus vobiscum and Benedicamus Domino.

Nones

Opening : Nones begins with the Opening Versicle Deus in adjutorium meum intende, followed by the Gloria Patri and then the Alleluia, or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, Laus tibi Domine.

Terce/Sext/Nones : The Office Hymn of the day is chaunted. This is followed by two psalms under the same Antiphon. The Chapter follows, and then the Responsory is chaunted.

Closing : The Kyrie and Pater noster are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final Dominus vobiscum and Benedicamus Domino.

Vespers

Opening : Vespers begins with the Opening Versicles Converte nos Deus salutaris noster and Deus in adjutorium meum intende, followed by the Gloria Patri and then the Alleluia, or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, Laus tibi Domine.

Vespers : Three Psalms are sung, each with Gloria Patri and their own Antiphon. The Lesson follows with its Responsory, and then the Vespers Hymn. The Canticle Magnificat is chaunted, under its proper Antiphon.

Compline : Two more psalms are chaunted under the same Antiphon. After the Psalms, the Chapter follows, and then the Compline Hymn. The Canticle Nunc dimittis follows, with its own Antiphon.

Closing : The Kyrie, Pater noster, Confiteor, Misereatur and Absolutionem are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day, any Remembrances and the Prayers then follow, before the final Dominus vobiscum and Benedicamus Domino.

Nocturns

Nocturns is one of the offices found in the Book of Offices, ordered to be sung at midnight. Historically the office of Vigils was sung at midnight, but Quia solliciti merged it with Lauds and Prime to form Mattins, sung in the early morning. Instead, Nocturns was created along the lines of the little hours of Terce, Sext and None, albeit much longer. It consists of twelve psalms. Together with the other three offices, the entire psalter is sung through in two weeks. Unlike in the historical Vigils, the Invitatory, Venite and Opening Versicle Domine labia mea aperies is not said.

Opening : Nocturns begins with the Opening Versicle Deus in adjutorium meum intende, followed by the Gloria Patri and then the Alleluia, or from Septuagesima to Easter Day, Laus tibi Domine.

Nocturns : The Hymn of the day is chaunted. Then are chaunted four Psalms, under the same Antiphon. The Chapter follows, and then the Responsory is chaunted. The chaunting of the Psalms, Chapter and Responsory is repeated two more times.

Closing : The Kyrie and Pater noster are chaunted, followed by the Preces. The Collect of the day and the Prayers then follow, before the final Dominus vobiscum and Benedicamus Domino.

Mass

The Mass is at the heart of the Cardican liturgy. At least one Mass must be celebrated monthly in all parish churches, and in many churches, they are celebrated weekly or even daily, perhaps at a collegiate church or chantry. The most common form of Mass is the Sunday Mass, which is celebrated on Sundays after Mattins and before Nones. The Mass on festa duplex and all Sundays is preceded with a procession of the choir, clerks and ministres from the chancel up and down the alleys and around the church.

Music

The quire of the Cathedral of St Peter, Lendert-with-Cadell, looking towards the Chancel.

The Church of Nortend places a high emphasis on music and the choral chant tradition. Most public offices and masses are sung, or 'chaunted', through, usually accompanied by a pipe or reed organ.

Almost all churches have a choir, composed of clergy (such as curates, canons, prebendaries, chantry priests and chaplains) and choristers (such as choirboys and singing clerks). Churches or chapels attached to religious foundations have a liturgical choir of choir monks and nuns, often along with boys and singing clerks.

In accordance with the Books of Mass and Office, the concentus of the Offices and Mass are chanted by the choir, in either a plain chaunt, with or without organum or faburden, or a polyphonic figured chaunt. The accentus is chanted typically to reciting tones.

The prescribed plain chaunts are provided in the 'noted' forms of the Missa, Officiale and Rituale. They are printed in neumes according to the post-Tridentine editions of the Graduale and Antiphonarium. Plain chaunt in the Cardican tradition is performed in a mensural style, in contrast to the equal style promoted by the Catholic Solesmes school.