Difference between revisions of "Church of Nortend"

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===Vestments===
 
===Vestments===
[[File:GNPriest.png|right|thumb|A priest in massing dress—black cassock, collar and bands, amice and albe with apparels, cincture, stole crossed, cope and skulcap.|200px]] or clerical dress are prescribed by the Canons to be worn by ministres and clerks at certain times.  
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[[File:GNPriest.png|right|thumb|A priest in massing dress—black cassock, collar and bands, amice and albe with apparels, cincture, stole crossed, cope and skulcap.|120px]][[File:GNPriest2.png|right|thumb|120px|A priest in choir dress—black cassock, collar and bands, surplice, tippet, hood and soft cap.]]Vestments or clerical dress are prescribed by the Canons to be worn by ministres and clerks at certain times.  
  
 
'''Cassock''' : The {{wp|cassock}} is the basic foundation garment for all ministres and clerks. It is traditionally worn over the underlinens, shirt, breeches and stockings. A stiff detachable clerical collar is worn, with bands at the Offices. The colour is normally black for vergers, clerks, deacons, priests, deans and archdeacons. Cardinals and those ministres and clerks of royal foundations wear cardinal cassocks. Bishops, archdeacons and deans wear black cassocks with scarlet piping and a red fascia (sash).  
 
'''Cassock''' : The {{wp|cassock}} is the basic foundation garment for all ministres and clerks. It is traditionally worn over the underlinens, shirt, breeches and stockings. A stiff detachable clerical collar is worn, with bands at the Offices. The colour is normally black for vergers, clerks, deacons, priests, deans and archdeacons. Cardinals and those ministres and clerks of royal foundations wear cardinal cassocks. Bishops, archdeacons and deans wear black cassocks with scarlet piping and a red fascia (sash).  

Revision as of 09:40, 15 February 2020

Church of Nortend
Ecclesia Erbonica
WinchesterCathedral-north-wyrdlight.jpg
Sulthey Cathedral is the seat
of the Archbishop of Sulthey.
ClassificationWestern Orthodox
ScriptureBible
PolityEpiscopal
GovernourThe Sovereign
PrimateThe Lord Archbishop of Sulthey
RegionGreat Nortend
LanguageLatin and English
LiturgyCardican Rite
HeadquartersThe Cathedral and Abbey of St Laurence, Sulthey
Separated fromRoman Catholic Church
1614
Members29 million

The Church of Nortend is the state church of Great Nortend. It is established under the Proclamation of Manfarham, the Statute of Limmes and the Statute of Supremacy, and is an integral part of the Government of Great Nortend. The Archbishop of Sulthey is the most senior clergyman of the church, and is considered to be the Primate of Erbonia, although the Sovereign of Great Nortend is the Governour of the Church Mundane, holding the ecclesiastical title of Vicar of Christ.

History

Early Christianity

St Laurence is widely credited for the founding of the establishment of the modern-day Christian church in Great Nortend in the 8th century. Though Christianity had arrived in the Erbonian Isles around the 2nd century AD and converted much of the Ethlorek Hoebric people, the majority of the later influx of Arlethians, the Nords, Sexers and Cardes, practised pagan folk religions.

Early Middle Ages

An abbot, canonised as Laurence of Sulthey, was sent as a missionary in 774 by Pope Zachary I to convert Arlethic people from paganism to Christianity. The reigning King of Nortend at the time, Egbert, desired the support of the military power of the Church, permitted Laurence to proselytise the Nords and Cardes of his kingdom, although he himself was only baptised on his deathbed in 753 after being mortally wounded by an arrow during battle. Laurence founded a cathedral on the Isle of Sulthey in 749, the year which is now generally considered the start of the Roman church in Great Nortend. He also founded the first monastery, which became Sulthey Abbey, two years after in 751. St Laurence served for over thirty years as the Archbishop of Nortend. His mission was a great success and by the 10th century, most of the population had converted to Roman Catholicism.

Middle Ages

A typical late 12th century manor church. St Renwick's, in Culton, Southannering.

The Church flourished in the Middle Ages, in a frenzy of religious piety. By the 13th century, nearly every manor had at least one church and in many, a religious foundation. In Lendert-with-Cadell alone, 52 churches had been built by the time the Cathedral of St Peter was completed in 1272.

Schism

The pivotal moment in the history of the Church was the declaration of independence from the Bishop of Rome. There had been simmering tensions in Erbonian society in the decades immediately preceding, with controversy over the taxes payable to the Church and influence from Orthodox Christianity which supported the principles of national autonomous churches. From 1545 to 1563, Erbonian prelates attended the Council of Trent but no effective reform was forthcoming.

The Church of Nortend as an independent national church was declared with the proclamation at Manfarham by King Alexander I in 1614. The Statute of Limmes was formally promulgated later that year, and the Statute of Supremacy in 1615. These Statutes were passed with the consent of the Privy Council and later ratified by the Parliament in 1632. A legend surrounding the proclamation relates that the King and the then-Archbishop of Sulthey heard from the Holy Ghost in a dream commanding that, “Thine house shall be cloven and We shall make thee/thy Lord Our Governour and Vicar over Our flock”. The King and Archbishop of Sulthey, after public assent to the Statute, were excommunicated by the Pope.

The independence of the Church of Nortend was widely popular amongst the people and nobility, although it was opposed strongly by the clergy and monastics. Though loyalists were not initially legally persecuted for their support of the Roman Catholic church, the controversy was, in the early and mid 17th century, increasingly manifested through violence between both sides.

The Abbot and monks of the Abbey of Staithway captured and hanged the Duke of Cardenbridge in 1765 at the height of the Popish Wars.

The Acts of Cleaving forming the combined Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria in 1642 established the Church of Nortend as the established church of Hambria as well. Matters came to a head when the 12th Duke of Cardenbridge was captured and hanged by the Abbot and monks of Staithway in 1668. The 13th Duke introduced a Bill into the House of Lords after the death of Alexander I who had opposed criminalisation later that year, to criminalise allegiance to the Pope, leading to the use of the term 'Cardican' to refer to the Church of Nortend. Under the Act, many clergymen, such as the Bishop of Chepingstow, were executed for refusing to renounce against the Pope and escalated with the trial and execution of the Six Heretics, six clergymen who plotted with the Pope to invade Great Nortend and restore the Church in 1670 during the first few years of King William I's reign.

William declared that 'whosoever shall renounce the lawful catholic and orthodox Church of this Realm shall be put to death'. He noted in the Carta Erboniæ Ecclesiæ, or Charter of the Church of Nortend, that the Church before schism was in essence the same as the independent Church, save for the rejection of the Bishop of Rome as supreme head of the Church. This maintained the Alexanderian view that the Church was 'reformed, catholick and orthodox', in an attempt to appease both sides of the controversy. The position of the Roman Catholic Church is that the Church of Nortend is in schism but not heretical.

Post-schism

After schism, a new English bible translation, liturgy and missal was proposed in Parliament as necessary for cementing the King's identity as the Governour of the Church in Nortend. The seminal King James's Bible had been published in English in 1611, a few years prior to the Proclamation at Manfarham. The eventual Cardican authorised version of the Bible was dedicated to St Edmund in 1704 by the newly crowned Henry V and drew heavily from the King James's Version and the older Coverdale Bible for inspiration, phrasing and guidance. Copies were disseminated freely to every church and school, leading to its widespread adoption.

Latin remained in use for the liturgy, and moves to publish the liturgy in English proved controversial at the time, as the Latin Rites of Chepingstow and Sulthey had been in use for many centuries prior and for nearly a century after schism. A compromise was established between those supporting the vernacular and the adherents to the Latin rites. The Latin text would be supplemented side-by-side with official English translations for the benefit of the people, but Latin would remain in use for liturgical purposes.

The Olnite Matter

The 'Olnite Matter' concerned the marriage of Queen Mary to the traditionalist Earl of Scode.

Since schism, the theology of the Church of Nortend had changed very little from the pre-schism Roman Catholic theology. Beginning in the 18th century, however, there was a growing popularity of Protestant theology amongst some intellectuals and reformists who sought to move the Church towards a more Protestant leaning.

Their cause received the tacit support of Queen Mary, who had through her youth and early reign displayed a reformist leaning in her faith, declaring the suspension of the initiation of any novices to religious establishments and appointing more protestant-leaning bishops. She, however, desired to marry Charles Oln, the 5th Earl of Scode, of the ruling House of Oln in Albeinland who was deposed in the Albish Revolution. Stuart was of the traditionalist branch of the Church of Nortend. This naturally led to controversy and there sprung up two opposing factions in Parliament, known as the 'Scodeliers' and the 'Droughers', which supported and wished to 'draw apart', viz. 'drougher', the marriage respectively. Ultimately, Mary rebuffed the Droughers and wed the Earl of Scode in 1742 at the age of 27. Thenceforth, the Scodelier faction grew to dominate the Church and remains to this day, one of the two major political parties in Great Nortend.

Reform

Despite the Scodeliers prevailing, most traditionalists recognised a need for some level of institutional reform. One matter which was heavily debated in the House of Lords and the House of Clergy in particular was the position of the vernacular tongues in the Church. English during the 18th century had came to be used, contrary to law, in some regions for chaunting the liturgy. In particular, since the publication and dissemination of St Edmund's Bible in the early 18th century, the various readings from the Gospel, Epistle, Histories and of other Lessons, as well as the Psalms began to be chaunted in English . This was followed by chaunting the rest of the liturgy in English as the English translations of the Book of Mass and Book of Offices were published. The Archbishop of Limmes ordered that the abuses cease and the Lord Bishop of St Cleaves sent letters missive in 1740 to all priests commanding that they cease “chaunting in the English tongue contrary to the Canons of the Church and to the detriment of the understanding and proper instruction of the congregation in the Latin language of the Church”.

Many bishops were, however, sympathetic to need to appeal more to the ordinary person unlearned in Latin. In 1744, the newly wed Mary was petitioned by the Bishops of Corring, Mast, Polton, Staithway, Scode and Echester to amend the canons to permit the chaunting of the Offices and Mass in English. This was opposed by a minority of bishops, including the Archbishop of Sulthey, on the grounds that the official translations provided were sufficient for comprehension.

Nevertheless, Mary assented to canons on a temporary basis which made licit for the first time the use of English in the liturgy. The canons provided that where Latin was not readily understood by the people, the Gospel, Epistle and other Readings from Holy Scripture could be said in English after the Latin was chaunted, and the Collects and certain other prayers said in English instead of Latin if they were not well-known as the Pater noster, Ave Maria, Confiteor and Misereatur were. Permission to say prayers in English was revoked in 1750; however, a new canon required incumbents to provide their parishioners with sufficient copies of the liturgical books such that the people knew what was being said.

Non-conformity

Though the 17th century widespread religious conflict had largely abated, religious tensions throughout simmered under the surface and occasionally came to a boil. The Acts of Allowance in the 18th century permitted for the first time people to establish their own non-conformist 'chapels' and have preachers so long as they did not proselytise, build buildings that looked like places of worship or threaten the established Church. The last provision was used to shut down non-conformist chapelries that grew too large and popular, and ultimately resulted in their eventual decline in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Today here are only a number of non-conformist chapelries. Of these, the majority of chapelries are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. The vast majority of Erbonian Christians are members of the established Church of Nortend.

Structure

The Archbishop of Limmes, the Most Reverend John Williams

The Sovereign is recognised as the 'Vicar of Christ' and 'Governour of the Church', being the 'highest power under God in his Dominion' with 'authority over all persons in all matters, civil or ecclesiastical'.

The Church of Nortend is divided into three ecclesiastical provinces, sci. a metropolis in Orthodox terminology, headed by an archbishop. These metropolitan provinces are not to be confused with civil provinces. Each province is divided into dioceses, headed by an bishop. The Archbishop of Sulthey is the Primate of Erbonia, subordinate only to the Sovereign.

Map of the dioceses of the Church of Nortend.

Province of Rhise

  • Archdiocese of Rhise and Hoole
  • Diocese of Keys
  • Diocese of Oxley
  • Diocese of Corring (Rockleham) and Fivewells
  • Diocese of Rhighton

Province of Sulthey

  • Archdiocese of Sulthey
  • Diocese of Chepingstow
  • Diocese of Mast
  • Diocese of Polton
  • Diocese of Staithway

Province of Limmes

  • Archdiocese of Limmes
  • Diocese of Scode
  • Diocese of Echester
  • Diocese of Lanchester
  • Diocese of Lendert and Cadell
  • Diocese of Tow and St Cleaves
  • Diocese of Walecester

Each diocese is split further into archdeaconries, deaneries and parishes, administered by an archdeacon, a dean and a parish priest respectively. A parish is usually conterminous with a feudal manor, which are not to be confused with baronies, whilst a deanery is coterminous with a hundred.

A parish is the most local level of church organisation. The holder of a benefice is known as a rector, and is appointed by the bishop on nomination by the patron of the parish. He is charged with the cure of souls in the parish, and is supported by the parochial tithes. The benefice can be appropriated by a religious foundation in perpetuity. Thereby, the foundation is bound to nominate a vicar to the bishop in order to discharge spiritual obligations. The rector, being the religious foundation, is entitled to the tithes, but a portion thereof must be given to the vicar.

Doctrine

The doctrine of the Church of Nortend was and is modelled on the traditional teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church, with modifications especially during the period of the Reformation. These tenets are encapsulated in the Carta Erboniæ Ecclesiasticae, which has forty main articles. The main point of schism between the Catholic and Cardican churches stems from the authority of the Pope, which is rejected. Rather, the Pope is seen as simply the Bishop of Rome, and Primate of Italy. Other differences include the lack of mandated clerical celibacy, liturgical differences and minor differences in calendars.

Protestant principles as seen in some branches of Lutheranism and Anglicanism, such as the rejection of the devotion to Mary, and of the sacraments of matrimony, communion, unction and holy orders, are not recognised in the Church of Nortend. The Church adheres to the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus, however does not consider the Immaculate Conception of Mary to be dogmatic.

The Church of Nortend, unlike some more liberal churches, is highly conservative in social matters. It prohibits the ordination of women and takes a strict approach against homosexuality, adultery, fornication and the like. In some ways, the Church of Nortend retains many traditional 'mediæval' characteristics which the Roman Church has mostly done away with. This includes the use of Latin , chaunts and the thriving of religious life.

In relation to scientific fields, the Church is generally accepting of new ideas where they do not contradict scripture. It is heavily intertwined with the three universities, and actively encourages scientific pursuits, knowledge and scholarship. For example, though the theory of evolution on the macro-scale remains highly controversial, the position of the Church is that the Creation account in Genesis is not repugnant to the general theory of evolution.

Sacraments

The Church of Nortend recognises the seven traditional sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, Communion, Penance, Unction, Holy Orders and Matrimony. These are said to work ex opere operato meaning that they derive their power not from the holiness of the minister, but from Christ himself, with the minister acting in persona Christi.

Infant baptism is practised, with later confirmation around adolescence by a bishop to reaffirm the baptismal promises which were made on the child's behalf by his godparents. Communion is the sacrament which completes a person's initiation into the Church as a Christian. It is performed typically at Mass.

Penance and Unction are the two sacraments of healing. Both corporate confession and private confession are practised in the Church, the former in the liturgy of the Offices and the Mass. Unction is given to the sick to heal, strengthen and in extreme cases, provide absolution for sins.

The Church of Nortend recognises four orders of cleric, that of the bishop (episcopate), priest (prebyster), deacon (diaconus) and clerk (clericus). Of the four, only the first three are holy orders or in Latin, ordines majores. Bishops may only be ordained by three other ordained bishops, whereas a priest or deacon may be ordained by any single bishop. The Church of Nortend professes apostolic succession. The positions of archbishop, archdeacon, primate &c. are not considered sacramental but rather mere appointments.

Matrimony is considered sacramental in nature. Divorce is only permitted before consummation, although a marriage can be annulled by the Crown upon various reasons.

Clerks

The clerk is the Cardican equivalent of the historical 'minor orders'. The major clerks are the crucifer, thurifer, cerofer and acolyte. The parish clerk, commonly known simply as the Clerk, serves as subdeacon and reads the Epistle at Mass. The minor clerks are choristers, organists and any other clerks not holding positions. University undergraduates are ordained as academical clerks, which is normally conferred during matriculation. Ordination into the clericate entitles a commoner to sit in choir during the liturgy, without any other qualification necessary, with the permission of the incumbent. University undergraduates are ordained as academical clerks, which is normally conferred during matriculation. Compared with holy orders, a clerk is able to relinquish his clericate, generally by abandonment or by deed.

Vestments

A priest in massing dress—black cassock, collar and bands, amice and albe with apparels, cincture, stole crossed, cope and skulcap.
A priest in choir dress—black cassock, collar and bands, surplice, tippet, hood and soft cap.

Vestments or clerical dress are prescribed by the Canons to be worn by ministres and clerks at certain times.

Cassock : The cassock is the basic foundation garment for all ministres and clerks. It is traditionally worn over the underlinens, shirt, breeches and stockings. A stiff detachable clerical collar is worn, with bands at the Offices. The colour is normally black for vergers, clerks, deacons, priests, deans and archdeacons. Cardinals and those ministres and clerks of royal foundations wear cardinal cassocks. Bishops, archdeacons and deans wear black cassocks with scarlet piping and a red fascia (sash).

Surplice : The surplice is worn over the cassock in choir dress by clerks, deacons, priests and canons. It is also worn at the Mass by minor clerks.

Rochet : The rochet is worn by archdeacons and bishops in choir dress. It is also worn by organists.

Chimere : The chimere is worn by archdeacons and bishops in choir dress. It is black for those without a Doctorate of Divinity and red for those with.

Tippet : The tippet is worn by all ministres and clerks in choir dress over the surplice or chimere.

Hood : The academic hood is worn by all ministres and clerks in choir dress when the cope is not worn. It is worn over the tippet.

Albe : The albe is worn by ministres and major clerks at the Mass. It is always apparelled, like the Amice. It is also worn by thurifers and cerofers at Mattins and Vespers.

Amice : The amice is worn whenever the albe is worn. It is always apparelled.

Stole : The stole is worn by ministres at the Mass. It is worn over the albe, tucked into the girdle of the albe.

Maniple : The maniple is worn by ministres at the Mass.

Cope : The cope is worn by priests, deans and bishops at the Mass, and at other times for the Offices, processions, blessings &c. It is in particular worn by major clerks and rulers of the choir at Mattins and Vespers.

Dalmatic : The dalmatic is worn by deacons at the Mass and at certain other times. Unlike the Roman dalmatic, the Cardican dalmatic is open at the front.

Tunicle : The tunicle is worn by subdeacons at the Mass and at certain other times. Like the dalmatic, it is open at the front.

Wig : The wig is worn by cardinals, bishops and archdeacons at the Mass and Offices.

Mitre : The mitre is worn by bishops and cardinals at the Mass and Offices. It is removed at certain times.

Soft cap : The soft cap is worn by deacons and priests in choir dress. It is held indoors.

Skulcap : The skulcap is a component of the mitre and soft cap. It is also worn at masses by ministres.

Liturgy

The liturgy is organised around the traditional liturgical year and the calendar of saints.

The liturgical practice of the Church of Nortend is set out in three books, known as the Books of Liturgy. These are the the Book of Mass (Missale), Book of Offices (Officiale) and the Book of Rites (Rituale) which were promulgated in 1709, 1710 and 1713 respectively. The first two were officially authorised in 1711, by Henry V who issued the canon Quia solliciti which required use of the new books.

All three books are used conjointly with the St Edmund's Version of the Bible, and the Book of Chaunts (1730) which includes both plain chaunts for the ordinary and proper of the liturgy, including the psalms, antiphons, hymns, canticles, texts, introits, graduals, tracts, alleluias, sequences, versicles, responses and the ordinary, with and without tropes, for every day, feast and other especial day.

The rites for the ordination of bishops, priests, deacons and clerks are set out in the Book of Rites. Also included are the administration of the sacraments such as marriage and visitation of the sick, as well as processionales, blessings, prayers and thanksgivings.

Language

The official language of the Church of Nortend is (ecclesiastical) Court Latin .

Texts are divided into the accentus and the concentus. The former includes the text said by the priest, deacon or clerk, including the Major Propers, being the Preface, Collects and Prayers, as well as any Directions, Readings, Lessons, and Chapters.

The latter includes the texts said principally by the choir and congregation, being the Ordinary, being the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, as well as the Minor Propers, being the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Tract, Sequence, Offertory and Communion, and the Hymns, Canticles, Psalms and Antiphons.

Although the liturgy is said or chaunted entirely in Latin, homilies and sermons are customarily said in English. Additionally, pew editions of the Books of Liturgy provide the authorised English translation for the congregation. Most adults, however, know sufficient Latin to understand the Ordinary, given that all pupils learn Latin during their schooling and its repetition. The Major and Minor Propers generally cannot for most people be understood by listening alone, and reading is required for comprehension.

Offices

Traditionally, there were eight canonical offices. These were Vigils (Midnight prayer), Mattins (Dawn prayer, also known as Lauds), Prime (Morning prayer), Terce (Late morning prayer), Sext (Noon prayer), None (Afternoon prayer), Vespers (Evening prayer) and Compline (Retiring prayer).

Since the canon Quia solliciti, these eight are combined into five offices in the Book of Offices, for use in all churches and chapels in Great Nortend, including regular foundations. These offices are Vigils, Mattins, Nones, Vespers and Compline for prayer at midnight, in the morning, at noon, in the evening and at retiring.

The five public offices are derived from the simplification of the eight canonical offices; Lauds and Prime are merged into 'Mattins', whilst Terce, Sext and Nones are merged into 'Nones'. The rest of the canonical offices are simplified. Each Office is arranged in a common order such that it has its proper Hymn, has three Psalms or Octonaries, and a Canticle. Note that the Old Testament Canticle of Lauds has been historically sung at Vigils, not Lauds as it is in the Roman Rites. The entire psalter is ordinarily sung through in a week.

The public offices must be chaunted daily by all secular clergy, preferably publicly in a church or chapel. Properly, Vigils should be said at 3 a.m., and Matins in the morning (6 a.m.). Nones should be chaunted at noon (12 p.m.), and Vespers in the evening (6 p.m.). Finally, Compline should be said when retiring (9 p.m.). However strict adherence to these times is not usually possible. Often Vigils is said around 5 a.m., Matins around 9 a.m., Nones around 1 p.m., Vespers around 5 p.m. and Compline around 9 p.m.. All incumbents of a parish church are required by canon to arrange for Matins, Nones and Vespers at least to be chaunted daily in their church, either by themselves or by another competent person, to be begun by the ringing of bells.

Mattins is colloquially known as Mothers' Prayer owing to the fact that mothers typically attend week-day Mattins whilst their husbands have left for work. Consequently, many workers in cities and large towns attend Nones during their lunch hour in lieu of Mattins.

Mass

The Mass is at the heart of the Cardican liturgy. At least one Mass must be celebrated monthly in all parish churches, and in many churches, they are celebrated weekly or even daily, perhaps at a collegiate church or chantry. The most common form of Mass is the Sunday Mass, which is celebrated on Sundays after Mattins and before Nones. The Mass on festa duplex and all Sundays is preceded with a procession of the choir, clerks and ministres from the chancel up and down the alleys and around the church.

Music

The quire of the Cathedral of St Peter, Lendert-with-Cadell, looking towards the Chancel.

The Church of Nortend places a high emphasis on music and the choral chant tradition. Most public offices and masses are sung, or 'chaunted', through, usually accompanied by a pipe or reed organ.

Almost all churches have a choir, composed of clergy (such as curates, canons, prebendaries, chantry priests and chaplains) and choristers (such as choirboys and singing clerks). Churches or chapels attached to religious foundations have a liturgical choir of choir monks and nuns, often along with boys and singing clerks.

In accordance with the Books of Mass and Office, the concentus of the Offices and Mass are chanted by the choir, in either a plain chaunt, with or without organum or faburden, or a polyphonic figured chaunt. In many parishes the entire congregation chaunts the simpler concentus chaunts. The accentus is chaunted typically to reciting tones.

The prescribed plain chaunts are provided in the 'noted' forms of the Missa, Officiale and Rituale. They are printed in neumes according to the post-Tridentine editions of the Graduale and Antiphonarium. Plain chaunt in the Cardican tradition is performed in a mensural style, in contrast to the equal style promoted by the Catholic Solesmes school. Intelligibility is highly emphasised in Cardican plain chaunt, and Latin is pronounced according to the traditional English pronunciation.