Commonwealth of Estmere
Motto: Resurgere velut phoenicem
Rise like the Phoenix
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Swathish, Flurian|
|Recognised regional languages||Aldman|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Alice Roberts (Ind)|
|Reginald Wilton-Smyth (SDU)|
|Esther Bennett (RFM)|
|Chamber of Peers|
|Chamber of Commons|
• Kingdom established
• Republic established
|1 May 1936|
• Current constitution
|13 June 1938|
• Founded the EC
|1 January 1948|
|284,874 km2 (109,990 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2015 census
|198.40/km2 (513.9/sq mi)|
• Per capita
• Per capita
|Gini (2012)|| 25.4|
|HDI (2014)|| 0.919|
|Currency||Euclo (EUC (€))|
|Time zone||Euclean Standard Time|
|ISO 3166 code||EST|
Estmere (Swathish: Eastmarchon, Flurian: Estme), officially the Commonwealth of Estmere (Swathish: Kinwise of Eastmarchon, Flurian: Républyique d'Estme), is a country in Euclea, bordering Werania and Borland to the north, Alsland, Kirenia and Hennehouwe to the west, and the Gulf of Assonaire to the south and east. The country has an estimated population of 59 million, largely centred in the capital city of Morwall.
Prior to the arrival of the Solarian Empire, the lands of modern day Estmere were largely inhabited by a number of Tenic tribes related to the Gauls. These tribes were assimilated into the Solarian Empire, and the region was considered an important border province by the Solarians. By the fall of Solaria, migrating Weranic tribes, most notably the Swandles, Waxons and Duthes, had occupied most of the region. These tribes eventually coalesced into the Swathish, organising themselves into seven varrying petty kingdoms, collectively known as the Septarchy. These kingdoms were conquered by powerful Verique lords from the Verliquoian Empire, who organised themselves into the Eastern Marches, an elective monarchy under Richard I.
With the collapse of Verliquoia, the Marcher lords fell to infighting in an event known as the Anarchy, which saw the Vernon dynasty ascend to a much neutered monarchy, with a nascent Parliament. This new kingdom would compete with other Euclean powers, most notably during the Amendist Wars, which saw the reformed Estmere as a major Amendist power. Estmere was also a major colonial power during this period, sponsoring colonies such as the Four Sisters in Asteria Superior. The monarchy would be reformed into a far more centralised administration during the 19th century.
Estmere was a major power in the victorious Grand Alliance during the Great War, but the country was devastated by the conflict, and the monarchy was seriously tainted by an image of ineffectiveness. This led to the abolition of the monarchy by the Transitional Authority in 1936. The republican nation which followed became a sponsor of liberal democracy across the globe, helping to found both the Community of Nations and the Euclean Community. The country also dealt with a number of issues in the postwar period, such as the decolonisation of its overseas empire, emergent tensions between the Swathish and the Flurian, and a number of political and economic crises.
The Commonwealth is a federal parliamentary constitutional republic operating under the Northabbey model. It is comprised of the federal subjects of Wealdland and Flurland, the capital territory of Greater Morwall, and a number of overseas territories such as Kingsport. Estmere has a social market economy, which is the second largest in Euclea. It is a member of the Community of Nations, the Euclean Community, the Estmerish Council and the International Council for Democracy. It is one of the few states to operate nuclear weapons.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 References
The Estmerish name Estmere is derived from the Early Estmerish term est marchen, meaning Eastern Marches, which was used to refer to Estmere prior to the collapse of the Verliquoian Empire. Eventually the term became a single word, and in Estmerish the -en suffix was dropped. Both the modern Estmerish name and the modern Swathish name, Eastmarchon, derive from this. The Flurian name, Estme, is believed to be instead derived from the Old Verique term est mé, meaning sea to the east.
Government and politics
Since the ratification of the Estmerish constitution in 1938, Estmere has been a constitutional republic operating as a federation with a parliamentary system. The country is the birthplace of the Northabbey model of government, which is characterised by the presence of a parliamentary official opposition, an executive branch comprised of members of the legislature, responsible to that legislature, in addition to a ceremonial head of state different to the head of government. In Estmere, these roles are occupied by the President and the Prime Minister, respectively.
The legislative branch of the Estmerish government is the Parliament of Estmere, which is a bicameral institution comprised of two houses; the elected Chamber of Commons and the appointed Chamber of Peers. Estmere adheres to the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, meaning that the legislative branch is considered supreme to all other branches of government, holding absolute sovereignty. Due to this concept, the judicial branch is largely independent of political control, with judges on the High Court appointed by independent committees, but has limited powers of judicial review.
Since 2016, Estmere has been governed by a coalition government comprised of the Sotirian Democratic Union and the Reform Party. Since 2018 this coalition has been led by Reginald Wilton-Smyth, who was elected as Leader of the SDU to succeed the outgoing Richard Graham. The Social Democratic and Co-operative Party has acted as the Official Opposition, and Zoe Halivar as the Leader of the Opposition, since 2016.
Sotirian Democratic Union (217)
Reform Party (101)
Official opposition (189)
Social Democratic and
Co-operative Party (189)
Other opposition (93)
Estmere First (35)
Party of the Swathish (16)
Estmerish Section of
the Workers' International (11)
Aldman Democratic Alliance (2)
The Estmerish legsilature is the Parliament of Estmere, a bicameral institution comprised of two houses. The Chamber of Commons forms the lower house, and is elected using the additional member system, with Members elected either to represent a constituency or as part of a party list. Parliamentary terms can last for a maximum of four years, after which another election must be held. Parliament is considered to be an example of imperfect bicameralism, as the Chamber of Commons is considered supreme among the two chambers, drafts all legislation, and is capable of overruling the Chamber of Peers.
As Estmere operates in line with the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, the executive branch is assembled from members of the Chamber of Commons, and is subsequently responsible to it. The Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President, based on their ability to command the confidence of the Chamber of Commons. The Prime Minister is therefore usually the leader of the largest party in the Commons. The Prime Minister appoints members of the Commons or Peers as ministers in their Cabinet, which is shadowed by the Leader of the Opposition and their Shadow Cabinet. Cabinet members generally oversee a department within the Estmerish government, such as the Department of Defence, and are subject to parliamentary accountability.
The upper house is the Chamber of Peers, which acts as a house of review. Peers are appointed to the chamber to serve for a single ten year term, after which they are ineligible to serve in the chamber again. One third of the seats are appointed by the President; these appointments are required to be politically neutral experts who sit as crossbenchers, while the remaining two thirds are appointed by the devolved administrations of the constituent entities, and are not required to be non-partisan. Appointment to the Chamber of Peers is considered the highest reward in the Estmerish honours system.
Parliament is currently comprised of members representing eight parties. The current governing coalition is comprised of the centre-right Sotirian Democratic Union, which espouses Sotirian democracy, conservatism and economic liberalism, and the centrist Reform Party, which is considered social liberal and strongly pro-Euclean. The centre-left Social Democratic and Co-operative Party is social democratic and democratic socialist, and serves as the Official Opposition. Estmere First, a right-wing populist and soft-Euclosceptic party, and the Greens, an environmentalist party, are the largest and most relevant of the minor parties. Other minor parties include the far-left Estmerish Section of the Workers' International, which is council socialist, and the Party of the Swathish and the Aldman Democratic Alliance, which are both regionalist parties that espouse civic nationalism for Wealdland and the Aldmans respectively.
Estmere is a federation, comprised of three constituent entities, two of which, Wealdland and Flurland, are known as the sister republics and one of which, Greater Morwall, is known as the greater capital region. There are also the Estmerish overseas territories, of St Roberts and Fleming and Kingsport, which are not considered constituent entities, but nevertheless have devolved administrations. There is campaigns for both to be admitted to the federation; there have also been suggestions to create a constitutent entity for the Aldmans, and to transfer the Estmerish-speaking counties to their own republic. Each constituent entity has a devolved administration operating under the parliamentary system, which has authority over many internal affairs, such as education, infrastructure and tax collection. Below the constituent entities, the second and third tier of adminstrative divisions are named depending on their region; counties or shires, and then parishes or ridings.
|Greater Morwall||Morwall||7,290,934||Mayor||Greater capital region|
|Flurland||St Richards||23,717,451||First Minister||Sister republic|
|Wealdland||Tolbury||27,933,124||First Minister||Sister republic|
|Kingsport||Kingston||54,581||Chief Executive||Estmerish overseas territory|
|St Roberts and Fleming||New Harcourt||98,360||Chief Executive||Estmerish overseas territory|
Estmerish law is considered to be a hybrid system. Though resting largely on common law principles, starting in the 15th century the legal system adopted a number of features from civil law. These were largely taken from Solarian law, but also from the Gaullican and Weranic traditions. Legal precedent, legislation, custom and specific academic writings are all recognised as sources of law in Estmere. Since the foundation of the Euclean Community in 1948, Estmerish law has also been subject to Euclean law, and with it to the Euclean Court of Justice and the Fundamental Rights of the Euclean Community.
Trials in Estmere are conducted in front of a jury, but unlike most other countries, the Estmerish legal system is unique in that "not proven" is a possible verdict in a criminal trial; such a verdict results in an acquittal. There have been calls for the system to be reformed to remove this third verdict.
The High Court of Estmere is the country's final court of appeal. Judges on the High Court are appointed by independent selection committees, meaning that the courts are generally indepedent of political control. Due to the nature of parliamentary sovereignty, however, the High Court has limited powers of judicial review. Any legal decisions made by the High Court in civil or criminal cases are binding on other courts in the same jurisdiction.
Estmere is considered to be a historical great power, with experts placing particular emphasis on its considerable soft power. Since the conclusion of the Great War, Estmere has positioned itself as a supporter of liberal democracy across the globe, and has used its influence within international organisations to promote liberal democratic values. Although Estmere decolonised in the post-war era, it has maintained a costly military presence south of Aurean, retains considerable influence in former colonies such as Bamvango and Sivathra, and is involved in a number of post-colonial conflicts such as the Tsabaran Civil War.
Estmere shares a particularly close cultural, political and economic relationship with Werania, known as the "Alte Bruderschaft". It also shares a close relationship with many of its former colonies, such as Halland and Nuvania, and is a founding member of the Estmerish Council along with other Estmerish-speaking nations. Estmere also enjoys a close relationship with Senria, with the military alliance between the two dating back to the Senrian Revolution.
Estmere is a member of a number of international organisations. It is a founding member of the Community of Nations, the Euclean Community and the International Council for Democracy, which is headquartered in the Estmerish capital of Morwall. Along with Gaullica and Werania, it is considered one of the Big Three within the EC. Within the Community of Nations, it enjoys a permanent seat on all six International Committees, most notably the Security Committee. It is a member of the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation, and is one of the B-15 major economies.
Estmere maintains the third largest military within the Euclean Community, behind Gaullica and Werania, and is an active participant in the EC defence component. The Estmerish Defence Force (EDF) acts as the armed forces of Estmere, and is comprised of the Estmerish Army (EA), the Estmerish Navy (EN), including its Federal Marines, and the Federal Air Force (FAF). There is also the Independent Companies (IC), which acts as the special forces component of the EDF.
The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the Prime Minister, while the Minister of Defence also exercises a number of powers in relation to the military. The President of Estmere has no involvement in the armed forces, and military personnel swear loyalty to the Commonwealth as a whole rather than to a single figure.
As of 2020, Estmere employs approximately 110,000 active personnel with roughly 50,000 personnel in reserve. Estmere's military expenditure totaled approximately €50.66 billion, just over 2% of the country's GDP. The minimum age of recruitment is 16, but active service is restricted to those aged 18 and over. Estmere is a recognised nuclear state, and so maintains a deployed arsenal of 110 nuclear weapons, all of which are sea-based. Estmere operates a blue-water navy, and is home to a number of major multinational arms manufacturers, such as Estmerish Materiel Systems and Aero Products International.
Mandatory conscription was abolished in 1982, and since then the Estmerish Defence Force has been a professional volunteer force. Military installations are maintained on the islands of St. Roberts and Fleming, located in the Vehemens Ocean. The military operates on the principle of collective security with other EC states, and the aims of the military are outlined in the Estmerish constitution as the defence of the Estmerish people, the defence of the Commonwealth, and the defence of allied states.
Estmere has a social market economy, and is the second largest economy in Euclea, with a GDP PPP of $2.882 trillion and a nominal GDP of $3.208 trillion. The Estmerish economy has a significant welfare state, low barriers to trade and generally loose regaulations. Estmere uses the Euclo, formerly the Estmerish Shilling, as its national currency, and the Bank of Estmere acts as the central bank of Estmere within the Euclozone banking system. The Estmerish government has majority shares in energy production, telecommunications, transport, and some manufacturing companies.
Within the government, the Department of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer are responsible for developing plans for government spending, and for implementing financial policy. The Ministry is assisted by the National Economic Development Organisation - affectionately refered to as Neddy - which brings together representatives of trade unions and business management, to organise economic planning and allow for social dialogue.
The Estmerish economy is dominated by the service and industrial sectors, which comprise 68% and 30% of GDP respectively. 32 of the world's 500 largest companies are headquarted in Estmere. Exports are important to the Estmerish economy, accounting for 42% of national output. Major exports include automobiles, transit equipment, machinery, chemical goods, electronics, pharmaceuticals, basic metals and plastics.
During the 1800s, Estmere became a leading force in the industrial revolution, giving rise to a strong manufacturing sector and laissez-faire philosophy of Embrian liberalism. After the Great War, the abolition of the monarchy saw the country drift leftwards, as successive governments adopted a post-war consensus that combined ordoliberalism with the theories of the Knowlesby school, creating the foundation for the modern economic framework. This would allow for economic growth until the 70s, when stagflation became a major issue. The social market would be cemented in the following decade, when major reforms were enacting to combat staglfation, which allowed the economy to then grow until the 2005 recession, which saw the government institute austerity, weakening the social market.
Estmere is noted for its prominent manufacturing sector, which includes major automotive, aerospace, arms and steel companies; the Estmerish automotive industry is the fourth largest globally, one of the most innovative in the world, and is famed for brands including Marcus Anton, Sheaford Automotive, Harcourt and Du Peupl'ye. Large natural gas reserves were found in Estmerish waters starting in 1951, and the sale of this natural gas has become a major source of government revenue. The Caldish curse was largely avoided as Neddy demanded that profit from natural gas was spent to ensure the development of other economic sectors. Tourism and ports are other major contributors to the Estmerish economy; the twinned ports of Bouley and Dunwich are among the largest in Euclea.
Science and technology
Estmere has a strong scientific heritage, and remains a global leader in science, technology and research. Estmerish univerisites, such the prestigious institutions at Morwall, Damesbridge and Tolbury, are world-renowned, and have one of the highest numbers of graduates in science and engineering in the world. These universities attract students from across the globe. Many scientists and researchers from Estmere have received recognition and awards for their work.
The country has been home to a number of prominent thinkers since the 17th century Scientific Revolution. These include Albrecht Döuer, who is credited with establishing the field of psychology, and other major figures such as William A. Salter, Philip Warren, James Douglass, and Samuel Harding. Estmere has also engaged in scientific exchange with other states throughout history, particularly with Gaullica. Despite the historical rivalry, scientists from both countries regularly collaborated as early as the 18th century. The most notable outcome of this collaboration was the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid by Joseph Poole and Noël Touchard in 1949.
Estmerish inventors and industrialists played a leading role in the Industrial Revolution, shaping the modern Estmerish economy. Major developments in transportation were also made in Estmere. The first railways opened in Estmere during the 1830s. Stephen Talbot, Charles Mortimer and others made major contributions to rail, automotive, and air travel. Esmtere also had a long naval history, with major contributions dating back to the 15th century.
In modern day Estmere, research and development remains important, particularly in universities. These often cooperate with industry and government. Estmere is home to a number of scientific journals, such as Estmerish Medical Review, The Psychologist and Chemistry Quarterly. Estmere had a 9 per cent share of scitific citations between 2010 and 2015, the second-highest in the world. The Federal Scientific Society acts as Estmere's national academy of sciences. In addition, a number of learned and professional societies exist, such as the Estmerish Psychological Association and the Society of Estmerish Chemists.
Estmerish is the sole official language of Estmere, and is by far the most widely spoken. It is estimated that 66% of the population speak Estmerish as their first language, while close to 94% are estimated to have a high level of proficiency in the language. Estmerish is spoken in a number of other countries, such as Halland, and is considered a global language, second only to Gaullican. It is one of the six official languages of the Community of Nations.
Flurian and Swathish are widely-spoken minority languages, with their speakers centred in Flurland and the Weald respectively; both of these languages are enshrined in the Estmerish constitution as co-official national languages. Speakers of the two languages have the right to be use their native tongue in government and business across the country, and the languages are used on signage alongside Estmerish in their respective regions. Flurian is estimated to be the first language of 12% of the Estmerish population, while the figure is estimated to be 17% for Swathish.
In Estmerish schools, it compulsorary for students to learn Estmerish and their national tongue of either Flurian and Swathish, in addition to one foreign language up to the age of 14. Gaullican, Narodyn, and Weranic are the three most commonly taught second languages.
There are other minority languages spoken alongside Flurian and Swathish. Aldman, spoken in the northwest, is recognised as a regional minority language, and a number of languages have been brought to the country by immigrant communities. According to the 2015 census, 4.9% of the population speaks a foreign language. The most widely spoken of these include Subarnan, Rahelian, weRwizi and Xiaodongese.
Since the 5th century, Sotirianity has been the dominant religion in Estmere. Early forms of Sotirianity in Estmere were loosely-organised, with many creeds such as Arianism and Gnosticism being practiced. By the 9th century, the Solarian Catholic Church solidified control over the country, and it remained the most influential church in Estmere until the 16th century. Since the Amendist Schism, Estmere has been considered a traditionally Amendist country, playing an important role as a leading Amendist power in the Euclean Wars of Religion. The Embrian Communion, a union of a number of Amendist churches in Estmere that largely operate on presbyterian lines but acknowledged the supremacy of the monarch, was the established church of Estmere between 1536 and 1938.
The Communion was disestablished following the Great War, when the Estmerish constitution established a secular state. The constitution also guaranteed freedom of and from religion. In 2006, religious affiliation, and lack thereof, was declared a protected characteristic under the Equality Act. While a majority of citizens continue to identify as Sotirian, church attendance in the country has been in decline since the 1960s. The number of irreligious and non-Sotirian people has also rapidly risen since the middle of the 20th century. The country has been labelled as secularised and multi-faith as a result. Despite this, religion still plays an important role in Estmerish life. In politics, the governing Sotirian Democratic Union counts Sotirian democracy among its founding tenets, while both the co-governing Reform Party and the official opposition Social Democratic and Co-operative Party emphasises the Sotirian routes of their parties and ideologies.
Just over half of the country identifies as Sotirian, with the majority of these being Amendist, largely belonging to the Embrian Communion. Irreligion is the second largest affiliation in the country, and there are large Solarian Catholic and non-mainstream Amendist minorities across the country. With 5.9% of the population, Irfan is the second largest religious grouping in Estmere. There are also a number of small minority religions; Witterism is the oldest continuing minority religion in Estmere, while other large minorities include Atudaists, Tulyatans and Badists, with most of these growing in Estmere since the decolonisation of the Estmerish empire.
Religious identity in Estmere is tied to ethnicity and national identity. In Wealdland, the majority of Sotirians identify as belonging to the Low Churches within the Embrian Communion, which generally espouse Kasperist, Westmarckian and dissenting creeds; this is in stark contrast with Flurland, where most Sotirians belong to the High Churches of the Communion, which are Embrian, sometimes Embro-Catholic. Those who speak Estmerish as their first language are also more likely to identify as irreligious than those who speak Swathish or Flurian. Those to whom Estmerish is a second language are more likely to practice a non-Sotirian faith.
Largest cities, by urban area, in Estmere
2015 Estmerish census
|Rank||Constituent entity||Pop.||Rank||Constituent entity||Pop.|
Music is considered an important part of Estmerish culture, and a variety of genres are popular in the country. The folk music of Wealdland and Flurland played an important role in the early culture of Estmere, and has experienced a recent revival. Estmere also became a centre of classical music, producing a number of renowned composers such as Robert Adams, Oliver Sutton and Joshua Holmes. Estmere is home to many famed orchestras, most notably the Damesbridge Symphony Chorus. Estmere has also produced a number of prominent composers of musical theatre, with Albert Lucas Winson and Louis Matthew Montgomery both considered to be the most important composers in Estmerish theatre, together dominating the Globe theatre district.
Estmere is considered pivotal in the development of rock music, with Estmerish artists pioneering a number of subgenres, such as The Regent and art rock, Rickie Downer and glam rock, and Brunnie and new wave. Punk rock and progressive rock were also developed by Estmerish acts such as Outbreak and Down, while dubstep was pioneered by Estmerish artists such as Skum and Jo Smith. Emo also originated from Estmerish acts, such as Doozie and Alex Eats the World. More recently, grime has emerged from inner-city Morwall as a major musical genre, with a number of artists such as Crazzee Madman, Gustzy, Suspa and Koyote originating in Estmere.
The country has participated in every iteration of the Euclovision Song Contest since its inception in 1959, but has secured few wins in the contest. The most notable Estmerish victor of Euclovision was What?, who won the contest in 1965 with their song Talkin' Bout, which went on to become a hit.
Estmere continues to produce a number of popular musical acts, with YBRV, Just Tell Me, Vivi, Desert Apes, Radioactive Teddy Bear, Safe Place, Single Ladies, Pick n Mix, Periodic Ways, Party on the Moon, Mist, Baba Baba and Anna Harrington all being prominent examples. These acts are considered pioneering in their genres, and most have large international followings. Estmere is a major exporter of music as a result.
Estmerish cuisine has been influenced by the climate, by Estmere's position between the Weranic and Solarian worlds, and by the legacy of empire. Special stewing techniques were developed by the Swathish, and the arrival of the Verique allowed for these to be combined with exotic spices to create a unique palate. The availability of spice was further enhanced by the growth of the empire, which brought more spices from Satria and the Far South.
Immigration from Estmerish colonies allowed for a flourishing of Estmerish cuisine in the mid 20th century, with new hybrid dishes such as tikka masala drawing from both Estmerish and Satrian culinary traditions, being seen as an example of the multiculturalism of modern-day Estmere. Tikka masala has been described as Estmere's national dish, and was voted in 2011 as the most popular meal in the country.
Another well-known Estmerish dishes is the roast dinner, which is traditionally served on a Sunday, and comprised of red or white meat, a selection of vegetables, Wealdland puddings, stuffing and gravy. Gravy is considered a staple of Estmerish cuisine, and is served in a wide range of dishes, such as gravy and chips. Estmerish dishes tend to be high in fat and salt content, possibly contributing to the relatively high levels of obesity in the country.
Estmere is known for its high tea consumption; the beverage has been popular since its introduction in the 17th century. The most popular alchoholic beverages are beer, specifically pale lager, and wine. The Weald is home to a number of renowned breweires, while vineyards are widespread in Flurland. Estmerish beer has been influenced by the Weranian beer industry, incorpoating wheat beer and pilsners alongside the more traditional real ale.