The Maverican Wars (日南之役, njik-nem-tje-liak) are two conflicts between Themiclesia and various forces around the Halu'an Sea over rights to what is today Norfeld, Maverica. The first conflict occurred in 1768–69, seeing Maverican rebellion after egregrious misgovernment by Themiclesian authorities and colonists, and the second, 1791–96, which ended in Norfeld's exit from Themiclesia power and joining the Maverican Unions.
Themiclesian governance of Norfeld
In the 1400s, Themiclesia enjoyed a prolonged peace with the powerful Galvisti Empire, whose population and wealth then exceeded that of Themiclesia, in modern-day Maverica, backed by flourishing commerce cross the border. To prevent conflict, the two states agreed to a treaty of friendship that established a permanent border between them. Cadets of Ostlandic noble houses, who were disinherited in their native country, gradually came to led companies of men in search of a new territory in Hemithea and settled in the land between Themiclesia and the Galvisti Empire. In , the cadets led a rebellion against the Galvisti Empire; Themiclesia mobilized her forces to aid the Galvisti Empire to crush the rebellion. As a result, the Galvisti Empire offered condominium over the Ostlandic-settled areas and half of commercial revenues there collected to Themiclesia. Yet when the Ostlandic settlers rebelled again in , they forged a secret agreement with the Themiclesian court, that if Themiclesia refrained from deploying to assist the Galvist Empire, Norfeld would be ceded to Themiclesia in toto. To this the Themiclesians assented and watched as the Galvisti Empire succumbed to Ostlandic insurrection, gaining the other half of revenues collected in Norfeld immediately.
Across the Halu'an Sea, Themiclesia's colony of Camia grew restless over mouting military expenditure and the imposition of regular taxes to the metropole, both to be defrayed by the local populace. In 1678, a rebellion by a combination of Anglian and Themiclesian militias had barely been suppressed, by the Colonial Army, and in 1680 it was doubled in size in anticipation of intensifying Hallian aggression from both the north and west. Finally, in 1693, one half of the Colonial Army mutinied in sympathy with the local populace, beginning the Camian Rebellion (昭昌之亂) that led to its independence. Meanwhile, the other half of the Colonial Army and a significant number of counties and prominent clans remained loyal to Themiclesia. The war resulted in a stalemate roughly with the southern half of the colony in rebel hands and the northern half in the loyalists'. The rebels proceeded to declare a general boycott and exclusion of all Themiclesian merchant activity, which almost turned Camia into a revenue-negative area (previous to this, Camia remitted revenue towards Kien-k'ang). In 1703, the Themiclesian court, financing another war in Meridia, had no resources to reinforce the loyalists for a decisive victory and decided to concede with several conditions: Camia could not use the title of "emperor", impose duties on Themiclesian goods in transit, or bar Themiclesian civilians from entering and exiting its territories. The negotiators concurred in 1703.
The final condition proved a difficult one for both Camia and Themiclesia. Immediately after the war, the loyalist portion of the Colonial Army and a large amount of civilians petitioned the Themiclesian court to return to the metropole; though emotionally soothing for the Themiclesians, finding land to settle them proved a challenge. Thus, it was decided to settle the loyalists in the newly-acquired territory of Norfeld, which had been remitting taxes to Themiclesia but was otherwise not subject to Themiclesian administration. These 20 years of autonomous government would become a motive for Norfeld independence later. While the intentions of the Themiclesian government may not have been such, the loyalists interpreted that Norfeld, including anything and anyone on it, was granted for their enjoyment by court. This is reflected in literature from Camian Loyalists, asserting that Norfeld was a reward for their loyalty to the Themiclesia. The ties between the Camian Loyalists, who became a political faction in Themiclesia, and the Colonial Army were firm and bilateral, as Camia had become highly integrated into its military forces, to serve the metropolitan desire to stem Hallian and Tyrannian influence converging on what remained of Themiclesia's possessions in the continent. The Colonial Army therefore behaved both as a military and a government in Norfeld, using force to back the Loyalists' settlement and activity of every kind. Discriminatory policies were imposed against both Ostlandic and Gramuchan locals, against existing customs and, in many cases, Themiclesian law. Nevertheless, settlement continued, and by 1750 about 400,000 Loyalists lived in Norfeld.
First Maverican War
|First Maverican War|
|Part of Maverican Wars|
|Norfeld rebels and Camia||Themiclesia||Themiclesia|
|Commanders and leaders|
|John Doe||General Haw Mrei-mjuk||Admiral Yup Kih|
|Ostlandic and Gramuchan militias||Loyalist Colonial Army||Themiclesian Navy|
|c. 30,000||c. 14,000||178 ships|
Second Maverican War
|Second Maverican War|
|Part of Maverican Wars|
|Norfeld militias, Maverican states, and Camia||Themiclesia|
|Commanders and leaders|
Klaus Kreiger - NorfeldShaulk Kruger - Maverican Confederation
Colonial Army (Camia)
Themiclesian home militia|
c. 95,000 |
c. 142,000 |
As more than three quarters of the Themiclesian Navy had been burnt to the waterline by the Anglian Royal Navy, when the Second Maverican War broke out, Themiclesia could not blockade the Camians from sending troops to aid in the Mavericans' effort to expel the Themiclesian forces. The Camians built a navy and brought the Colonial Army and some militia units to reinforce the Mavericans. They proved formidable opponents for the unmotivated and fatigued Themiclesian home militia, who generally objected to be sent on expedition for an entire year. That landed gentry in the Themiclesian countryside pestered the government to return the militias for the 1792 harvest did not assist in the units' antipathy towards the war. On the other hand, the Themiclesian Marines, who had recently quadrupled in size with parts of the (nominally dissolved) Colonial Army augmenting, were assisting the naval shipyard, moving timbers and recovering artillery pieces that fell into the bay during the Raid on Rad. The Navy's policy was to rebuild itself as quickly and cheaply as possible, putting all available manpower to that end, when the Second Maverican War was a more urgent call on the public purse.
The Foreign Secretary decided to apply diplomatic pressure on Camia to withdraw its troops. In the absence of a functional navy, he commandeered merchant ships to transport the marines to Liang-la Island, for an invasion of Camia's coastal capital. The Navy Secretary protested that, with most of its usable hulls still lacking guns, a direct invasion would be precarious. The Naval Engineers, who were forging cannons for the home militia, were ordered to supply artillery pieces for the invasion. The War Secretary also protested vehemently but could not counter that if the Camians could be pressured to withdraw, the demand for artillery would fall significantly. Having received artillery pieces in March 1793, six regiments of marines (including four-and-a-half originally in the Colonial Army) were haphazardly transported to the Camian coast. During the ensuing battles, most of the ships were rendered unusable, engendering resentment amongst merchants in Themiclesia. The Colonial Army was particularly crass with their vessels, since they were not "theirs". The Camians were taken by surprise and could not repulse the invasion, resulting in a bloody but straightforward capture of Yen-k'ang and nearby fortifications.
During the course of the battle, the most motivated troops appeared to be the former units of the Colonial Army. The Loyalists harboured a deep hatred of Camia for seceding from Themiclesia and constantly petitioned the government for a campaign to retake it. For diplomatic reasons, Themiclesia did not permit this, since a completely hostile Camia was one allied with Anglia or Hallia. However, the Loyalists believed this was their opportunity to reconquer Camia. The Camian government, though incarcerated by the invaders, rejected their demands. In a heavily mythologized assault, grammar school students, aged 12 to 16, took their families' muskets, sabres, scythes, rakes, and shovels and charged a Themiclesian encampment. Though the manoeuvre disintegrated almost instantly, the mayor castigated the invasion in strong terms and exposed the Themiclesian plan to force their troops home and defeat them at a later time. Responding, the Camian public took up arms and challenge the invaders. The Camians were poised to convince the invaders that they will not recall their troops no matter the damanges done, that the invasion be worthless. While these irregular militias were handily defeated, the invasion failed to overcome their resolve, and the Themiclesians were called home in 1795 to assist in the defence of the southern border and the River Mrjing. The Camian Campaign was one where "the invaders have won all the battles but lost the war".
Defeat of the Capital Militia
To a large extent, popular opinion in Themiclesia about the Maverican War was tied to the performance of the Capital Militia. The Capital Militia was structurally like local militias, but, due to the multitude fortifications in the Inner Region, its members were on duty more frequently; for this they received some monetary compensation, though they were not a professional army in the modern sense. During the 18th century, the Capital Militia were preferred in that their funds were paid by the central government and thus more consistent and, marginally, more generous and that they often received newer weapons. This is not wholly out of favourtism or respect for their central position, but many manufactories were located in the Inner Region, and their products were, naturally, first distributed to the local militia. That they were overseen by a dedicated government minister also ensured they were less affected by abuse and corruption, though surviving records do not clarify exactly in what way. As they were almost never sent on expedition, unlike militias in border regions, Themiclesian literature have described them as the final line of defence for the central government; their victory or defeat would be a cogent signal whether Themiclesia had sufficient resource to win or lose the war.
- It is debated why Themiclesia did not impose stricter laws over settlement to ensure peace in the process. One view is that the Themiclesian court was concerned that the highly trained Colonial Army could mutiny again if they were not satisfactorily settled, and Themiclesia's home militia, having deteriorated for years, would not be an equal to them.