Commonwealth of Estmere
Motto: "Resurgere Velut Phoenicem"
("Rise Like the Phoenix")
Anthem: "There'll Always Be an Estmere"
and largest city
|Recognised national languages|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|House of Peers|
|House of Deputies|
|25 September 1011|
|7 March 1182|
|30 November 1774|
|13 June 1938|
• Founded the EC
|1 January 1948|
|282,679 km2 (109,143 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
• 2020 census
|207.62/km2 (537.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2022)|| 27.8|
|HDI (2022)|| 0.920|
|Currency||Euclo (€) (EUC)|
|Time zone||UTC+0[d] (Euclean Standard Time)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
Estmere (pronounced [ˈɛst.mɪər], Swathish: Ėastmẹrland, Flurian: Estme), officially the Commonwealth of Estmere (Swathish: Cyneviġs af Ėastmẹrland, Flurian: Républyique d'Estme), is a country primarily located in Northeastern Euclea, also including overseas states in the Vehemens Ocean. Its Euclean metropole borders Werania and Borland to the north, Alsland and Valduvia to the west, and Hennehouwe to the southwest. Its eastern boundary is defined by the Gulf of Assonaire, while much of the northern border is primarily defined by the Neeves. Estmere has a total land area of 282,679 km2 (109,143 sq mi), an estimated population of over 59 million and a population density of 207.62/km2 (537.7/sq mi), making it the eighth-largest, fifth-most populous and fourth-densest country in Euclea. Estmere is a federal parliamentary constitutional republic of thirteen constituent states operating under the Northabbey model. Its capital city is Morwall, the largest city in Euclea and a significant economic hub; other major cities include Harbrough, Sheaford, Bouley, Dunwich and St Richards.
Estmere has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era, and by the Iron Age was primarily home to Tenic people known as the Albans. The majority of the area was subsumed by the Solarian Republic in 32 CE following the Albannic Wars. The tribes were largely assimiliated, giving rise to the Solaro-Albans. The fall of Solaria in 426 allowed for the migration of Old Swathish tribes, who came to control the region, giving rise to the Hexarchy. The Old Swathish kingdoms were themselves conquered by the Verique at the behest of the Verliquoian Empire in 1011, leading to the Sotirianisation of Estmere and the formation of the Eastern Marches under Richard I. The Great Anarchy from 1264 to 1281 saw massive upheaval in Estmere, with Clovis I ending the elective monarchy and granting royal assent to the formation of Parliament. Estmere was the birthplace of the Amendist Reaction, and became a major player during the Amendist Wars, wherein it was the largest of the Amendist powers. Estmere also emerged as a colonial power, establishing settler colonies in New Estmere and Lothicania.
After losing the Ten Years' War in 1721, and ceding its colonial possessions to the Gaullican Empire, Estmere seized the Hennish colonies of Nuvania and Hope in 1747 in the Estmerish-Hennish War. This, combined with the consolidation of territories in Satria and South Coius, gave rise to the Second Empire, and the union of the Estmerish and Borish crowns in 1801 under Edward II led to the formation of the Kingdom of Estmere and Borland. Estmere comprised a major component of the counter-revolutionary powers during the Euclean Revolution Wars starting in 1783, but was unable to prevent the wider Euclean Spring, with Estmere itself emerging as a solidly constitutional monarchy. Estmere eventually supported Weranian Unification in 1842 and sided with Werania during the War of the Triple Alliance, restoring its prestige and giving rise to the Alte Bruderschaft. As part of New Imperialism, Estmere remained one of the largest colonial powers and took part in the Scramble for Coius. Estmere was a major power in the victorious Grand Alliance during the Great War, but was almost entirely occupied by Gaullica, and was devastated by the conflict. The monarchy was abolished by referendum in 1936, with the the Transitional Authority adopting a new republican constitution in 1938. Estmere then emerged as a major sponsor of liberal democracy across the globe, helping to found both the Community of Nations in 1935 and the Euclean Community in 1948. Estmere decolonised starting in the 1940s, was a participant in the Solarian War, and became a major force within the Euclean Community. In the 21st century, Estmere was badly affected by the 2005 recession and the 1/11 bombings in the Anni horribiles.
Estmere is a developed country with the eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world and is a member of the B-15 major economies. It operates a mixed social market economy, with an innovative manufacturing sector. Estmere maintains a high standard of living, ranking very highly on measures of human development. It remains a great power and exerts significant influence on global affairs; it has a permanent seat on the Community of Nations Security Committee and is one of the few states to operate nuclear weapons. It is a founding and leading member of the Euclean Community and ECDTO, and is a key member of the AEDC, the ICD, GIFA, the ITO and the Embrosphere. Estmere has wide-reaching cultural influence in media, music, and science and technology, and is home to the seventh-most CONESCO World Heritage Sites.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
The Estmerish name Estmere is derived from the Early Estmerish term est marchen, meaning Eastern Marches, which was used to refer to Estmere prior to the collapse of the Verliquoian Empire. Eventually the term became a single word, and in Estmerish the -en suffix was dropped. Both the modern Estmerish name and the modern Swathish name, Ėastmẹrland, derive from this. The Flurian name, Estme, is believed to be instead derived from the Old Verique term est mé, meaning sea to the east.
Human history in Estmere is believed to have started just under a million years ago, but anatomically modern humans arrived in the area far more recently, displacing Neanderthals around 35,000 years ago. An example of these early humans is Bardley man, a male human fossil found in Estmere dating to the Mesolithic. Early humans in the area were hunter-gatherers, hunting local fauna using at first spears, and later bows and arrows. The regional climate became milder after the end of the glacial period, and sedentary cultures emerged in the region that utilised animal husbandry and early agriculture, ushering in the Neolithic. The local cultures were consistently changing, and were effected by waves of migration. There are a number of sites that showcase Neolithic Estmere, such as the Heart of Neolithic Estmere in Swerdia.
The emergence of bronze-working and wider metallurgy near the end of the 3rd millenium BCE within the dominant Bell Beaker culture saw the region transition to the Bronze Age. Changes in the climate led to migrations from the defendable hills to the fertile valleys, which contributed to increased population growth. The emergence of iron-working around 400 BCE led to the start of the Iron Age in the region. By this time, the region was inhabited largely by Weranic peoples in the far north and Tenic people in the south and midlands. These peoples were divided into a number of tribes, the territory of which shifted greatly over time. The Tenics in the region were related to the close-by Gauls, and were known as the Albans. Prominent Tenic tribes included the Boudicii and the Gangrels. There are numerous examples in Estmere of records made using ogham and Weranic runes carved into stone tablets.
The coast of Estmere was explored by ancient Piraeans, and there is evidence of trade between local tribes and the Piraean city states. The region was first recorded by Piraean explorer Asphalion of Sidydon around 800 BCE, who visited the Estmerish coast and described the Bright Cliffs of Branset in vivid detail. The Albans remained the dominant group in classical Estmere until the conquest of much of the south and midlands of Estmere by the Solarian Republic in 32 CE. In the ensuing Albannic Wars, Boudicii leader Andrasta stalled the invading forces for some time, but the region eventually fell under Solarian rule. The river Mor and the Longwood range formed natural boundaries between the northern expanse of the Empire and the area known as Weranica. The region was largely comprised of the province of Albannica.
As the Solarian Republic transformed into the Solarian Empire, Albannica was a key province in support of the Augustus faction, with the Legions of the province all being under the command of the would-be Emperor. A number of Solarian colonies were founded in the region, most notably Marinium, Ballo and Claudodunum. Gradually, the local Tenic population adopted a local form of Vulgar Solarian, known as Alban Vulgar Solarian, and eventually they emerged as Solaro-Albans, adopting a great deal of Solarian culture alongside the language, subsuming the earlier Albannic traditions. Despite this assimilation and achievement of Solarianitas, the province remained a Praetorian Prefecture throughout its existence, due to its strategic location as a border province, and the consistent threat of Weranic tribes to the north.
By the early 400s CE, rising instability in Solaria and changes in the climate gave rise to a migration of Weranic tribes, most notably the Swerdians, Fredians and Gutans, who crossed the border at the Mor river and successfully conquered the region from the Solarians, who were preoccupied with the instability at the capital. The migrating armies would continue to rampage throughout the Solarian Empire, eventually sacking Solaria in 426 and causing the transition to the Verliquoian Empire. Everywhere except for a small southern pocket controlled by Verliquois, the Solaro-Albans were assimiliated by the emerging Old Swathish, who heavily settled in the country.
The Weranic tribes which had migrated to Estmere settled, and a unique Old Swathish culture emerged from the intermingling of the Swerdians, Fredians and Gutans, and the estmerisation of the Solaro-Albans, many of whom integrated into the culture and even became leaders. Estmere during this period was divided into a number of petty kingdoms, which eventually coalesced into six distinct states with unique cultures, during a period known as the Hexarchy. The six major states of the Hexarchy were Northmoria which dominated the north, Agenland which was prominent in the east, and the kingdoms of Wesren, Midricia, Cynricia and Domuc. These states were joined by a number of smaller kingdoms, such as Beatland, most of which were eventually subsumed by the larger entities.
Sotirianity had appeared in Estmere under Solarian rule, but it wasn't until the time of the Hexarchy that the religion became widespread. The Old Swathish were initially followers of a distinct Old Swathish paganism, venerating deities such as Woden, Thunor and Tiw. Efforts to Sotirianise Estmere began in earnest in 654 CE, when the Laurentine mission to the country was organised by the Solarian Catholic Church. In 707, Æthelstan of Domuc became the first Old Swathish monarch to be baptised. Æthelstan was later martyred, and though Domuc eventually became a bullwark of Sotirianity, most of the kingdoms resisted Sotirianisation. Small communities of Sotirians nevertheless proliferated. Across the Hexarchy, the Old Swathish created a robust bureaucracy and legal system, such as the first records of a modern trial by jury, which was considered impressive in comparison to other systems at the time.
Starting around 850 CE, Estmere became a target of Ghaillish Marauders as the Marauder Age began. The raiders were drawn to Estmere due to its unprotected coastline, the infighting of the Hexarchy and the high quantity of profitable trade routes in the country. Tolbyrig, a major city and the historical capital of Northmoria, was sacked by Marauders once in 859 and again in 872. The most notable Marauder activity in Estmere was the foundation of the city of Dún Lonrach in 911, under the leadership of Seárlas White-Eye. This city grew into a sizable kingdom and launched raids across Euclea, as far south as Gaullica.
In 1010, Agenland annexed the rump kingdom of Domuc. In the process it desecrated the tomb of Saint Æthelstan and ordered an expulsion of the Sotirian population. News of this eventually reached the Emperor of Verliquois, who began organising a crusade to relieve Domuc, with support from the Pope. His retainers, the Verique, headed the invasion. Two campaigns were conducted, one through the Hennish counties and one over the Gulf of Assonaire.
Initially, other kingdoms were reluctant to align with Agenland, which had been bellicose in recent years. Eventually, however, the crusaders burnt the pagan monument known as the Voryldsẏl, which rallied other pagan rulers to Agenland's defence. Despite this, most of the Old Swathish were defeated in 1011 at the Battle of Wimney, cementing the Verique conquest of Estmere. The overwhelming majority of the Old Swathish nobility were tried as heretics and put to the stake, with the notable exception of Edward of Northmoria and a small number of other surviving lords who converted to Sotirianity.
The Verique established the Eastern Marches, and Richard Harcourt was elected from among their number as the first King of Estmere. The Verique co-opted much the existing legal system and bureaucracy to aid in the consolidation of their control over the country. North of the river Mor, most land remained in Swathish hands, but in the south the Verique settled extensively and Swathish lords were stripped of their land.
In 1024, the Sotirian community of Borland - the lords of which had refused to support Agenland and had been spared conquest - petitioned Richard to liberate them from their pagan rulers. With Verliquoian support, Estmere therefore launched an invasion of Borland. This quickly spiralled out of control, however, as the Borish themselves rallied the pagan kingdoms of northern Euclea to their defence. The war concluded in 1027, and the pagan alliance evolved into the Rudolphine Confederation to resist Sotirianisation.
Though the Marches functioned as an independent kingdom, Richard and his successors paid lip service to the Emperor. This lip service was forgone in 1182, when a backlash to taxation led Robert III and his son Robert IV to fight the War of Estmerish Independence against a weakened Verliquoian Empire until 1191, leading to the emergence of an independent Kingdom of Estmere. The House of Harcourt and its cadet branches remained on the throne until the Great Anarchy.
Starting in 1264, Estmere was gripped by a period of lawlessness and civil conflict known as the Great Anarchy. Two rival clamaints to the throne threw the system of elective monarchy into disarray, with the two candidates tied for votes, resulting in both marshalling their forces and fighting the Battle of Nundale. Phillip emerged victorious, but the battle had depleted his armies. He sought to raise a poll tax in 1266, in order to raise a new standing army with which to fight another war to subjugate Borland. However, with five years of poor harvests - and a growing famine - most of the peasantry was unable to pay the unpopular tax.
Despite peasant opposition, tax collecters nevertheless attempted to gather the levy. Peasants were unable to pay, and civil disobedience to the tax quickly spiraled into a peasant revolt. A peasant army led by Kit Archer began to assemble, and marched onto the royal seat of Castle Harcourt in 1268 with a list of demands to make of Phillip; namely, the abolition of the poll tax. The peasants believed that the king was noble, and merely surrounded by bad advisors. This perspective was shattered when the king personally led his knights in a charge against the peasants. Philip was killed by a rogue arrow, his knights beaten, and all Harcourt heirs killed. The peasants declared a peasants' republic at the castle, but it was ultimately short-lived.
Count Clovis of Vernon assembled and led an army which defeated the peasant rebellion, and crowned himself as king. For the next few years, he dealt with the banditry in the country, before finally being challenged by minor members of the aristocracy in the Counts' Rebellion in 1276. He defeated the rebel lords in 1281, effectively bringing an end to the Great Anarchy, and he emerged as a uniquely powerful king in Estmere. To prevent a second anarchy and further discord, Clovis abolished the elective monarchy, instituting primogeniture to ensure that his successors would of his Vernon dynasty. He also consolidated many of the smaller counties into larger duchies, and gave royal assent to the first Parliament, with a House of Lords and a House of Commons. These reforms aimed to weaken the power of smaller counts, and to maintain the loyalty of most prominent lords, and wealthy peasants from the emerging burgess class.
Early modern period
Estmerish priest Johanne Stearn sparked the Amendist Reaction against the control of the Solarian Catholic Church in Euclea, and his death in 1513 served to martyr him. Estmere became the birthplace of Amendism, at the heart of the Amendist Belt. The invention of the printing press only furthered the spread of Amendism.
Growing religious tensions in the Rudolphine Confederation culminated in the Euclean Wars of Religion from 1582 to 1602, in which Estmere was the primary Amendist power, leading the Confessional League of Amendist princes within the Confederation, supported by non-Confederation powers such as the Soravian Empire. The conflict was hugely destructive and devastated the region. The wars ended with the Peace of Frankendorf which guaranteed the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. Estmere emerged from the Amendist Wars as a major power, having significantly undermined the authority of the Rudolphine Protector and the Catholic Church.
Following the navigations of Assim Asteris, Estmere would begin to establish settler colonies in the Asterias, paving the way for the Estmerish colonial empire. Estmerish explorers such as Henry Carival would claim the lands of New Estmere in 1578 and Lothicania in 1584. Several other colonies were established across the continent, with some of these seized from other powers, such as Imagua, which was conquered from Geatland in 1658. Estmere competed in the Asterias with other colonial powers, chiefly the Gaullican Empire, to which the majority of Estmere's new world possessions were transferred in 1721 following Estmere's defeat in the Ten Years' War.
Estmere then seized the Hennish colonies of Nuvania and Hope in the 1747 Estmerish-Hennish War, giving rise to the Second Estmerish empire. Estmere supported the Asterian patriots in the Asterian War of Secession, helping them win independence from the Gaullican Empire in 1771 and recapturing Imagua in the process.
Estmerish sovereignty was restored following the Great War, with the establishment of the Transitional Authority. This unified the remnants of the government-in-exile with the Estmerish Resistance to form new a provisional government. A constitutional assembly was elected, chaired by Wolfgar E.R. Godfredson. Richard XIII was convinced to abdicate, and the monarchy was abolished following the 1936 referendum, while Borland was granted independence. The 1937 mutiny saw Swathish socialist officers revolt, and ensured that Estmere adopted a federal constitution.
-the Solarian War
-the foundation of the Euclean Community
-the foundation of the Embrosphere
Estmere is the twelfth-largest country in Euclea, with a total area of 282,679 square kilometres (109,143 sq mi). The majority of the population and territory of Estmere is located in continental Eastern Euclea and is known as mainland Estmere, to differentiate it from overseas Estmere. Mainland Estmere borders Werania to the north, Borland to the north and east, Hennehouwe to the southwest, and Alsland and Valduvia to the west. The east and southern borders of mainland Estmere are delineated by the Gulf of Assonaire and the Florian Ocean. The overseas states of Kingsport and St Roberts and Fleming are surrounded entirely by the Vehemens Ocean, sharing no land borders, although Estmere shares a maritime boundary with North Kabu through Kingsport.
Topographically, mainland Estmere is divided roughly in two between the predominantly lowland south and the more upland and mountainous north. The north is dominated by the Swathish Highlands, a region of rugged upland dominated by moors which is sparsely populated outside of a number of river valleys, and the course of the Neevan mountain range, which forms part of the border with Werania, Valduvia and Alsland, with the notable exception of the Longwoodshire panhandle. The north is home to a number of prominent woodlands, too, which are the origin of its common name Wealdland. Southern Estmere, in comparison, is predominantly low-lying land, including the Estmerish Lowlands which is historically dominated by heathland, the historically marshy fens of Leveeland which is now a breadbasket region, and the hilly wooded Hennish Marches along the border with Hennehouwe. Southern Estmere is also home to the Southern Isles, which act as barrier islands for the mainland. The Estmerish Midlands act as a transition zone between these two distinct bioregions, and are historically home to drier grassland and thinner forests than are found in the north, as well as a number of river valleys, most notably the Swatch and Western Valleys.
The highest point in Estmere is Mount Verdant in the Neeves at 4,634 metres (15,203 ft) above sea level, while the country's lowest point is in Evre at −7 metres (−23 ft) below sea level. Estmere is home to the start of eight major rivers and to five major river mouths. The longest non-tributary rivers are the River Scitter, the River Dame and the River Cailly, while other major rivers include the River Mor, the River Rille, the River Aire, the River Mainney, the River Yn, the River Selter, the River Evre, the River Leeth and the River Hamber. The south is dominated by river mouths, and they are the origin of Fluria, the historic name for the region.
Red foxes are one of the best known predators in Estmere
Hedgehogs are common across the entire country
Estmere is one of few countries home to nesting red kites
Common Euclean eels are plentiful in Estmerish rivers
Estmere is home to a variety of fauna and flora, the majority of which are found across continental Euclea; due to the majority of the country's location on the mainland, there are comparatively few endemic species within mainland Estmere. The most notable native species is the roe deer, which is a symbol of Estmere. Other native terrestrial species include predators such as foxes, wildcats and badgers, while non-predeator native terrestrial species include wild boars, hedgehogs, polecats, hares, beavers and adders, in addition to species like the Eulcean bison which are in the process of reintroduction. There is a great variety of other land animals in Estmere as well, ranging from eulipotyphla such as moles and shrews to amphibians such as frogs and toads.
In the Neeves there are a number of endangered species, including brown bears, wolves, and the Neevan ibex. Nesting bird species include golden eagles, red kites, barn owls, robins, sparrows, songbirds, and kingfishers. Estmerish waters are also home to a variety of marine life, including the common Euclean eel, herring, bass, and blue shark. The small number of endemic species which the country does boast are found in the overseas states of Kingsport and St Roberts and Fleming, which are home to endemic species such as the Kingsport dragon and the Fleming frigatebird, as well as a range of other tropical and subtropical species such as the bottlenose dolphin, the Vehemens reef octopus and various birds-of-paradise.
The land comprising mainland Estmere can be divided into six of terrestrial ecoregigions: East Euclean mixed forests, beech forests and broadleaf forests, Neevan conifer and mixed forests, Swatch old-growth forest and heathland and Evre mixed forests. The overseas territories are divided into St Roberts scrub and grasslands and Kingsport tropical forests. Estmere is one of the most urbanised countries in Euclea, while also retaining a major agricultural sector, and Estmerish land use reflects this. As of 2020, only 16% of Estmere is forested, with 59% kept as pasture or cropland, 13% used by settlements or infrastructure and 11% covered by mountainous terrain or deforested natural land.
A slight majority of the trees in the mainland forests are made up of deciduous trees such as beeches, oaks, alders and willows, with the remainder constituted by conifers such as spruce and pine. Palms are native to the overseas states, and have also been imported to the southern mainland. A number of fern, fungi and moss species are also native to Estmere. There are also a number of native and imported flower species, which are widely farmed in the southern mainland. The most notable Estmerish flowers is the white rose which is the national flower, closely followed by the red tulip which was imported from Coius in the 1500s and is now considered the regional flower of the Estmerish south and the wool flower which is considered a symbol of Swerdia and the Swathish-speaking north.
Estmere is home to 11 national parks, including the Havanfell National Park, the Eldmoors National Park, the Sommerdale National Park and the Barrier Islands National Park. There are a futher 97 nature parks, and hundreds of zoos and animal parks in operation across the country. The oldest zoo in Estmere is the Morwall Zoological Gardens, which opened in 1854 is the second oldest scientific zoo globally. It is home to an extensive selection of species, including giant pandas and the rare cecropia moth.
The climate of mainland Estmere is primarily temperate, with seasonal variation. Temperatures generally stay between -20 °C and 35 °C, and there is a moderate to high level of rainfall throughout the year. In the mainland prevailing winds are westerly, due to its position in the Northern Hemisphere. Owing to the temperate northern climate, mainland Estmere experiences four seasons (Spring, summer, autumn and winter). The highest temperature ever recorded in mainland Estmere was 45.1 °C on 22 July 2020 in St Avelines, and the lowest was −40.2 °C on 6 January 1977 in the Neeves.
Most of mainland Estmere is classified as an oceanic climate (Cfb), but some areas are home to different climates. Great swathes of the Swathish Highlands experience a warm-summer humid continental climate (Dfb), while much of the Estmerish Neeves and Longwoodshire experience a subarctic (Dfc) or aventine climate (ET). The highest peaks of the Neeves can be classified as an ice cap climate (EF). The southern coast and much of the state of Evre experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). The climate on the southern coast is still temperate, but summers are warmer with mean temperatures higher than in the rest of the country, and with higher than average humidity. Summers are coolest in the Neeves. On the mainland, summers are hot and dry, with summer days usually sunny but sometimes overcast. Conversely, winters are cold and wet.
Overseas Estmere is home to different climates than the mainland. Kingsport experiences a purely tropical rainforest climate (Af), while St Roberts and Fleming is a marginal case, which experiences a tropical rainforest climate bordering very closely on humid subtropical. Hurricanes, deforestation and desertification are major climate-related issues for the islands, with both located in the hurricane belt. Average temperatures are higher in overseas Estmere than those of the mainland. Climate change, in particular rising sea levels, are a major threat to both mainland and overseas Estmere.
Weather and climate data is recorded by the National Meteorological Service, the national weather agency of Estmere, which is primarily based in St Avelines.
The following table is based on mean measurements by the NMS weather station in St Avelines and from other weather stations across Estmere between 1992 and 2022, and extremes recorded since 1965.
|Climate data for St Avelines (averages) and all NMS locations (extremes)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.8
|Average high °C (°F)||5.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−40.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||69.8
|Average snowy days||2||3||0.5||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||3||9.5|
Government and politics
Since the ratification of the Estmerish constitution in 1938, Estmere has been a constitutional republic operating as a federation with a parliamentary system. The country is the birthplace of the Northabbey model of government, which is characterised by the presence of a parliamentary official opposition, an executive branch comprised of members of the legislature, responsible to that legislature, in addition to a ceremonial head of state different to the head of government. In Estmere, these roles are occupied by the President and the Prime Minister, respectively.
The legislative branch of the Estmerish government is the Parliament of Estmere, which is a bicameral institution comprised of two houses; the elected House of Deputies and the appointed House of Peers. Estmere adheres to the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, meaning that the legislative branch is considered supreme to all other branches of government, holding absolute sovereignty. Due to this concept, the judicial branch is largely independent of political control, with judges on the High Court appointed by independent committees, but has limited powers of judicial review.
Since 2021, Estmere has been governed by a Progressive Social Democrats minority government, with support from the Greens, the Left Party and smaller parties. This replaced a coalition government between the Sotirian Democratic Union and the Reform Party. The SDU has acted as the Official Opposition since 2021, with Reginald Wilton-Smyth serving as Leader of the Opposition since 2023.
Progressive Social Democrats (253)
Supported by (78)
Vox Estmere (10)
Sotirian Democratic Union (199)
Centre Party (12)
Party of the Swathish (10)
Les Fleuvais Ensemblle (2)
Aldman Democratic Alliance (2)
The Estmerish legsilature is the Parliament of Estmere, a bicameral institution comprised of two houses. The House of Deputies forms the lower house, and is elected using the additional member system, with Members elected either to represent a constituency or as part of a party list. Parliamentary terms can last for a maximum of four years, after which another election must be held. Parliament is considered to be an example of imperfect bicameralism, as the House of Deputies is considered supreme among the two chambers, drafts all legislation, and is capable of overruling the House of Peers.
As Estmere operates in line with the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, the executive branch is assembled from members of the House of Deputies, and is subsequently responsible to it. The Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President, based on their ability to command the confidence of the House of Deputies. The Prime Minister is therefore usually the leader of the largest party in the Commons. The Prime Minister appoints members of the Commons or Peers as ministers in their Cabinet, which is shadowed by the Leader of the Opposition and their Shadow Cabinet. Cabinet members generally oversee a ministry within the Estmerish government, such as the Ministry of Defence, and are subject to parliamentary accountability.
The upper house is the House of Peers, which acts as a house of review. Peers are appointed to the house to serve for a single ten year term, after which they are ineligible to serve in the chamber again. One third of the seats are appointed by the President; these appointments are required to be politically neutral experts who sit as crossbenchers, while the remaining two thirds are appointed by the devolved administrations of the constituent states, and are not required to be non-partisan. Appointment to the House of Peers is considered the highest reward in the Estmerish honours system.
Parliament is currently comprised of members representing eight parties. The current minority government is led by the centre-left Progressive Social Democrats, which is social democratic and progressive. The government is supported by the Greens, an environmentalist party, and the far-left Left Party, which is left-wing populist. The Official Opposition is led by the centre-right Sotirian Democratic Union, which espouses Sotirian democracy, conservatism and economic liberalism.
Other smaller partise also exist in opposition, with the centrist Reform Party being social liberal and strongly pro-Euclean, the Centre Party, which is agrarian and advocates for pensioners' interests, Vox Estmere, the Estmerish branch of the pan-Euclean Vox Euclea party, which espouses Euclofederalism and social liberalism, and future.es, which is a future party that campaigns for participatory e-democracy and copyright reform. There are also three nationalist and regionalist parties with federal representation, the Party of the Swathish, Les Fleuvais Ensemblle and the Aldman Democratic Alliance, which both espouse civic nationalism for speakers of Swathish, Flurian and Aldman respectively.
Estmere is a federal republic, with thirteen constituent states comprising the federation. The newest states are Kingsport and St Roberts and Fleming, which were admitted in September 2022. Estmere is then divided into counties, sometimes known as shires, each of which has a county council. The counties are further divided into either boroughs, cantreds, ridings or hundreds, and then into neighbourhoods, parishes or tithings.
Each state is essentially autonomous, with devolved administrations operating under the parliamentary system with a legislature and a first minister or mayor, making them largely autonomous in regards to internal affairs. All states are required to have Estmerish as an official language, while the national languages of Flurian and Swathish are co-official languages in six states each. In the overseas states of St Roberts and Fleming and Kingsport, Robertian Creole and Kabuese are co-official languages respectively. Aldman is a recognised language in two states.
Estmerish law is considered to be a hybrid system. The Estmerish legal system rests largely on common law principles, chiefly from the traditions of dōmlagu law which preceded the creation of Estmere and from Verique law which was imported by the conquerors. Historically, the law was not applied equally across the country, with Verique settlements subject only to the customary Verique law and exempt from many of the dōmlagu laws. Starting in the 15th century the legal system then adopted a number of features from civil law, largely taken from Solarian law, but later also from the Gaullican and Weranic traditions.
Legal precedent, legislation, custom and specific academic writings are all recognised as sources of law in Estmere. Since the foundation of the Euclean Community in 1948, Estmerish law has also been subject to Euclean law, and with it to the Euclean Court of Justice and the Fundamental Rights of the Euclean Community.
Trials in Estmere are conducted in front of a jury. The Estmerish legal system was historically unique, and "not proven" was a possible verdict in a criminal trial, resulting in an acquittal. There had been calls to abolish the verdict since the 1970s, but it wasn't until a renewed campaign by activists that the verdict was officially abolished in 2023 for all new cases. The High Court of Estmere is the country's final court of appeal. Judges on the High Court are appointed by independent selection committees, meaning that the courts are generally indepedent of political control. Due to the nature of parliamentary sovereignty, however, the High Court has limited powers of judicial review. Any legal decisions made by the High Court in civil or criminal cases are binding on other courts in the same jurisdiction.
Law enforcement is predominantly the responsibility of the states, and the Estmerish police are divided into thirteen Police Forces, one for each state, which are sometimes further divided into local constabularies. There are three national police forces; the largest is the Federal Police Force (FPF) which is responsible for cross-state activities, transport policing and major criminal cases, and the two smaller services are the Ministry of Defence Police, which is responsible for protecting Ministry of Defence property, Estmere's nuclear deterrent and other defence interests, and the Parliament Police, which is responsible for law enforcement in the Parliament area.
Estmere is considered to be a historical great power, with experts placing particular emphasis on its considerable soft power. Since the conclusion of the Great War, Estmere has positioned itself as a supporter of liberal democracy across the globe, and has used its influence within international organisations to promote liberal democratic values. Although Estmere decolonised in the post-war era, it has maintained a costly military presence south of Aurean, retains considerable influence in former colonies such as Bamvango and Padaratha, and is involved in a number of post-colonial conflicts such as the Tsabaran Civil War.
Estmere shares a particularly close cultural, political and economic relationship with Werania, known as the Alte Bruderschaft. It also shares a close relationship with many of its former colonies, such as Rizealand and Satavia, and is a founding member of the Embrosphere along with other Estmerish-speaking nations. Estmere also enjoys a close relationship with Senria known as the Ryuuhou Doumei, with the military alliance between the two dating back to the Senrian Revolution.
Estmere is a member of a number of international organisations. It is a founding member of the Community of Nations, the Euclean Community and the International Council for Democracy, which is headquartered in the Estmerish capital of Morwall. Along with Gaullica and Werania, it is considered one of the Big Three within the EC. Within the Community of Nations, it enjoys a permanent seat on all six International Committees, most notably the Security Committee. It is a member of the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation, and is one of the B-15 major economies.
Estmere maintains the second largest military within the Euclean Community, behind Werania, and is an active founding member of ECDTO. The Estmerish Defence Force (EDF) acts as the armed forces of Estmere, and is comprised of the Estmerish Army (EA), the Estmerish Navy (EN), including its Federal Marines, and the Estmerish Air Force (EAF). There is also the Special Rapid Response Force ("Specref"), which acts as the special forces component of the EDF and has its origins in the Independent Companies.
The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the Prime Minister, while the Minister of Defence also exercises a number of powers in relation to the military. The President of Estmere has no involvement in the armed forces, and military personnel swear loyalty to the Commonwealth as a whole rather than to a single figure.
As of 2020, Estmere employs approximately 272,031 active personnel with 75,231 personnel in reserve. Estmere's military expenditure totaled approximately €60.48 billion, just over 2.3% of the country's GDP. The minimum age of recruitment is 16, but active service is restricted to those aged 18 and over. Estmere is a recognised nuclear state, and so maintains a deployed arsenal of 110 nuclear weapons, which are air and sea-based. Estmere is home to a number of major multinational arms manufacturers, such as Estmerish Materiel Systems and Aero Products International.
The Estmerish Navy is a blue-water navy, operating 2 Heart of Estmere-class aircraft carriers known as the ENS Heart of Estmere and the ENS Wolfgar Godfredson, in addition to 79 other ships. The Estmerish Air Force operates 702 aircraft, most predominantly the multi-role Euclofighter.
Mandatory conscription was abolished in 1989, and since then the Estmerish Defence Force has been a professional volunteer force. Military installations are maintained on the island of Kingsport in the Vehemens Ocean, in the Sovereign Base Areas on Nakong and in foreign countries through leased bases. The military operates on the principle of collective security with other ECDTO states. The aims of the military are outlined in the Estmerish constitution as the defence of the Estmerish people, the defence of the Commonwealth, and the defence of allied states.
The Special Intelligence Bureau (SIB) is the main intelligence agency of Estmere, focused on foreign intelligence. It is joined by the Internal Security Bureau (ISB) which handles domestic intelligence and counter-espionage, the Communications and Signals Bureau (CSB) which focues on signals intelligence and the Counter-Terrorism Security Command (CTSC) which is the counter-terrorism agency. The Defence Intelligence Bureau (DIB) is the military intelligence agency. The SIB, ISB, CSB and CTSC report to the Ministry of Home Affairs, while the DIB reports to the Ministry of Defence.
Estmere has a social market economy, and is the second largest economy in Euclea, with a GDP PPP of €2.882 trillion and a nominal GDP of €3.208 trillion. The Estmerish economy has a significant welfare state, low barriers to trade and generally loose regaulations. Estmere uses the Euclo, formerly the Estmerish Shilling, as its national currency, and the Bank of Estmere acts as the central bank of Estmere. As Estmere is within the Euclozone, the Euclean Central Bank also fulfils some of those responisbilities. The Estmerish government has majority shares in energy production, telecommunications, transport, and some manufacturing companies.
Within the government, the Ministry of the Treasury and the Minister of the Treasury are responsible for developing plans for government spending, and for implementing financial policy. Economic development, meanwhile, is instead guided by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The Ministries are assisted by the National Economic Development Organisation (affectionately refered to as Neddy), a government-led organisation which brings together representatives of trade unions and businesses in to organise economic planning and allow for social dialogue.
The Estmerish economy is dominated by the service and industrial sectors, which comprise 68% and 30% of GDP respectively. Exports are important to the Estmerish economy, accounting for 42% of national output. Major exports include automobiles, transit equipment, machinery, chemical goods, electronics, pharmaceuticals, basic metals and plastics. The Estmerish manufacturing sector is particularly prominent, and it includes major automotive, aerospace, arms and steel companies; the Estmerish automotive industry is the fourth largest globally, one of the most innovative in the world, and is home to brands including Marcus Anton, Sheaford Automotive, Harcourt and Du Peupl'ye. 32 of the world's 500 largest companies are headquarted in Estmere. These include Duhamel, Top Dog, Speakman Group, Haberlin's, Crane & Company and Embro-Arucian. Due to the historic influence of the co-operative movement, Estmere is home to a number of co-operatives, most notably Uniex (historically known as the United Equitable Societies) and Mutual Credit Bank.
During the 1800s, Estmere became a leading force in the industrial revolution, giving rise to a strong manufacturing sector and laissez-faire philosophy of Estmerish liberalism. After the Great War, the abolition of the monarchy saw the country drift leftwards, as successive governments adopted a post-war consensus that combined ordoliberalism with the theories of the Knowlesby school, creating the foundation for the modern economic framework. This would allow for economic growth until the 70s, when stagflation became a major issue. The social market would be cemented in the following decade, when major reforms were enacting to combat staglfation, which allowed the economy to then grow until the 2005 recession, which saw the government institute austerity, weakening the social market. Large natural gas reserves were found in Estmerish waters starting in 1951, and the sale of this natural gas has become a major source of government revenue. The Caldish curse was largely avoided as Neddy demanded that profit from natural gas was spent to ensure the development of other economic sectors. Tourism and ports are other major contributors to the Estmerish economy; the twinned ports of Bouley and Dunwich are among the largest in Euclea.
Science and technology
Estmere has a strong scientific heritage, and remains a global leader in science, technology and research. Estmerish univerisites, such the prestigious Molbridge triangle comprising Morwall, Damesbridge and Tolbury, are world-renowned, and have one of the highest numbers of graduates in science and engineering in the world. These universities attract students from across the globe. Many scientists and researchers from Estmere have received recognition and awards for their work.
The country has been home to a number of prominent thinkers since the 17th century Scientific Revolution. These include Albrecht Döuer, who is credited with establishing the field of psychology, and other major figures such as William A. Salter, Philip Warren, James Fulmore, and Samuel Harding. Estmere has also engaged in scientific exchange with other states throughout history, particularly with Gaullica. Despite the historical rivalry, scientists from both countries regularly collaborated as early as the 18th century. The most notable outcome of this collaboration was the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid by Joseph Poole and Noël Touchard in 1949.
Estmerish inventors and industrialists played a leading role in the Industrial Revolution, shaping the modern Estmerish economy. Major developments in transportation were also made in Estmere. The first railways opened in Estmere during the 1830s. Stephen Talbot, Charles Mortimer and others made major contributions to rail, automotive, and air travel. Esmtere also had a long naval history, with major contributions dating back to the 15th century.
In modern day Estmere, research and development remains important, particularly in universities. These often cooperate with industry and government. Estmere is home to a number of scientific journals, such as Estmerish Medical Review, The Psychologist and Chemistry Quarterly. Estmere had a 9 per cent share of scitific citations between 2010 and 2015, the second-highest in the world. The Federal Scientific Society acts as Estmere's national academy of sciences. In addition, a number of learned and professional societies exist, such as the Estmerish Psychological Association and the Society of Estmerish Chemists.
While the service industry is the largest sector of the economy, Estmere's industrial base remains significant, and it continues to have one of the largest manufacturing sectors in Euclea, comprising 30% of gross domestic product. A number of manufacturing companies are nationalised or have significant government involvement, such as Estmerish Steel and Du Peupl'ye. Major manufacturing industries in Estmere include automobiles, transit equipment, machinery, chchemical goods, electronics, pharmaceuticals, basic metals and plastics. These are also major Estmerish exports.
Banking and finance
Estmere largest financial sectors in the world. While it is far smaller than the Weranian and Gaullican financial industries, it is still considered notable and is among the most prominent in the world. Banking in Estmere is dominated by four banks which form an oligopoly over the market, known as the Big Four. The Big Four are City Bank, Hargreaves, Morwall International (MIB), and Mutual Credit.
Energy and natural resources
Ports and transportation
The Estmerish economy is heavily integrated into the rest of Euclea, most notably through its highly-integrated transport infrastructure. This includes a number of international airports, such as Wolfgar Godfredson Memorial and Sheaford International. Estmere has had a long history as an entry point into Euclea, and its ports are major contributors to the economy as a whole. The modern Estmerish economy is highly reliant on international trade and the global economy.
The twinned ports of Bouley and Dunwich are the first and third largest in Euclea, respectively, and act as the primary entry point to Euclean markets, and as a major exit point for Estmerish and Euclean exports; Estmere is one of the world's leading exporters. Both were considered entrepôts and staple ports historically. The twinned ports share more than 58% of Euclean maritime traffic, handling hundreds of millions of tons of goods annually. They are among the world's busiest cargo ports; Bouley was the busiest port globally from 1939 until 2003, when it was overtaken by Baiqiao, and continues to be the busiest port in Euclea.
Estmere maintains an extensive road and rail network, the latter of which is one of the oldest in the world. Estmere has invested in high-speed rail, which works primarily to connect the urban areas of the metropolitan counties. It is also part of the wider Euclostar network. Railways in Estmere are operated as part of the publicly-owned Estmerail. There are also extensive ferry, bus and tram networks across the country which make up the bulk of public transit.
Estmerish is the sole official language of Estmere, and is by far the most widely spoken. It is estimated that 78% of the population speak Estmerish as their first language, while close to 94% are estimated to have a high level of proficiency in the language. Estmerish is considered a global language, second only to Gaullican, and is one of the six official languages of the Community of Nations.
The global extent of Estmerish is exemplified by the Embrosphere, of which Estmere is a founding member, which unites countries sharing a history with the language.
Flurian and Swathish are widely-spoken minority languages, with their speakers centred in southern and northern Estmere respectively; both of these languages are enshrined in the Estmerish constitution as co-official national languages. Every state has at least one of the two tongues as a co-official language. Speakers have the right to be use these national languages in government and business across the country, and the languages are used on signage in their respective states. Flurian is estimated to be the first language of 4% of the Estmerish population, while the figure is estimated to be 13% for Swathish.
In Estmerish schools, it compulsory for students to learn Estmerish and one of the national or regional languages, in addition to one foreign language, up until the age of 14. Gaullican, Soravian, Weranic and Senrian are the four most commonly taught second languages, while Shangean and Valduvian have also increased in popularity in recent years, particularly at post-16 level.
There are other minority languages spoken alongside Flurian and Swathish. Estmerish Sign Language (ESL) is the most widely used sign language in the country, and is recognised as a national language. Aldman is spoken in the northwest, while Kabuese and Robertian Creole are spoken in Kingsport and St Roberts and Fleming respectively. All three are recognised as regional minority languages as of 2022.
A number of languages have also been brought to the country by immigrant communities. One out of every twenty people speak a foreign language in Estmere, according to the census. The most widely spoken of these include Tamisari, Rahelian, weRwizi and Shangean, with speakers largely centred in Morwall and other metropolitan areas.
Estmere is a secular state, and freedom of religion has been protected by the Estmerish constitution since its adoption in 1938. Sotirianity was the majority religion among the Estmerish population from the 5th century until the late 20th century, when church attendance declined heavily and irreligion became the largest religious affiliation in the country. Sotirianity still remains culturally important to the country, and Estmere has been described as post-Sotirian.
The 2020 census reported that 47.4% of the population identified as irreligious, to varying degrees including atheism, agnosticism, humanism and somethingism. 42.90% of the population identified as some form of Sotirian, with Amendism (including Gracialism, Gospelism, Kasperism, Witterism and Westmarckianism) remaining the largest Sotirian denominiation and comprising 26.8% of the total population. Amendism was followed by Catholicism, which was adhered to by 15.7% of the total population. The remaining Sotirian population was split between Episemialism at 0.4% of the population and other smaller Sotirian denominations, such as Ezekielanism, at 0.2%. Irfanics were the largest non-Sotirian religious group, comprising 4.9% of the population, and were followed by other religions (such as Atudaism and Badi at 1.20% each and Zohism at 1.9%) at 5.2% of the population collectively.
Historically, Estmere was considered a firmly Amendist country at the heart of the Amendist Belt, having been the birthplace of the Amendist Reaction and a leading Amendist power in the Wars of Religion. Amendism was the official state religion from 1519 to 1938. The Gracialist United Amended Church was the dominant and established church, though it considered itself to be in full communion with other Amendist churches in the country, and was heavily associated with the Estmerish monarchy. The UAC suffered major denominational splits in 1811, 1844 and 1889, which diversified Estmerish Amendism and gave rise to churches such as the evangelical and fundamentalist Reformed and Amended Church of Sotirias. Religion began to lose its influence in Estmere, particularly in Estmerish politics, between the 1960s and 1980s, with church attendance falling to under 50% in the 1970s, and the 1980 census being the first to show irreligion as the largest religious affiliation in Estmere. In addition, increased immigration to Estmere saw the rise of non-Sotirian religions such as Irfan, Badi, Zohism and Atudaism.
In spite of increasing secularism, Estmere retains cultural elements of Sotirianity, such as Sotirian religious holidays like Nativity and Easter also being counted as national holidays. Religion also has some level of influence in Estmerish politics, with three political parties with federal or Euclean representation having associations with the Sotirian faith; the Sotirian Democratic Union, the Centre Party and the Sotirian Heritage Party.
Religious adherance remains heavily tied to geography. The northern state of Swerdia has historically been seen as more strongly Catholic than the rest of the country, and a plurality in the state identify as Catholic. Amendist identification is concentrated to the Bible Belt which stretches through parts of the southern states of Roland, Evre, Arvorne and the Midlands. The Bible Belt is also considered far more evangelical and fundamentalist, and Amendism plays a stronger role in the politics and social life here than elsewhere in the country. Non-Sotirian religions are meanwhile centred in urban areas such as Morwall and the South Scitterland conurbation.
Estmerish law is relatively lax in terms of cults, sects and new religious movements, with these groups having the same legal rights are mainstream religions. This policy has been subject to criticism, particularly from mainstream groups, and has resulted in a large number of new religious groups being active in Estmere, such as the Church of the Singularity and, historically, the Faith Militant of the Crimson Emperor, which was involved in human trafficking until a crackdown in the 1990s.
Estmere is one of the most highly urbanised countries in the world, in part due to the fact it is the fourth-densest country in Euclea with a population density of 198.40/km2 (513.9/sq mi). As of 2020 13% of Estmerish land is used by settlements or infrastructure, more than double the Euclean average. Estmere's largest cities by urban area according to the 2015 census are Morwall (8,789,507), Harbrough (2,381,924), Sheaford (2,051,480), Bouley (1,293,028), Dunwich (938,201), St Richards (902,578), Colton (823,056), Knowlesby (737,019), Holchester (602,190) and Cromley (598,684). Morwall is the largest city in Euclea, while four of these cities (Harbrough, Sheaford, Knowlesby and Holchester) are also part of the South Scitterland conurbation, one of the largest conurbations in Euclea. The South Scitterland conurbation and Greater Morwall area form a key part of the wider Coastal Corridor, along with the Dunwich-Westhaven conurbation and Greater Bouley.
Largest cities, by urban area, in Estmere
2015 Estmerish census
The provision of education is considered to be a matter for the individual states, but there is a common framework which is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Preschool is optional and available for children from ages three to six. These institutions are generally nurseries or kindergartens, and are free in some states. Education in Estmere is universal and compulsory for all children from ages six to sixteen nationwide. In the majority of states, it is mandatory for children to remain in education or vocational training until they achieve at least a high school level qualification or reach the age of eighteen.
The first five years of education are provided by primary schools, which are consistent for all children. The next five years of secondary education is divided into academic and vocational tracks, and is provided either by secondary schools or technical schools respectively. The degree of separation between the two tracks and the possibility of switching between them varies based on the state, with some states also having comprehensive schools which provide both academic and vocational tracks. Post-16 education is generally served by colleges for the academic track, with most technical schools offering courses for students aged sixteen to eighteen.
Private schools also exist in Estmere. In some states, they are exempt from taxation and have an obligation to take on a certain number of non-fee paying students. A high number of private schools are religious, as state governments are forbidden from financing faith schools. Private schools have been criticised for being exclusionary, for exacerbating class divisions in society and for redirecting funding away from state schools.
Estmere is home to a number of universities, which are well-regarded. In particular, the Molbridge univerities (Damesbridge, Tolbury, Morwall) are considered world-leading, and lead global league tables. Institutions such as the Harbrough and St Richards are also well-regarded. There are also the polytechnic institutes, such as MCT, which offer higher level vocational education. Tuition fees for Estmerish univeristies vary based on the state, though there is a federal cap of €3,500 a year for domestic students and some states offer free tertiary education for residents. Estmere has a high number of international students, whose tuition fees are uncapped.
Estmerish culture is an Eastern culture which is influenced by its position between Weranian-influenced northern Euclea and Gaullican-influenced southern Euclea. One impact of this is the distinct regional cultures and constituent nationalities present in the country, protections for which have been constitutionally enshrined since 1936. Estmerish culture has also been shaped by religion, including the Amendist Reaction which began in the country. Historically, Estmerish culture was marked by strong association with the Amendist religion, but it is now considered a secular and increasingly irreligious culture. Estmere's liberal publishing laws and lack of censorship during the Long Peace made the country a literary haven and gave it the nickname the "writers' paradise". These influences have together given rise to a unique culture with distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism.
Estmere has also had a strong influence on the culture of the wider world. The Estmerish Empire globalised the language, culture and law of Estmere, while also introducing Estmere to new cultural trends. The former colonies and territories controlled by Estmere, including Rizealand, Borland, Satavia, Imagua, Nuvania and Nakong, are often referred to as part of a common culture known as the Embrosphere. For this reason, and for other examples of cultural influence such as the export of Nativity traditions such as Nativity markets, Estmere is regarded as a cultural superpower. The country was ranked as having the fourth most positive influence in the world in 2017.
Estmerish artists have been major contributors to wider Eastern art, and Estmerish art has a long tradition which includes Paleolithic works such as the painted Harfeld Caves and early Tenic art such as the Torc of Tamford. Estmere was also home to Piraeo-Solarian art, with the earliest examples belonging to the Ancient Piraean art introduced by the Piraean colony of Nysa. Solarian art was imported to Solarian Estmere from the rest of the Solarian Empire, which would influence Estmerish art for the next few hundred years. The collapse of Solaria led to the ornate metalwork and jewel inlaying of Migration Period art produced by migrating Swerdians, Fredians and Gutans, exemplified by items from the Wollaston Hoard. The Solaresque and Gothic styles arrived in Estmere alongside the Verique, with the most notable surviving piece of conquest art being the Mandeville Tapestry.
Estmere was a centre of the Northern Renaissance, with early artists such as John Eckers heavily innovating and popularising the use of oil painting through pieces such as Madonna and Child. The birth of the printing press also led to rise in engraving, led by engravers such as Theophilus Bryn. Middle and late Renaissance artists became heavily influenced by the Amendist Reaction, with artists such as Emanuel Malster, John Hartcombe and Bartholomew Dericotte rejecting the decadent religious art of previous centuries in favour of secular portraits, landscapes and depictions of peasants typified by Sowing the Seeds of Daedalus. Estmere was also home to a small Mannerist movement, but it was eclipsed by the Northern Renaissance. The art of the Estmerish Renaissaince was followed by the rise of Amendist Baroque, which in Estmere was dominated by the works of Nazareth Delamere and Benedict Chetwood. Delamere in particular is considered one of the greatest artists of all time, with works such as Night Watchmen and The Guildmasters considered historical masterpieces.
Neoclassical art thrived in Estmere in the early 1800s, exemplified by artists such as Eleanor Schuyler and Campbell Grant and sculptors such as John Godfrey Shadows. The early 1800s saw the rise of the Romantic movement, led by artists such as Jordan Hennessy. The Realist movement emerged in reaction to Romanticism, with artists such as Atude Atkins and Benedict Ross-Hall aiming to accurately depict ordinary life.
Estmerish Modern art emerged in the 1860s, pioneered by Impressionists such as Leo Lawlor. Estmerish Modern artists such as Bertrand Carnall also later experimented with Art Nouveau and Fauvism. Estmerish artists were important in the development of abstract art. Estmere was the birthplace of the Surrealist movement, which was pioneered by Estmerish artists including Andrew Brockett, Reuben Mellors, Leo Hickling and Eli Hallam. It was also home to thriving Cubist, Art Deco and Dadaist scenes. In the post-war period, Estmerish artists such as Michael Clarke, Jon Littenbury and Arnold Grouse began challenging the traditions of fine art through the Pop art movement. The rise of Contemporary art in the 1970s has led to the emergence of Contemporary artists including James Joylon, Heidi Marks, Lena Aeschlimann, Mahesh Chettiar, Carmen George and Ifama Afamefuna.
Estmere is home to a number of art museums and galleries. The most notable of this is the Jacobean Museum, which was founded in 1828 and is the oldest museum in the country. The Jacobean hosts masterpieces including Sowing the Seeds of Daedalus and Night Watchmen. The National Historical Gallery was opened in 1967 to display artistic archaeological finds in addition to a broader collection of national works, while the National Museum of Modern Art was opened in 1991 and hosts a collection of modern art. The presence of foreign artefacts in Estmerish museums has been controversial and there have been calls for their repatriation.
Estmerish architecture has a long history, beginning with neolithic stonework such as the well-preserved Boyleston Stones. Archaeological evidence shows early Iron Age Estmere was home to oppida constructed by the early Tenic culture, while surviving sites such as the Garden of the Ancients (now a major tourist attraction) show the influence of the Piraean colony of Nysa and their imported Ancient Piraean architecture. Solarian Estmere saw the importation of Piraeo-Solarian architecture, which can be seen in the surviving Colne Baths and Walls of Caister.
The Middle Ages saw the emergence of the Solaresque style in Estmere, driven by the simultaneous conquest and Sotirianisation of the country. Verique feudal nobles established fortified castles (the most notable of which include the Lonely Tower, St Richard's Rock and Châté de Plémont) to solidify control, while the construction of several large cathedrals and monasteries began. Solaresque design eventually began to shift into the Gothic style, with many buildings of the period (such as Ashminster Abbey) having elements of both styles. Addington Cathedral is considered emblematic of Estmerish gothic. The vernacular architecture of the time utilised the half-timbered style with austere and simple designs, while urbanisation in the latter half of this period led to the creation of opulent townhouses facing public squares.
Estmerish architecture experienced a major evolution starting in the Alienoran period, with prodigy houses (such as Adelaide Hall) built by landed gentry in the Renaissance style. Estmerish Renaissance architecture is split into the Weranian-influenced Northern style and the Gaullican-influenced Southern style, which are respectively typified by Dunwich City Hall and Dame's House.
Baroque architecture replaced traditional styles in Estmere after the Renaissance, similarly to the rest of continental Euclea. Estmerish Baroque, sometimes known as Symmetricalism, was marked by its restraint and austerity, in a rejection of Catholic grandiosity amid the Amendist Reaction. Cavendish Palace is comprised almost entirely of Symmetricalist Baroque features.
The end of the Euclean Revolutionary Wars saw the introduction of Neoclassicalism to Estmere, the Estmerish branch of which became known as the Viridian style. The Viridian style maintained the principle of symmetry from the Baroque style, while adopting modern materials and re-introducing ornate and extravagant elements to Estmerish architecture for the first time in centuries. Morwall Trierberg Station, the National Scientific Academy Halls and Havering House are the best examples of the Viridian style. The Viridian style also saw the construction of many water games, including the Gardins d'Ieau Aubèrteis which are the largest in the world.
The Industrial Revolution had a major impact on vernacular architecture in Estmere, with new manors built by the nouveau riche to emulate the gentry while terraces were constructed in major cities to house growing working populations. There was later a reaction against urban areas, leading to the founding of many suburbs and the construction of apartment buildings built in elite styles.
The Viridian style persisted through much of the Long Peace, but it was challenged the Gothic Revival and by the rise of new architectural movements including Art Nouveau (known in Estmere as the New Style), Art Deco and Expressionism. The best example of the architecture of this period is Harris Tower, which is emblematic of Estmerish Art Deco. Modernism, such as the International Style, dominated the Estmerish architectural scene following the Great War, before being challenged by Postmodern styles including Brutalism, Structuralism and Deconstructivism. One of the most prominent buildings built after the Great War is EBS Tower, which was the tallest structure in the world from 1974 to 2006, remains the tallest free standing tower in Euclea, and has become an iconic landmark.
Music is considered an important part of Estmerish culture and a variety of genres are popular in the country. This includes Estmerish folk music sung in Estmerish, Swathish and Flurian. Estmere was also home to a number of renowned classical composers and musicians including Myles Sadler, Jasper Clarell and Hamilton Holmes, in addition to well-known classical orchestras such as the Damesbridge Symphony Orchestra.
The blues and jazz were brought to Estmere by Freemen such as Isaiah "Izzy" Booker, and jazz in particular gained prominence in the 1920s during prohibition, with most speakeasies employing jazz musicians. The exile of prominent jazz musicians from Functionalist Gaullica such as Zaire Moroux further contributed to the development of Estmerish jazz. The post-war period saw the emergence of rock music, with Estmerish artists pioneering a number of subgenres, including art rock, glam rock, new wave, progressive rock and punk rock. Estmerish rock acts (such as Regent Sound, Jupiter Starling, Brünette, What?, Outbreak and Downed) were internationally dominant in the 1960s, but by the end of the 1970s they had been eclipsed by foreign artists associated with the new synth wave. The 1990s saw a revival of Estmerish music, with the development of new genres of rock such as emo (exemplified by Doozie, Firestarter, The Real Boys, Courtezan, The Black Parade and Disemvowelment) and indie (exemplified by Mardy Bums, The Brightsides and The Rioteers). In the 2000s, forms of electronic dance music such as dubstep and grime were developed by Estmerish artists (such as Skumbag, Jo Smith, Crazzee Madman, Gustzy, Suspa and Koyote). The 2010s and early 2020s saw the emergence of lo-fi bedroom pop in Estmere (exemplified by Ed Remmington, lostalgia and Eve Ceraph) using streaming services such as Dukebox to promote music without the help of big publishers.
Estmere is a Super Cinq country and has participated in every iteration of the Euclovision Song Contest, winning the contest on five occasions (1965, 1984, 1998, 2022 and 2023). Estmere is the only participating country to have won two consecutive victories. Victorious acts include What?, Outbreak, Tommy Sheridan and Nico Lumineux. The most recent victory was Hell is Better With You performed by Chel Sakurai in 2023. Estmere has hosted the event five times (1966, 1985, 1999, 2006 and 2023) and will host the contest a sixth time in 2024.
Estmerish popular music continues to be popular worldwide. Contemporary artists such as Briony Hampton, Ella of the Roses, Demrah, Vivi, Pick 'n' Mix, YBRV, Emme ZMX and others continue to rank highly on global streaming rankings, while Estmere is also home to internationally-recognised rising artists such as Mable Pestle, Nico Lumineux, Baba Baba, Six Feet Under, Chel Sakurai, T.M.I and Rotten Candy. Estmere is also home to many prominent contemporary composers of musical theatre (most notably Albert Lucas Winson and Louis Matthew Montgomery). The Estmerish music industry is one of the largest in the world by revenue.
Cinema and theatre
Estmerish cinema is world-renowned and the Estmerish cinema scene has had a considerable impact on the wider field of filmmaking. Estmere is known to have a strong film industry, with a particular focus on animation, in which the country is considered world-leading. The country produces the third-most films of any country in Euclea. The Estmerish Excellence in Film Awards, popularly known as the Essies, have been held annually in Estmere since 1926. Estmere has hosted the Belgrave Film Festival, one of the most important film festivals in the world and the only one with a focus on animation, since 1941.
The Harewood Garden Scene, captured in Estmere in 1888, was the world's first moving picture. Early Estmerish cinema was known for its lack of censorship and many early works are notable for their novelty and, often, obscenity. These included silent films such as the popular but controversial Not A Drop To Drink, which was released in 1911 and satirised prohibition. Silent films were challenged by the advent of talkies, but the industry as a whole entered a period of decline starting in 1914 due to the Great Collapse. The only part of Estmerish cinema to grow during this period was animation, which was subject to a period of intense innovation. The world's first female animator, Ada White, operated in Estmere during this time, and her adaptation of One Thousand and One Nights was the world's first animated blockbuster. David Duhamel became a leader in animated film in the 1920s, founding the highly successful David Duhamel Company with fellow animator Hugh Devaney and wife-turned-animator Julia DuFoy–Duhamel. Duhamel animation was widely used during the Great War as a form of propaganda. The era of uncensored Estmerish cinema ended in 1951, with the introduction of the Estmerish Board of Film Review, which led to a second downturn in the industry outside of child-friendly animation. The Board was eventually abolished in 1969, reviving the industry and giving rise to the Estmerish New Wave which introduced new artistic movements such as social realism and postmodernism to Estmerish cinema.
The Evreux conurbation along the south coast is the undisputed centre of the Estmerish film industry, and is home to a number of film studios. Solange in particular is home to the David Duhamel Company, and the company's influence is so great that the city has been nicknamed "Greater Duhamelia" and "the Burrow". St Avelines is also a major filming location, while Belgrave is a centre of film criticism.
Estmere has a thriving tradition of mainstream theatre with modern musical theatre originating in Estmere in the 19th century. Morwall is at the centre of Estmerish theatre, with Boulevard specifically having become a metonym for Estmerish theatre as a whole; the most prestigious theatres in the country are along that street. Strong theatre scenes also exist in other urban centres, such as in St Avelines, which is a centre for improvisational theatre in particular. Composers such as Albert Lucas Winson and Louis Matthew Montgomery are major figures in Estmerish theatre. Estmere also has an active campus theatre culture.
Estmerish cuisine is known as one of the most varied in Euclea, influenced heavily by trade, colonialism and immigration. Spices and herbs (most notably curry powder and garam masala) are common, first introduced by the Verique and further influenced by the arrival of Satrian, Rahelian and Arucian immigrant communities. There are distinct regional styles of Estmerish cuisine. Food in the north is influenced by neighbouring Werania, while southern cuisine is more similar to Gaullican and Hennish cuisine. International cuisines such as Etrurian food, Shangean food, ganome food, Senrian sushi and Piraean food are popular across the country.
Pork (particularly sausages) and potatoes feature heavily in Estmerish cuisine, while gravy is a common addition. Staple Estmerish dishes include Estmerish fries, curry dogs, hot dogs, jerked sausage, tikka masala, witburgers, sourcole, jellied and battered eel, fish and chips, Tolbury puddings, Estmerish couscous, pancakes, Mountcherry sponge and crumpets, with many being fusion dishes derived from immigrant groups.
Estmere's fast food industry is one of the largest and earliest to develop in the world, pioneered by Top Dog, the world's largest fast food chain with locations in over 60 countries. Other Estmerish restaurant chains with a global reach include Pilgrim's, Cabin, The Weekend, Café Zero, Whispy Whaler, Speakeasy and Ponty's Pizza. Estmere hosts outlets of foreign chains such as Munchies, Ajeng's and Potage Cottage.
Estmere has a complicated history with alcohol and its consumption was historically prohibited. This gave rise to a unique alcohol culture, including the proliferation of speakeasies and an enduring popularity of cocktails and hard spirits such as whisky (notably moonshine and Swatch whisky) and rum. St Roberts and Fleming is a major centre of rum distillation. Estmere has two significant wine regions (Evreux and Lower Dame), and several brewing regions (including Swerdia, Scitterland and the Midlands) which focus on pale lagers, wheat beers and schafners. Hot drinks (tea, coffee and hot cocoa) are widely consumed.
Estmere has one of the largest confectionary industries in the world and Estmerish chocolate and sweets are known worldwide. The largest confectionary company in the world, Haberlin's, is headquartered in Estmere. Estmerish brands of chocolate such as Haberlin's, Weltner's and Neel's are sold globally, while luxury brands such as Trinkett's and Torie and Devereux are world-renowned for quality.
Estmere has a thriving uncensored and well-developed media landscape with a high level of press freedom. The majority of Estmerish media is produced in Estmerish, but it is a legal requirement for broadcasting companies to provide subtitles, dubbing or distinct channels in the national languages. The media sector is centred in Morwall, while other sizable cities for the industry include Harbrough, Bouley, Tolbury and Solange. The Estmerish media sector is dominated by a handful of large corporations, the most influential being the David Duhamel Company, which is one of the largest media conglomerates in the world.
The three primary national broadcasters in Estmere, with a focus on television broadcasting, are EBS, Duhamel Broadcasting, Hansel-Vernon and NTV. EBS is the nation's public broadcaster, funded by a government grant and limited advertising, while the other three are private enterprises. There are over 200 radio stations in Estmere, including EBS Radio and a number of smaller private stations. As of 2022, 92% of Estmerish people had access to cable or satellite television, while 80% regularly listen to broadcast radio. Online streaming has challenged traditional media, giving rise to video on demand services such as EBS+ and Duhamel on Demand.
The three most widely-read national newspapers in Estmere are the right-wing The Express, left-wing The Chartist and centrist The Standard, which are recognised as the nation's papers of record alongside the finance-focused Economic Review. A number of regional newspapers exist (such as The St Richards Sentinel, Harbrough Weekly and The Solange Observer), some in the national languages (such as Þe Tolburg Tiġmas and Le Veil'ye). Magazines such as the news-focused Panorama, the women's-focused Her, the investigative Exposé and the satirical The Pillory are internationally recognised. Print media has been in decline with the advent of the internet, leading to lower circulation and the rise of internet media such as PuffPiece. The decline has also led to a consolidation of the market, with many regional papers now owned by large corporations such as Duhamel.
Estmere has one of the highest levels of Internet penetration in the world, with around 94% of the population having online access by 2021. The country's ccTLD .es is the sixth most popular in the world with over 14 million registered sites as of 2023. Estmere has the largest video game industry by revenue in Euclea, with the continent's second-largest video game market of over 40 million players as of 2023. A number of major video game publishers and developers are headquartered in Estmere, including Duhamel Play, Imagine Entertainment, Unisoft, Source, Nimrod Software, Enigma Interactive, Runex, Twilight, Quest Games and others. Insomnia, an Estmerish website, is the world's largest video game digital distribution service. Gamesfest, the world's largest gaming convention, is hosted annually in Estmere.
Literature and philosophy
Estmerish literature can be dated back to the Middle Ages, with works written in Estmerish, Verique and Old Estmerish. The most famous Estmerish literary piece, often described as a national epic, is the Chançun des Venqeours, a chanson de geste which acts as a mythologised retelling of the Conquest of Estmere. The Chançun originated in the 11th century, but was revived a number of times including as a 16th century play and 18th century novel. The chivalric romance was also a popular genre in early Estmerish literature with notable works including Le Pelerins and Ipomedon.
The 16th century saw Lawrence Fairworth emerge as a playwright and poet, adding hundreds of words to the Estmerish lexicon, popularising the use of iambic pentameter and establishing Estmerish as a literary language. The perception that his works were "fodder for the masses" meant that he was unappreciated in his time, but his popularisation of Estmerish was a longstanding legacy. This legacy gave rise to John Minster, a literary figure who dominated the scene in 17th century Estmere. He is considered the national poet of Estmere, with his masterpiece Paradise Lost a seminal text in the Estmerish literary canon.
In the 18th century, Mary Anne Goodberry wrote a litany of traditional and original Estmerish folk and fairy tales, such as Tom Thumb, Goldilocks and Three Little Pigs, as part of Madam Goodberry's Fantastical Tales. Goodberry died in 1793, but the tales gained widespread popularity in the 19th century at the height of the Romantic movement after their rediscovery by Charles Chanton, who republished them along with his own stories such as The Golden Afternoon as part of Estmerish Fairy Tales. Tales by both authors continue to be popular on an international level, with many having been adapted into Duhamel films.
The Long Peace saw an explosion of literary activity in Estmere. This was due in part to liberal publishing laws which allowed the country to become a centre of literary freedom, harbouring works that had been banned elsewhere for obscenity or political extremism and leading to a number of foreign writers such as Isaac Bazin-Mordvinov to relocate to Estmere permanently. The period saw the proliferation of new genres, such as science fiction, which was pioneered by Mary Godwin and her novel Lomachenko; or, The True Automaton about synthetic life. Lomachenko gave rise to the genre, which would later be typified by the Firstworld cycle of Jamie Woosley. The period also gave rise to the genres of romance, gothic fiction, vampire fiction, investigative fiction and novels of manners, all of which were established by Estmerish authors such as the Darcy sisters and Clara Bell. The most notable author of 19th century Estmere was Victor Maudling, who wrote the first social novels with a focus on the conditions created by the Industrial Revolution, including as A Nativity Noel and The Wretched Ones. Social novels were his speciality, though he excelled in all literary genres. He is often considered Estmere's greatest writer.
The Estmerish book market is the third-largest in the world, publishing close to 200,000 books in 2020, while the Harbrough Book Fair is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The majority of modern Estmerish literature is in Estmerish, though Verique is prevalent in historic works. Swathish and Old Estmerish works began to be reevaluated in the late 19th and early 20th century as part of the Swathish national revival, such as those by the poet Cædmon and by revival figures such as Hermod Deaþiġe. Works in Flurian and Aldman have also been reevaluated and published.
Estmerish philosophers have made significant contributions to the wider field of Eastern philosophy. The three ancient universities were centres of scholasticism during the medieval period, eventually giving rise to humanism in the 15th century and then to rationalism, empiricism and idealism during the Enlightenment. The Estmerish realist school emerged surrounding Edmund Seamer and Elias Waterford during this time, which argued that common sense formed the basis for all philosophical thought in rebuttal to Renaé Carteses, having a major impact on global liberalism. The 19th century saw the rise of existentialism, typified by Sig Ċiriċevard, one of the earliest philosophers associated with the school. The period following the Great Collapse and the Great War saw the establishment of the Harbrough School (featuring Ted Walter Adearne) and its development of Critical Theory, which aimed to critique and change society rather than just explaining it, while Councillist philosophy was greatly expanded upon by Jürg Ochsner, who developed the theory of cultural hegemony.
Rugby union, boxing, rowing and cricket were all developed in Estmere, while sailing, swimming and archery have a long history in the country. Rugby was once the nation's undisputed most popular sport, but now competes with football, which grew in popularity after its importation following the rise of television. Alongside football, Estmere has also adopted a number of other sports such as zadany, Arucian football and parilutte.
Estmere has participated in the Invictus Games since the event's inauguration in 1898 and regularly ranks in the top ten of the competition. It has hosted the Summer games in 1910 and 1950, and the Winter games in 1948 and 1968. Estmere has also participated in the Youth and Paravictus games. At the most recent Summer Invictus in Verlois, Estmere placed fifth with 96 points.
Football in Estmere is organised by the Estmerish Football Federation (EFF), a founding member of the IFF. Estmerish football is organised into a league system divided between the professional League 1, League 2 and Federal League and a number of smaller semi-professional and amateur leagues. The national men's football team is known as "The Blacks" in reference to the kit colour and it has competed in every iteration of the IFF Coupe du monde, winning in 1939 and hosting in 1955 and 2011, while the national women's football team, known as "The Black Widows", has participated in every IFF Feminine Coupe du monde.
Rugby remains incredibly popular in Estmere and Estmere is considered a strong competitor in international rugby competitions. It is organised by the Estmerish Rugby Union (ERU). The ERU oversees just under 100 leagues, of which three (ERU Championship, ERU National League and ERU State Leagues) are fully professional. The first international rugby match was played between Estmere and Borland in 1871. The national men's rugby team is also known as "The Blacks" and is considered one of the world's strongest men's rugby teams, ranked fourth globally as of 2019. Estmere has competed in every edition of the Men's Rugby World Cup, hosting in 1985 and 2009 and winning in 2005. The national women's rugby team, also known as "The Black Widows", is even held even higher, ranked first in the world as of 2020. It has competed in every edition of the Women's Rugby World Cup, winning in 1999 and 2019, and always finishing in the top three. Estmere hosted the women's cup for the first time in 2023.
Boxing is a popular sport in Estmere and the country hosts a number of professional boxers, most notably Sarena Sutton, who won gold at the 2018 Summer Invictus Games and silver in 2014 and 2022.
In recent years, esports have also emerged as a growing professional sport in Estmere. The most successful professional team is the Morwall Magpies, which competed in the Avatar World Championship in 2022.
The most prominent national symbol of Estmere is the flag of Estmere. It is known commonly as St Richard's Cross or as the Black and White. The flag emerged in the Amendist Reaction, and was considered an unofficial national flag alongside the official Royal Standard, which included the Sunburst White Rose, a royal symbol. St Richard's Cross was first adopted as an official flag in 1801, defaced with the new Sunburst Red-White Rose, a symbol of the union of Estmere with Borland. A defaced version of the flag featuring a sword was used by the Estmerish resistance during the Great War, and the Burning Rose was removed from the flag altogether after the abolition of the monarchy in 1936. The official Estmerish coat of arms was designed in 1937, and feature a black phoenix on a white background with a black border.
Black and white are considered to be the national colours of Estmere. Dark green is also sometimes considered another national colour, albeit an archaic one with connotations of royalism.
Estmere has two official national songs. The first - considered the official national anthem - is There'll Always Be an Estmere, which originates as a resistance song during the Great War. It was made the official anthem in 1938, replacing God Save The King. It exists alongside And did those feet in ancient time, which is the official national hymn. The national motto is "Resurgere velut phoenicem", which is Solarian for "Rise like the Phoenix".
Mother Estmere, a young woman usually dressed in a black and white gown, is the national personification of Estmere. This general personification has also been known by the name Albannica, the name of the Solarian province, and Andrasta, an ancient Alban leader. Saint Richard, the patron saint of Estmere, has also been seen as a personification of Estmere, particularly historically.
Estmere has two co-official national animals. The phoenix was the sole official national animal from 1938 until 1965, adopted in the aftermath of the Great War as a symbol of the resurrection of Estmerish nationhood following the occupation of Estmere. The stag was considered the main national animal prior to this, and was heavily associated with the Estmerish monarchy; hence the attempt to move from the stag to the phoenix. The stag nevertheless remained a prominent national symbol even while unofficial, and so in 1965 the Estmerish government declared that the stag and phoenix were co-official as national animals.
Public holidays celebrated in Estmere are a mix of religious, cultural, national and regional observances. There are also two types of public holiday in Estmere; statutory holidays for which employees are entitled to time off work, and non-statutory for which employees are not. For statutory holidays, if the holiday falls on a weekend day then the time off is pushed to a compensation day on Monday.
The majority of public holidays in Estmere are determined by individual states, but there are 9 statutory holidays which are federally recognised and celebrated throughout the Commonwealth annually. 5 of these are Sotirian religious holidays (Good Friday, Easter Monday, Nativity Eve, Nativity Day and Saint Stephen's Day), while two celebrate the start and end of the year (New Year's Eve and Day) and one is cultural (Labour Day). The last statutory federal holiday is Fighting Day, which commemorates the decision to refuse a separate peace during the Great War, and is considered the national day.
Sotirian holidays such as Epiphany and All Saint's Eve which are not recognised federally are nevertheless recognised and celebrated in every state, while other days on the Sotirian liturgical calendar such as All Saints' Day and Whit Sunday are celebrated in the majority of states. The only non-Sotirian religious holiday is Dhena Zebiu Nomo, a Badist celebration recognised only in the state of Kingsport, but in some states people of a non-Sotirian faith are entitled to a compensation day falling on other religious holidays, such as Chanukah, Diwali or Eid al-Fitr. Women's Day is celebrated in a number of states. A number of states also have days celebrating their regional identity or important local events, such as St Edward's Day in Swerdia and Emancipation Day in St Roberts and Fleming.
|New Year's Day||1 January|
|Labour Day||1 May|
|Fighting Day||5 November|
|Nativity Eve||24 December|
|Nativity Day||25 December|
|Saint Stephen's Day||26 December|
|New Year's Eve||31 December|
- "Estmerish National Census 2020". Government of Estmere. 11 June 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "Member states of the Community of Nations by size". Community of Nations Office for Statistics and Standardisation. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "Global surface water coverage". Community of Nations Office for Statistics and Standardisation. 31 October 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "What is Estmere's population?". populstat.com. 13 June 2023. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "2020 Global Economic Outlook - Eastern Euclea". Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
- "Global Economic Atlas, 2021/2022". International Trade Organisation. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "World Heritage". CONESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
- Beauvilliers, Georgie; Lindemann, Horace Tim; Resendes, Ivo (2020). "Land use in Eastern Euclea: Current situation and future perspectives". Sustainability.
- "National Meteorological Service". Retrieved March 13, 2023.
- "Campaigners call for the abolition of "not proven" verdict after "scandalous" acquittal". EBS News. 26 April 2023.
- ""My abuser saw as it as 'not guilty'" - a woman's heart-wrenching story of the "not proven" verdict". EBS News. 28 April 2023.
- "Government drafts not proven bill for tabling after Summer recess". EBS News. 22 July 2023.
- ""Not proven" abolished as bill to scrap the verdict passes through Parliament with large bipartisan majority". EBS News. 12 September 2023.
- Pavlova, Natalya; Marian, Jane (1997). "The bridge between two worlds - a new approach to Estmerish culture". Cultural Studies (44).
- Wiedenfeld, Jasmin (2007). The Culinary Crossroads: The Unique Position of Estmerish Cuisine. University of Morwall Press.
- Cameron, David (2017). "The path from Embrocentrism to trilingualism and beyond". Estmerish Studies (57).
- Hancock, John (2008). "Approaching post-war constitutional politics in Estmere". Politics (168).
- Beekhof, Henk (2003). "The changing religious landscape of Euclea". Comparative Religion (59).
- "The End of Obscenity: how Estmere in the 19th century allowed publishers to beat the censors". EBS News. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
- Marks, Charles (1988). "Bazin-Mordvinov and others: an exploration of Estmere's status as haven for literary dissidents". Journal of Literary History (22).
- "Estmere still seen as "centre" of Embrosphere and Estmerish-language culture". EBS News. 10 August 2016.
- "Nativity Traditions in Estmere". nativity-fan.com/estmere. Nativity Fan. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
- Boutet, Jérémie (1973). "Hearts and minds - a new approach to defining a superpower". Politics (99).
- "Estmere ranks fourth on our positive influence poll, behind Gaullica". EBS News. 3 July 2013.
- "Estmerish art (branch of Eastern art)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
- "World Heritage | The painted caves at Harfeld". CONESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
- "The Torc of Tamford". nationalhistoricgallery.org.es/artefacts/torc-of-tamford. National Historical Gallery. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
- Corrigan, Mark (2016). "Nysa and Nassey, a tale of two cities". That's All Ancient History Now (11).
- Touchard, Basile; Leroux, Max (2003). History of Art.
- "Wollaston Hoard (collection of Migration Period artefacts)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
- Brush, Basil (1998). A Chançun des Venqeours: The Conquest, Sotirianisation and Culture.
- "The Mandeville Tapestry". The Jacobean. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
- "The work of John Eckers". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Theophilus Bryn (Estmerish engraver)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- Rainer, Ryan (1911). "The Complete Paintings of Malster". Art History (7).
- "Mannerism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Amendist Baroque". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- Flynn, Alan (1962). Nazareth Delamere: A Master at Work.
- "Nazareth Delamere (Estmerish artist)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Neoclassicalism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Eleanor Schuyler (Estmerish artist)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Romanticism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Realism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Impressionism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Art Nouveau". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Fauvism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Manifesto of the Surrealists by Andrew Brockett". Estmerish National Archives. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
- "Surrealism". The Jacobean. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
- "Eli Hallam (Estmerish artist)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Abstract art". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Pop art". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "Contemporary art". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "2020 Review: The Estmerish artists redefining art in the modern age". Panorama. 19 January 2021.
- "History of our museum". The Jacobean. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "History of the National Historical Gallery". nationalhistoricgallery.org.es/history. National Historical Gallery. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- "About us". nmma.org.es/about_us. National Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
- ""A New Bahian Century" - Halivar and Asaselewan leadership sign deal, normalising relations and promising cooperation". EBS News. 24 September 2023.
- "World Heritage | The Boyleston Stones and other Euclean dolmens". CONESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- "Oppidum (Early Tenic construction)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- "Garden of the Ancients". Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- Cicerian, Mark Tully (1999). "Surviving examples of Piraeo-Solarian architecture". Solarian History (55).
- "Baths at Colne (Solarian construction)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- "Walls of Caister (Solarian construction)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- Finkel, Simon (2009). "The Sotirianisation and Remaking of Northern Euclea". Euclean Historic Review Now (107).
- Motte, Bailey (1990). Castles in Estmere: Verique Power Made Manifest.
- Welby, Justin (1967). A guide to Ashminster Cathedral (popularly known as Ashminster Abbey).
- Williams, Rowan (1977). "The architectural hisory of Estmerish cathedrals". Architecture (66).
- Welby, Justin (1969). A guide to Addington Cathedral.
- Hart, Harry (2001). "Half-timbered houses in Middle Ages Estmere". Architecture (90).
- Shepard, Jane (1999). "A history of Estmerish vernacular architecture". Architecture (88).
- O'Vinki, Leo (2018). "The architectural Renaissance in Estmere; arrival and splintering into Northern and Southern styles". Historic Architecture (17).
- Dumas, Evé (2011). Baroque.
- David, Keith (2017). Estmerish Baroque, or, Symmetricalism. University of Morwall Press.
- Bard, Donald; Simons, Michael; Urban, Raphael (2003). "Estmerish neoclassicalism and the rise of the Viridian style". Historic Architecture (2).
- "Morwall: City Guide". The Oyster. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- "World Heritage | The Gardins d'Ieau Aubèrteis and associated Estmerish water games". CONESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
- Caro, Robert; Moses, Robert (2020). "The rise of the suburbs and their impact on vernacular archiitecture". Historic Architecture (19).
- Hoover, Henry (2005). The new architectural movements of the Long Peace and Great Collapse era. University of Morwall Press.
- Phax, Hye (2019). "Modernist and postmodernist architecture in Estmere". Historic Architecture (18).
- "EBS Tower loses top spot in world, but remains tallest in Euclea". EBS News. 17 September 2006.
- Elton, John (2001). "Folk, jazz, rock and pop, oh my! A musical history of Estmere". The History of Music.
- Doré, Julien (1997). A Compendium of Euclean Folk Music.
- Handel, George Frederic (1961). The Classics: Pre-industrial Estmerish Music.
- Hilton, Samuel (2009). "Forgotten pioneers: the early Black contribution to Estmerish music". The History of Music.
- Simpson, Lisa (1996). L'histoire du jazz.
- Kroeger, Chad (2000). Rock On! The History of Rock.
- Powers, Austin (1995). Groovy, baby: Music of the 60s, 70s and 80s.
- "An Idiot's Guide to EDM". EDM World. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
- "No publisher, no problem: what is bedroom pop?". The Chartist. 12 June 2019.
- Swift, Taylor (2019). Control in the Music Industry.
- "Euclovision | About us". euclovision.tv/about. Euclovision Song Contest. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
- "Euclovision | History". euclovision.tv/history. Euclovision Song Contest. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
- "Euclovision 2022 Song Contest LIVE Results". ΠΡΤ ενα. 23 April 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
- @nico (23 April 2022). "omg!!! i'm blown away guys!!! every one liked my gay love song!!!!! thank you so much euclea!! love is love, trans rights are human rights". Chirper. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
- "Euclovision 2023 Song Contest LIVE Results". EBS One. 15 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
- "EBS in discussions with EBG to determine host for Euclovision 2024". EBS News. 22 April 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2023.
- "Dukebox Yearly shows Briony Hampton and Ella of the Roses among most streamed in the world". Panorama. 1 December 2022.
- "The rising stars using streaming services to sing to the masses". Panorama. 29 January 2023.
- Diggs, Daveed (2015). An Overview of Estmerish Theatre and Theatrical Music.
- "List of countries by revenue of music industry". datafreak.com/thedata/music-industry-by-country-2023. Data Freak. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
- "Estmerish Cinema". efa.org.es/articles/estmerish-cinema. Estmerish Film Association. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- "Estmerish Animation". efa.org.es/articles/estmerish-animation. Estmerish Film Association. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- "List of countries by number of films produced annually". datafreak.com/thedata/films-by-country-2023. Data Freak. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- "What are the Essies and why are they important?". EBS News. 26 June 2016.
- "The Belgrave Film Festival, An International Event". Belgrave Film Festival. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- Hitchcock, Alfred; Lean, David (2007). "The international film festivals and their roles in modern culture". Popular Culture (17).
- "The Harewood Garden Scene recieves official recognition as the world's first moving picture". EBS News. 28 September 2001.
- "What's What of Long Peace Cinema". long-peace-cinema.es/what. Long Peace Cinema. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- Chaplin, John (2019). "Silent Films in Estmere". Cinema History (26).
- Russell, John (2016). "Not A Drop To Drink and the satirisation of Estmerish prohibition". Cinema History (22).
- "What were the effects of Prohibition? (Estmerish history)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- Maxwell, John (2015). "The rise of the talkie, and what it tells us about Estmerish cinema". Cinema History (21).
- Le Prince, Louis (2005). The History of Estmerish Cinema.
- "Women in Animation: Ada White". efa.org.es/articles/women-in-animation/ada-white. Estmerish Film Association. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
- "One Thousand and One Nights, the first animated blockbuster". Panorama. 3 May 2015.
- Disney, Walter (1999). Into the Burrow: The Duhamel Story.
- Picardo, Fabian (1999). Depicting our Enemies.
- Plowright, Joan (2002). Estmerish Social Realism.
- "List of film regions by number of films produced annually". datafreak.com/thedata/films-by-region-2023. Data Freak. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- "Evreux film studios invest in new headquarters as the urban area's growth continues". EBS News. 7 March 2011.
- "Improv 101: St Avelines is the place to be if you like to say "yes, and"". PuffPiece. 4 May 2020.
- Diggs, Daveed (2017). A History of Estmerish Theatre.
- Chandler, Heather; McNamara, Heather; Duke, Heather (1998). "The origin and history of musical theatre". The History of Music.
- "Boulevard (street and district)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
- Sawyer, Veronica (2004). Welcome to Boulevard: Estmere's Theatrical Centre.
- Dean, Jason (2012). Not Just Boulevard - Theatre In The Country.
- "Campus theatre programmes to recieve "cash injection" to promote youth theatre". EBS News. 10 April 2017.
- Ramsay, Gordon (2000). Sugar, Spice and Everything Nice: A History. University of Morwall Press.
- Yadhavar, Amala (2004). Food for Thought: The Estmerish Dishes Owed to Immigrants. University of Morwall Press.
- Ramsay, Gordon; D'Acampo, Gino (2009). "Butter vs olive oil; the biggest divide in Euclean cuisines?". Culinary Review (53).
- Ramsay, Gordon; D'Acampo, Gino; Sirieix, Fred (2011). "The beer, wine and spirit belts". Culinary Review (56).
- "The Big Attitudes Survey | Food and eating habits". bas.org/reports/2019/food. The Big Attitudes Survey. 2 January 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "Daily meat consumption per person across the world". data-visualised.org/reports/meat-consumption-2020. Data Visualised. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- Yardley, Jane (1999). The Complete Estmerish Cookbook.
- "Report on the size and health of the Estmerish fast food industry, 2021". estmere.gov/ministry-of-agriculture/reports/2021-fast-food-industry. Ministry of Agriculture, Healthy Foods Commission. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- Yiff, Ari (2009). Dog Days: The Full and Unabridged History of the Top Dog Corporation.
- "List of the top restaurant chains by revenue and market share". business-stats.ga/data/list-of-restaurants. Business Statistics. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "Are Munchies, Ajeng's or Potage Cottage opening a new location in YOUR town?". PuffPiece. 19 September 2016.
- "Renou–Marchand Star Restaurants around the world". h5srg.com/estmere. The Handy 5 Star Restaurant Guide. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "Prohibition (Estmerish history)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "St Roberts and Fleming, a land of flavour". State Government of St Roberts and Fleming.
- "The top countries by coffee consumption". data-visualised.org/reports/coffee-consumption-2020. Data Visualised. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "The top countries by tea consumption". data-visualised.org/reports/tea-consumption-2020. Data Visualised. 4 January 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "The top countries by hot cocoa consumption". data-visualised.org/reports/hot-cocoa-consumption-2020. Data Visualised. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "Report on the size and health of the Estmerish confectionary industry, 2022". estmere.gov/ministry-of-agriculture/reports/2022-confectionary-industry. Ministry of Agriculture, Healthy Foods Commission. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- "List of the top confectionary companies by revenue and market share". business-stats.ga/data/list-of-confectionary-companies. Business Statistics. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- Park, Amelia; Sprouse, David (2009). The Big Book of Chocolate.
- "2023 Censorship Index". free-press-association.org/censorship-index/2023-report. Free Press Association. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- "Report on the situation and health of the Estmerish media landscape, 2021". estmere.gov/ministry-of-culture/reports/2021-media-landscape. Ministry of Culture, Media Commission. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- "2023 Press Freedom Index". free-press-association.org/press-freedom-index/2023-report. Free Press Association. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- "The National Languages, Their Rights and You". Ministry of Equality. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- Hoover, Henry (2009). Media Centres in Euclea.
- Panchovik, Amy; Coolidge, George (2015). "How Four Companies Came to Dominate Estmere's Media Landscape". Media Studies (99).
- "Duhamel tops the list of largest Estmerish multimedia companies, as it has done since the list began". Viewer's Breakdown. 2 January 2023.
- "About EBS – What is EBS?". EBS Online. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- "The number of radio stations in Estmere has plateaued, according to Ministry of Culture report". The Listener. 17 November 2017.
- "The broadcasting habits of the Euclean Community member states | CERO". www.euclo.parl.ec/cero/reports/2020-broadcasting-habits. CERO. 19 August 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
- ""The comet is coming for the dinosaurs" - will streaming kill traditional media?". EBS News. 1 September 2019.
- "National daily newspaper circulation October 2018". The Chartist. 2 November 2018.
- Carvalho, Yolanda; Pearl, Sotirian; Harris, Leslie (2016). "A comprehensive list of the national newspapers of record". New Media Review (22).
- "Estmerish magazines Panorama, Her, Exposé and The Pillory "renowned worldwide", report says". EBS News. 19 May 2016.
- "PuffPiece has shaken up the digital news landscape; and it's here to stay". Economic Review. 7 October 2014.
- "Fewer and fewer people rely on newspapers with young people moving to social media, study says". EBS News. 3 June 2017.
- "The bizarre story of how Duhamel and Hansel-Vernon acquired nearly 80% of regional newspapers". Economic Review. 13 September 2021.
- "Digital in Estmere: All the Statistics You Need in 2021". digital-insights.com/reports. Digital Insights. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
- "Popularity of International Domain Registrations, June 2023". esiro.es/international-domain-popularity. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
- "Registration Statistics, June 2023". esiro.es/registration-statistics. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
- "List of the top countries by video game revenues". puratel.es/market-data/by-revenue. Puratel Gaming Statistics. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
- "List of the top countries by video game market size". puratel.es/market-data/by-market-size. Puratel Gaming Statistics. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
- "Major video game companies announce record profits last year, as fears of strike grow". Joystick News. 16 September 2023.
- "For the "noobs", here's a guide to the world's largest gaming convention". EBS News. 19 August 2021.
- Dale, John; Yeats, Mary (2007). "The languages of Estmerish literature; from Embric to Verique to Estmerish to Swathish to Aldman". Journal of Literary History (77).
- Adain, Percival (1989). Chançun des Venqeours - A Modern Reprinting and Translation.
- Davids, Richard (1977). An Exploration of Our Epic, Chançun des Venqeours.
- Morgan, Colin; James, Bradley; McGrath, Katie (2002). "The chivalric romance and the impact it has had on early Estmerish literature". Journal of Medieval Literature (51).
- "Lawrence Fairworth (Estmerish dramatist)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
- Hathaway, Anne (1966). "A reevaluation of Lawrence Fairworth, the people's poet, long forgotten by literary elites". Journal of Literary History (17).
- "John Minster (Estmerish poet)". Encyclopædia Mundi Online. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
- Krummenacher, Atalja (1982). "The forgotten fairy Godmother of the fairy tale; Mary Anne Goodberry". Journal of Euclean Folklore (29).
- Carol, Lewis (1971). The Man of Myth: Charles Chanton.
- Krummenacher, Atalja (1989). "The enduring popularity of the fairy tales of Mary Anne Goodberry and Charles Chanton". Journal of Euclean Folklore (32).
- Cook, Emerson (1990). Estmerish Society and Culture During the Long Peace.
- Aldrin, Edwin Eugene (1974). From Automaton to Cyberspace: The True History of Science Fction.
- Flemming, Anton; Smith, Jack (2001). "The importance of Firstworld in establishing modern science fiction". Journal of Advanced Media Studies (17).
- Brown, James (1989). "The birthplace of genres: Estmerish literary history". Journal of Literary History (23).
- Brontë, Charlotte (1992). "The Darcy sisters; all as one, or each as individual?". Journal of Literary History (26).
- Dashwood, Elinor; Dashwood, Marianne (2002). The Life and Times of Clara Bell.
- Graham, Rob; Dashwood, Marianne (1998). Victor Maudling.
- "2020 Annual Report". internationalpublishers.com/reports. 19 November 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
- Wright, Harold; Harrington, Lisa (2009). A History of the Harbrough Book Fair.
- Glȯfer, Ṛoþbryht; Perrocer, Edmund (2019). The Swathish Literary Revival.
- Deaþiġe, Hermod (1887). Folk Tales of the Swathish People.
- Seamer, Johanne (1989). The University of Harbrough Guide to Philosophy.
- Dearne, Paul (1947). The Estmerish Realist School.
- Ochsner, Jürg (1959). A Collection of the Many Essays of Jürg Ochsner.
- Ochsner, Jürg (1922). The Cultural Dominance of the Ruling Elites.
- Addy, Mark (2011). Gods We Were Strong Then! A History of Sport in Estmere.
- @EBS_News (22 July 2022). "But what is Zadany?". Chirper. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- Hatrami, Giacomo; Ferris, Georgina (2015). "Not just football: other sports brought to Estmere". Journal of Sports History.
- Carlisle, Sam (2019). A History of Invictus.
- "Full breakdown of results for the 2022 Summer Invictus Games". Le Monde. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Who are we? | EFF". eff.es/about/us. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "What are the three leagues of Estmerish football? | EFF". eff.es/about/leagues. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Meet the Blacks | EFF". eff.es/theblacks. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Estmere wins the Coupe de Monde!". The Standard. 1 August 1983.
- "Meet the Black Widows | EFF". eff.es/theblackwidows. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "We Are Estmere. We Are the Estmerish Rugby Union | ERU". eru.es. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "We Are Estmere. We Are the Estmerish Men's National Rugby Team | ERU". eru.es/national_team. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "International Rugby Rankings". rwc.org/rankings-2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "The Blacks bring home the gold: Estmere wins the Rugby World Cup!". EBS News. 13 March 2005.
- "International Rugby Rankings". wrwc.org/rankings-2020. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
- "We Are Estmere. We Are the Estmerish Women's National Rugby Team | ERU". eru.es/womens_national_team. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Estmere Won, Satavia Nil!". The Standard. 19 March 1999.
- "The Blacks Widows win the Women's Rugby World Cup for Estmere!". EBS News. 1 April 2019.
- "Estmere wins bid to host the 2023 Women's Rugby World Cup". EBS News. 11 November 2017.
- @EBS_News (13 July 2022). "Who is Sarena Sutton?". Chirper. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
- Hinderiks, Pien (2021). "The rise of esports: a new challenger enters the professional sports arena". Journal of Sports History.
- "From nerdy society to Invictus competitors: the Morwall Magpies story". Tick, Tack, Tomahawk. 2 February 2023.
- @EBS_News (7 December 2022). "A disappointing first three games for the @MorwallMagpies at #Avatar2022". Chirper. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "The symbols of the Commonwealth of Estmere". Government of Estmere.
- "Government of Estmere National Style Guide". Government of Estmere.
- "National Anthem". Ministry of Culture.
- "National Hymn". Ministry of Culture.
- "The white rose and the white willow". National Horticultural Association.
- "Mother Estmere; Albannica Magna; Andrasta". Society of Chartered Historians.
- "The patron saint of Estmere". Government of Estmere.
- "The stag and the phoenix". Society of Chartered Historians.
- "Public holidays". Government of Estmere.
- "List of public holidays by state". Government of Estmere.
- "List of federal statutory holidays". Government of Estmere.
- "Official public holidays of the state of Kingsport". Office of the First Minister of Kingsport.
- "Which states allow for holiday swapping?". PuffPiece. 29 April 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
- "States and territories which have recognised International Women's Day". Community of Nations Social Council.
- "Statement: St Edward's Day made public holiday". Office of the First Minister of Swerdia.
- "Statutory holidays in St Roberts and Fleming". State Government of St Roberts and Fleming.
- "Types of elections and referendums". Government of Estmere.