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States of the Aleram
Stat di Aleram (Oronese)
Coat of arms
Motto: Ad augusta per angusta
(English: "To great things through narrow paths")
|Recognised languages||Arday, Arzvan, Carnian|
|Demonym(s)||Auronian (oronés/a) |
|Government||Federal directorial constitutional monarchy|
|7 June 1262|
• Kingdom status
|19 March 1758|
|1 September 1901|
|223,326 km2 (86,227 sq mi) (?)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
|204.12/km2 (528.7/sq mi) (?)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$1.858 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$1.821 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 26.8|
low · ?
|HDI (2017)|| 0.901|
very high · ?
|Currency||Aleramic lira (ALR)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||AM|
Aleramia (Oronese: Aleramia, [aleˈrɑːmja]), officially the States of the Aleram (Oronese: Stat di Aleram, [stɑːt di aleˈrãː]) is a sovereign state located in Western Asura. It is bordered to the north by Vvarden and Arzvan and to the south and east by Ardaima. The country borders the Opal Ocean to the west. The country covers a land area of 423,030 km2 (163,330 sq mi) with an estimated population as of 2018 of more than 45.5 million, who concentrate in the country's xx plain. The country's largest city is Cals and the capital city is Mortara. Other significant cities include Ivrea, Lòbi and Samarà.
Aleramia is a federal directorial constitutional monarchy. It is divided into 14 sovereign provinces (provincia, provincc in plural) while the country's federal government and its royal family seats in Mortara. The country's official language is Oronese, Arday, Arzvan are recognised languages at the provincial level. Carnian is the official language in the province of Cjargna (Carnia in Oronese).
The House of Aleram is the longest-reigning royal house in Asura and among the oldest in Aeia, dating back to Midrasian nobleman Aleram, Count of Altipian (d. 929). The territory of modern-day Aleramia was inhabited by !Celtic peoples until the Fiorentine conquest of the territory in the 1st century BCE. The ensuing Fiorentinisation of the province of Aurona changed the cultural and linguistic landscape of the territory, with the advent of Fiorentine as the lingua franca replacing a variety of !Celtic languages. After the fall of the Fiorentine Empire, the territory split along various petty kingdoms dominated by Fiorentine noblemen, until the conquest by the ?. The ? Kingdom would exist from 600 CE to about the year 1060 CE as royal authority was weakened to the advantage of the renascent cities. During the Alydian Wars, Aleram, Count of Altipian was named Count of Altipian by the Primate xx, and tasked with putting an end to the ? heresy in Tremezzina. Aleram and his descendants would establish their court in easternmost Aleramia and over the centuries proceeded to consolidate their authority and expand its territories westwards leading to the signing of the Union of Cortnoeua (1262).
The expansionistic policy of the Aleram and the weakening conflicts caused by the rivalries between the cities of Cals, Luni, Alba and the lords of Alta Langa gradually permitted dukes William XVII, William XVIII, Rainier III and particularly Conrad V to gain suzerainty over the entirety of modern-day Aleramia, and centralise power. Aleramia began its industrialisation in the mid-19th century, propelled by its specialised capitalist agriculture and textile industry and its favourable location. The country participated in the Great War, leading to social instability that culminated in the arengo of 1901, after which universal suffrage was introduced.
Today, Aleramia is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has very high standards of living, quality of life, healthcare, education, and is categorised as "very high" in the Human Development Index. The country has a multi-party political system ranked as "free" by the Aeian Freedom Index.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
'Aleramia' is named after the House of Aleram, the reigning royal house of the country since the late 10th century CE. The name of the house is patronymic. It derives from the name of the first head of the house and first Count of Altipian, Aleram, a Midrasian nobleman born in xx. Aleram, or Alérame in Midrasian is a name of Alemannic origin although the etymology remains unclear. The most commonly-held theory is that 'Alérame' is formed by two particles. The first, that is derived from Adel ('noble' in proto-Alemmanic) and Hraban ('raven' in Proto-Alemmanic), a reference to the bird of Wuotan, the supreme deity in Alemannic mythology. The modern name Aleram in Oronese's neighbouring Fiorentine languages, Midrasian Arday all have different versions of the name, Alérame and Aleramo respectively.
The term 'Orona' instead has a Fiorentine origin. 'Orona', or rarely 'Oronia', comes from the Fiorentine word for the province that occupies most of modern-day Aleramia, 'Aurona'. The term Orona may ultimately be tied to the !Celtic root 'OL-', meaning 'large' in reference to the Orona River, the most important waterway in Aleramia.
19th and 20th centuries
The States of the Aleram is the xxth largest country in Asura and the xxth largest country in Aeia with a total area of 223,326 km2 (86,226 square miles), of which 9,903 km2 (3,823.5 sq mi) is water. The country lies between the xx and xx latitutes. Aleramia shares a land border with, clockwise, Vvarden, the Arzvan Republic and Ardaima. It borders to the south and west the Opal Ocean. The highest peak in Aleramia is the Piz Palù, with an estimated altitude of 3,168 meters (10,394 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is in the village of Fontanegorda (Tigullio) with an altitude of -3.5 meters.
Including Galinara, Palmaria and other small islands, Aleramia has a coastline spanning 3,675 kilometres (2283.5 miles) along the Opal Ocean from the border with Ardaima in the south to the border with Vvarden to the north. The border with Ardaima spans for 1,227 kilometres (762.4 mi), with Vvarden 1,561 km (969.9 mi) and 1,070 km (664.8 mi) with the Arzvan Republic.
The country's borders are largely coterminuous with the Orona River watershed. The borders with the Arzvan Republic and Ardaime are largely mountainous, and are delineated by the Dan and Sexrò mountains. The majority of the country is a fluvial valley. Around the edges of the fluvial plain, there are upper drier parts (anticline) that forms a hilly country that extends into the the hilly massif in the eastern part of the country from where the Orona originates. The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size: the Ider (3,801 km2 or 1,468 sq mi), Sebì (589 km2 or 227.4 sq mi), Olginà (574 km2 or 221.6 sq mi), Mezzoeula (463 km2 or 178.8 sq mi) and Segrin (98 km2 or 37.9 sq mi). A small section of Lake Pusian (2,848 km2 or 1,099 sq mi) is located in Aleramia, although most of its body of water is in Vvarden.
The sediment-rich valley of the Orona River (known as la Basa in Oronese) has been extensively settled and exploited since before Fiorentine times, although following the collapse of the Fiorentine Empire, large sections of the valley became swamp basins that would be progressively reclaimed between the 14th and 18th centuries CE. Canals and drainage systems are still active and allow the Orona Valley to be drained and be cultivable.
The climate of Aleramis is diverse owing to the country's variety and height differences between regions. The coastal areas along the Opean oceanic coast and in the valley surrounding the Lake Pusian generally fit the Mediterranean climate stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa) with dry and hot summers and mild and rainy winters. Further inland, the weather transitions towards a typically humid subtropical climate (Cfa) characterised by the existence of four seasons and marked by hot and wet summers with moderately cold winters and high precipitations all-year round.
In the massif relief characteristic of Roe, Garbagnes or Cjargna at a higher altitude, the weather resembles the Oceanic type, with milder temperatures all-year round and intense precipitations. In the Dan Mountains, as altitude increases, climate changes. In areas like Cerentin at about 1,200 meters above sea level, the weather is humid continental (Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers, as altitude increases in the Dan mountainous valleys like Bidre (1600-1800 meters), the weather transitions to a cold continental one (Dfc) with cool summers and very cold winters. Above the tree line at the areas of the highest altitude, a tundra-like climate (ET) can be found.
The quasi-enclosed nature of the Orona Valley combined with the high degree of urbanisation and industrialisation of the area makes it prone to high levels of atmospheric pollution in winter in the form of smog as a result of temperature inversion, trapping air pollution close to the ground.
Aleramia is a federal directorial constitutional monarchy and it is often described as a consociational state. The country's political system is enshrined in its uncodified constitution, known as the Constitutional Laws (Legg costituzional). There are nine fundamental laws organising the political system, the oldest of which dates back to 1459. The most recent amendnment to the constitutional laws took place in 2015, introducing absolute primogeniture in the orden of succession.
The three branches of government are independent of one another and act as a check on each other. The executive branch is formed by the Monarch and the Council of State; the legislative by the two chambers of the Legislative Assembly and the judicial branch is formed by a series of tribunals presided by the Constitutional Court and the Senad. Some constitutional scholars consider some constitutionally-recognised bodies like the National Bank or the National Comptroller Office as a fourth branch of government.
The States of the Aleram feature a multi-party system where power is shared and coalitions are the norm, there has been no majority government since the introduction of proportional representation in 1905. The political system is characterised by its directorial system, a variant of parliamentarism where the head of government is a collegial body instead of an individual. This system of power-sharing extends to the provincial and local level, where most provinces and municipalities have varying types of collegial executives.
The Monarch is the head of state, currently William XXIII, whose reign began in 2014 following the death of King Ferdinand III. The monarch's duties are mostly ceremonial, he acts as the nominal commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces, opens the parliamentary sessions or nominates judges on the advice of the Council of State. The King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs and to name the baliv in some of the country's provinces.
The executive branch is formed by the Council of State (Oronese: Consili de Stat). It is a collegial body of twelve members elected in a joint seating of the Legislative Assembly elected from three different groupings. The Council of State is elected for five-year terms at the beginning of each legislature. The Council of State has a Chairman (President), elected by the Legislative Assembly every six months, on 1 April. The Chairman's role is largely representative with no additional powers, serving as a primus inter pares. The current Chairman is Matté Ornagh.
The Legislative Assembly (Oronese: Assemblea Legislativa) is the bicameral legislature of Aleramia and is formed by both a lower house, the Grand Council (Gran Consili) and the upper house, the Delegated Council (Consili delegà or Delegazion). The Grand Council is formed by 351 directly-elected members under a system of proportional representation every five years. The Delegazion is formed by 84 members (6 per province) who are elected under a system determined by each province. Both houses have identical powers and for a bill to pass it needs to receive the approval of both houses on an identical text. Bills typically originate from the Grand Council. The Presidents of the Grand Council and the Delegated Council are Martina Gori and Filipp Bordon, respectively.
The modern multi-party system came into existence following the introduction of democratic reforms in the aftermath of the Calsiana Uprising. In the early 20th century the four main ideological families organised into the liberal Democratic Radical Party, the social democratic Socialist Party, the agrarian Peasants' Party and the Alydian democratic Conservative Party, now a constituent member of the Federation of People's Parties. During the 1950s, the Radical party split when the social liberal wing formed the Progressive Party. The Green movement of the 1980s gave birth to the Green Party. All major parties cooperate at the federal level and are represented in the Council of State. The two minor parties, the democratic socialist Communist Party and the national conservative National Union are excluded from executive power.
The Uronian federal civil service is notorious for its independence from politics. Although the twelve Councillors of State are each assigned a portfolio corresponding to a Department of the federal administration, they are not individually responsible for the work of the agencies under each department's umbrella. The Government agencies are instead ostensibly autonomous, as councillors of State are barred from interfering with agency matters, including the application of laws. Heads of agencies do not respond to the councillors of State, but instead to the whole Council of State collectively as well as to their respective legislative committees.
The Aleramic judiciary is independent from the other two branches of government. The legal system is based on a particular variant of ius commune, known as Diritt oronés, that merges Fiorentine law with legal concepts taken from customary law, employing precedent to a much larger extent than other jurisdictions. Aleramia is considered a Rechtsstaat, as the State is compelled to act justly in accordance to its own rules.
At the federal level, the legal system is divided into civil law, criminal law, administrative law and constitutional law. Unlike the others, however, civil law can vary significantly between the various provinces and the powers of federal courts are limited. Criminal, administrative and civil law matters are handled in last instance by the Senad, the supreme court for these areas of law. The Constitutional Court (Tribunal costituzional) is instead tasked with examining whether the law was correctly applied in a contested decision, ensuring the uniform application of federal law throughout the country. The judges of the Senad are appointed on the basis of seniority from the lower federal courts, whereas the Constitutional Court is formed by 14 members named by the Monarch based on the advice of the Council of State, and 7 members elected by judges, usually retired 'Senad' justices. The judges of both courts are appointed for a single 25-year term.
Law enforcement is largely a provincial competence, with each of the 14 provinces operating their own provincial police and with some larger cities also operating their own municipal police. The federal government provides specialised services and is responsible for the protection of the Aleramic border. All 14 provinces are a party to a 1998 police cooperation agreement overseen by the federal government to guarantee effective policing across province boundaries. The National Police Office (Biró Nacional de Polizia) coordinates international operations and may request provincial police support for criminal investigations conducted under federal jurisdiction (like organised crime, money laundering and terrorism) or undertake them directly through the National Criminal Police (Polizia giudiziaria nazionala). The Border Guard Corps (Guardì de Confin) acts as both the border guard and customs service of the country.
The States of the Aleram is formed by 14 provinces. The provinces are federated states, have a permanent constitutional status and a high degree of independence, with all matters not specifically reserved to the federal state in the hands of the provinces. All 14 provinces are equal in status, with an equal representation of six seats in the upper house. Each province has its own constitution, and its own parliament, government, legal system, police, courts as well as its own internal organisation. The provinces are also responsible for healthcare, wefare, public education and taxation and also have the ability to conclude treaties with one another as well as foreign states.
The foreign relations of Aleramia is the responsibility of the Department of Foreign Affairs (Oronese: Dipartiment di Afari Ester), chaired by Sandrina Franscitt since 2005. Foreign policy in Aleramia is a federal responsibility albeit the provinces play a role in foreign policy as well, they have the power to enter into agreements with foreign parties and are regularly consulted by the Department on key policy issues.
Aleramia's foreign policy is notorious for its advocacy of multilateralism globally and regional integration in Asura. As a net exporter of goods and services, the Aleramic foreign policy promotes free trade and a reduction of non-tariff barriers to trade within Asura. The country is a member of the xx, the xx, the WECO and a founding member of the AEA. Aleramia's foreign policy seeks to promote the strengthening of international organisations such as the xx and the xx. Since the early 2000s, the country has advocated global solutions for climate change and has hosted a series of conferences like the 2013 Mortara ecoConference. The country is also a major donor of development aid, donating $13.76 billion, or roughly 0.74% of its GNI as of 2018.
Historically, the foreign policy of Aleramia has been governed by its close relationship to Midrasia, Lhaeraidd and Ardaima. All four countries participated in the Great War as members of the Grand Alliance. The country is also an observer in the Mydramonde. Relationships with neighbouring Vvarden are also good.
CDN membership stuff
The Armed Forces of the States (Oronese: Forz Armà di Stat) are collectively formed by its three branches; the Army, Navy and Air Force (Aeronautica). The Armed Forces are nominally commanded by the Monarch, William XXIII who acts as their commander-in-chief. In practice however, the military is under civilian control, and it is led by Rafaell Oliver, who has served as Head of the Department of Defence since 2010. Aleramia has had a professional military since 1985 when conscription was abolished during peacetime. Currently, Aleramia allocates 1.7% of its GDP to defence and its military has 321,886 active troops and support personnel.
The Army (Esercit) is the land-based branch of the country's military. It is both largest and the oldest branch of the military, claiming a direct link to the first permanent army created by William XVIII in 1456, the miliziott. The Esercit numbers 187,112 active troops as of 2013 as well as fielding over 500 main battle tanks. The Navy (Marina) is a green-water navy formed by 59,967 active personnel with 62 commissioned ships and 95 aircraft as of 2013. The Air Force (Aeronautica) is the smallest of all three branches of the military. It was created as an independent branch in 1937 and today, it has a strength of 74,838 active personnel and operates 448 aircraft, including several types of advanced multirole fighters like the xx and the xx.
The Aleramic Armed Forces are primarily tasked with the defence of the national territory with a limited capacity for power projection according to a 2014 report by xx. In recent years they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations. The Aleramic Armed Forces also participate in joint military exercises with the militaries of xx members, although the country's military has not been engaged in an open conflict since the xx in 1927.
The States of the Aleram have a developed mixed economy classified as a high-income economy. In 2018, the country was ranked 8th in Asura and xth in the world in terms of gross domestic product (PPP) per capita and 5th in Asura and xth in the world in terms of gross domestic product (PPP). The Oronese economy stands out as the one of the most free in the word and in the top five of Asura's economies according to the xx. It also ranks highly in terms of competitiveness and of innovation, ranking as the xth most innovative economy in Asura. The country is a net exporter, with a diversified and highly-competitive agricultural sector, one of Asura's largest financial and banking sector and a large export-oriented manufacturing sector dominated by small-to-medium-sized companies characterised by their physical grouping into industrial clusters.
The Oronese labour force is highly-skilled, with the world's xth largest share of workers in possession of a tertiary degree in the world and one of the highest levels of labour productivity in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per hour worked. With an estimated Gini of 26.9, the country has the third-lowest income inequality in Asura. Aleramia lacks a minimum wage legislation, instead, wage floors are negotiated between trade unions and the employers' associations. The de facto minimum wage is estimated to be at around $16 an hour, excluding pension benefits. Union density is very high, at 71% of the workforce as of 2017. The high ratio of unionised workers is attributed to the so-called Lofthus system whereby unions distribute unemployment insurance funds among other welfare benefits.
Originally an agricultural country, beginning the late 19th century, the country began to industrialise on the back of the textile industry. Since then the country has expanded and diversified its industrial base and service sector, transitioning to a post-industrial economy during the 1970s and 1980s. In 2017, the service sector accounted for 70% of the country's GDP, industry 28% and agriculture about 2%.
There are significant differences in terms of wealth (GDP per capita) between the various provinces. The wealthiest province, Umlena's GRP per capita at $50,013 nearly doubles that of the poorest province, Cjargna, with a GRP of $26,322. The main economic hub of the country is the Calsiana-Umlena megalopolis (Cals, Mortara, Pumenangh and Rozzan), which produces nearly a third of the country's gross domestic product. Other major economic areas are the Ivrea metropolitan area in Alta Langa, a major centre for high-tech manufacturing and R&D activities thanks to firms like Rambaud and other start-ups; and the port of Luni (Tigullio), the largest port in western Asura behind xx in terms of bulk shipping.
In 2018, the country's key trading partners were Midrasia, Ardaima, Vvarden, Fearnafearann, xx and xx. Aleramia is one of Aeia's top 10 exporting countries. The four largest industrial sectors are tourism, services, automotive and foodstuffs. Other major sectors of the country's economy include chemicals, machinery and metallurgy, electrical goods and electronics. Although the most of the country's industrial production is carried out by small and medium-sized enterprises, major Oronese multinational companies include Rambaud (electronics), Credit General, BCP Group, CSC and the AT Group (financial services), xx (automotive), xx and xx (electronic machinery), xx and xx (chemical industry) or xx (software development).
The country's current unemployment rate in 2018 stood at 3.3%, nearing full employment and the lowest number since 2007. The workforce participation rate is Asura's fourth-highest, at 73.8%. The inflation rate as of 2018 was 2.4%. The national currency, the Aleramic 'lira (lira aleramica) is managed by the Royal States' Bank (Banca Real di Statt), the country's central bank.
Commercial agriculture in Aleramia can be traced back to the early 18th century in the
Aleramia had an estimated population of 45,586,304 inhabitants in 2018, making it the 24th most-populated country in Aeia and sixth in Asura. In 2018, the population density stood at 204.1 inhabitants per km2 (528.7 per square mile), a relatively high figure and the 3rd highest in Asura. The population is very unevenly distributed, it is concentrated in the Orona plain and across the Opal coast in the Aleramic Riviera. Instead, the eastern part of the country is sparsedly populated. As a result, population density varies from xx inhabitants per km2 in Calsiana to xx inhabitants per km2 in Cjargna.
The country's life expectancy at birth stood at 82.8 years (80.5 years for males and 84.9 years for females), the xxth highest in Aeia. Aleramia experienced great demographic growth during the second half of the 19th century and until the 1950s with the exception of the First Great War period coinciding with industrialisation and the country's prolonged demographic transition, characterised by high fertility and birth rates. In 1884, TFR stood at 5.84 children per woman. Since the 1970s, fertility decreased to 1.36 children per woman in 1994, a historical minimum. Today, the growth rate has rebounded, to the present TFR 1.78 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1.
There are four groups that are recognised as "national minorities" as a result of their long-established presence in the country. These are the Arzvan-speaking Arzvanis (about 67,000) in north-western Roe; the Ardaimans along the border with Ardaima (around 175,000), Carnian-speaking Carnians in Cjargna and Roe (1.97 million) and the Doma throughout the country.
Largest cities or towns in Aleramia
Oronese is the official language of Aleramia's federal government and that of 13 out of its 14 provinces. In Cjargna (Carnia in Oronese), Carnian is the official language instead. Oronese is the language spoken by 41.7 million people (91.62% of the population), a vast majority of the speakers. The second most-spoken language in the country is Carnian spoken by 1.9 million people across the country, and particularly in the province of Carnia where 86% of the speakers live and where the language is used in government, the press and in education. The other two recognised languages are Arzvan and Arday. Arzvan is recognised in the province of Roe, where there are over 67,000 speakers (3% of the population). Arday speakers constitute over 176,000 people, spread across Tremezzina, Lemine, Cjargna and Garbagnes, the four provinces that recognise the language.
Standard Oronese is a member of the Fiorentine language family, closely related to neighbouring languages like Arday, Vvardese and Mydrasian. Oronese and Arday constituted a perfect dialect continuum until the mid-19th century as mass education and mass media have reduced mutual intelligiblity although it remains high in border-area dialects. Standard Oronese (based off the Cals dialect) and Standard Arday (based off ? dialect) have a much lower oral intelligibility.
Oronese is noted for its large variety of dialects, some featuring limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard Oronese, particularly in Tigullio. Dialects vary geographically significantly as a result of the country's decentralised structure, but they are typically divided into four broad groups: Tigullian, Langhese (spoken in Altipian, Roe, Alta and Basa Langa), Upper Oronese and Lower Oronese. Dialects are frequently used in domestic settings and influence regional Oronese, the regional variations of Standard Oronese, itself largely drawn from the Upper Oronese dialect.
Foreign language learning, typically Midrasian, is mandatory throughout all primary and secondary education, one additional modern foreign language is mandatory during the first two years of secondary education. Midrasian is reportedly spoken by 75% of the total population, 60% are able to converse in Aday, and 13% in Mawraidh.
The Aleramic States have no official state religion at the federal level, however the majority of the provinces (with the exception of Calsiana, Roe and Cjargna) recognise the Orthodox Alydian Church as their official church. In these provinces, the Orthodox Church, and also the Gianavellism in Roe and Cjargna, are financed by taxation of the religious adherents.
Alydianism is the professed religion of over 33 million Uronians, or 73.02% of the country's population. Over 31.9 million (or 70.02%) identify as members of the Orthodox Church (or GAOPA, Gesa Alidiana Ortodossa in di Provincc Aleramiche). The Gianavellists (i Gianavellist, named after founder Gasper Giavanell), a small, ascetic proto-Puritan group, represents 2.33% of the overall population, largely concentrated in the provinces of Roe and Cjargna, where they add up to 21.1% and 17.2% of the respective provincial population. Gianavellism represent a majority only in the valleys of the Dan and Sexrò mountains. About 0.7% of the country's population identifies as 'Other Alydian', living primarily in urban areas, and are largely the result of the presence of foreign-born population. Despite the majoritarian identification with Alydianism religious observance is generally low. Only about 13% of the population declares to attend the services weekly, although the distribution is unequal, with much heavier attendance rates in the western provinces, particularly Altipian and Basa Langa.
The percentage of the country's population to profess a faith other than Alydianism is 4.71% (slight over 2.1 million people) and is largely concentrated in the coastal provinces and in Calsiana as a result of immigration.
Over 10 million people in the Aleramic States declade to be unaffiliated (atheists, agnostics, etc.) to any religious denomination, representing 22.28% of the country's population. Unaffiliated people are concentrated in the Calsiana conurbation, as they represent 39.3% of the population of Calsiana and 27.2% of Umlena's population. The number of unaffiliated people has been markedly on the rise since the late 1980s.
Education is a provincial responsibility and as such, the Aleramic education system varies considerably between the province. In most provinces, education is compulsory for 12 to 13 years, usually from the 5 to 16 years of age. Although varying, education is typically organised in three stages, primary education (scoeula primaria), lower secondary education (scoeula media) and upper secondary education (liceo or istitut), although some provinces like Cjargna and Tigullio merge lower and upper secondary education into a single level. Primary education lasts from ages 6 to 12 in all but one province. Although non-compulsory in most provinces, nursery schools are free and run by the provinces from ages 2 or 3 to 5.
Depending on the province, secondary education is either integrated or it separates students into three streams depending on performance and oriented towards different professional tracks. Where students are separated, the three streams largely correspond to preparing for university (scoeula media and liceo), advanced vocational training (scoeula media and istitut tecnic) or the istitut profesional, which focuses on teaching a practical trade. Vocational education is based on a cooperation of private business offering educational job-positions and public schools offering obligatory school-lessons complementary to the on-the-job education.
Tertiary education, whether in academic universities (Università) or universities of applied sciences (Scoeula superiora) starts at age 19. About 30% of all secondary schools students attend university after successfully passing the maturità exams. Aleramia is home to 57 public universities, of which 50 are run at the provincial level and 7 by the federal government, including the College of Saint William, ranked among the world's best universities in 2016. The University of Tortona and University of Rozzan, founded in 1298 and 1304 respectively, rank among the oldest universities in the world. University education is divided between four-year long bachelor's degrees and two-year long master's degrees. Doctoral studies usually last for four years and are only offered by academic universities. In 2014, 38% of the country's population held a tertiary degree, while 1.7% of the country's population had attained a doctoral degree, the xth largest proportion in Asura.
Healthcare spending in Aleramia accounts for 10.4% of the GDP, comparable to that of other developed countries. This number is however expected to grow due to population ageing. The life expectancy at birth stood at 82.8 years, 80.5 for males and 84.9 for females, ranking xth highest in Aleia.
Aleramia has a universal health care system where health care is provided in a mixed public-private system to all citizens. Aleramic citizens and permanent residents are covered by the Cassa Malattie Publica, the national health insurance. The CMP is organised on a provincial basis and partially or reimburses the expenses of medical treatments and family doctors, depending on the province and on the income of the patients. Prescription drugs are generally subsidised, requiring only a copay in certain instances.
Although coverage is paid for by the state, hospitals, family doctors as well as pharmacies are run privately, albeit in a very regulated market. As a result, private citizens also have the option to acquire private insurances that usually grant a quicker access to doctors and particularly specialists. About 28% of all Aleramians are covered by their own private insurance scheme.