Alexandra I of the United Kingdom
|Reign||October 13, 2017 - present|
|Coronation||December 17, 2017|
|Heir presumptive||Richard, Duke of Cleveland|
|Prime Ministers||Theresa May|
|Born||Alexandra Katharine Märtha Lauren Elizabeth Francis Albert William Hanover|
11 May 1996
St Mary's Hospital, London
|Partner(s)||Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum|
(2013 - 2017)
Mohammed bin Salman
(2017 - 2018)
Rianne Van Rompaey
(2019 - Present)
|Mother||Märtha Louise of Norway|
|Years of service||2015-2017 (active service)|
Hans Majestet Kongens Garde (NA)
|Battles/wars||Operation Freedom's Sentinel|
|Full name||Alexandra Katharine Märtha Lauren Elizabeth Francis Albert William Hanover|
|Date of birth||11 May 1996|
|Place of birth||St Mary's Hospital, London|
|Height||1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)|
|2010 - 2013||Manchester United|
|2013 - 2014||University at Albany||15||(4)|
Alexandra (Alexandra Katharine Märtha Lauren Elizabeth Francis Albert William Hanover; born 11 May 1996) is Queen of the British. Having ascended to the throne following the voluntary abdication of her father, William VI, she became the third British queen regnant after queens Anne and Victoria. As Queen of the British, she is the official head of state of approximately seventeen independent nations. Additionally, she is also the first female British royal to ever receive the title of Princess of the Welsh in her own right, following the change in the succession laws which confirmed her as an heir apparent rather than as an heir presumptive.
The eldest child of King William VI and Queen Märtha Louise, she was an avid footballer in her youth, having primarily played for Manchester United for a span of four years in total. Then, a couple of years prior to her ascension to the throne, Alexandra enlisted in the British Army, before later becoming a service member of the elite Parachute Regiment unit, and also its first female service member. In her capacity as a service member of the British Armed Forces, she mostly served alongside her fellow servicemen and servicewomen against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Since ascending to the throne, Alexandra's reign has been marked with a series of controversies, which primarily revolved around the Jamal Khashoggi assassination in October 2018, which saw her personal reputation plummet considerably due to her personal ties with the notorious Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, her general and outspoken support for the Jewish community in Britain and abroad, along with issues concerning physical health and inter-religious dialogues have helped established a generally large amount of support for her reign, whilst also increasing her personal popularity.
To date, she is the second British monarch to be of Jewish descent after her father, King William VI, resulting in her being referred to as "the female Benjamin Disraeli", in a reference to the 19th-century British Jewish Prime Minister. At the same time, she is also the first British monarch to offiically be of the LGBT demographic, marked by her current relationship with Dutch fashion model, Rianne Van Rompaey.
- 1 Early Life
- 2 Princess of the Welsh
- 3 Queen of the British
- 4 Personal Life
- 5 Titles & Honours
- 6 Honours
- 7 Ancestry
Alexandra was born on May 11th 1996 during the reign of her grandfather, King Charles III. Her father was William, Prince of the Welsh while her mother, Princess Märtha Louise was a Princess of Norway of the House of Glücksburg. Upon baptism, she was named Alexandra Katharine Märtha Lauren Elizabeth Francis Albert William Hanover, with her given name, meaning "defender of men", first signifying her future role as queen regnant, while her subsequent middle names, in no particular order, paying tributes to the English ruler, Queen Elizabeth, the American actress, Katharine Hepburn, a close friend and later relative of her paternal grandparents, her paternal grandmother, Queen Lauren, the late American actor and singer, Frank Sinatra, also a close friend of her grandparents, and lastly, her own parents, the later King William VI and Princess Märtha Louise of Norway. Furthermore, her godparents consisted of the King and Queen of Norway, Queen Ingrid of Denmark, her son, the reigning King of Denmark, and the American actress, Katharine Hepburn. For the first six years of her life, after an initial debate over whether she was to be placed under the care of her grandmother, whom was somewhat against the employment of governesses, or rather under a governess appointed by the royal family itself, the latter option was eventually settled upon as to accommodate for her parents' busyness, and her own grandmother's advanced age herself, although the latter did retain some degree of involvement in the young princess's upbringing.
At the same time, until she was around seven years old, Alexandra also closely lived with the then already retired American actress, Katharine Hepburn whom, by the royal family's own invitation, had prior chose to take up residence in Buckingham Palace itself, as opposed to further alternating between her own family home in the United States and the royal residences in the United Kingdom. Thus, during much of those years, Alexandra, as to distinguish the actress from her similarly named niece, Katharine Houghton, an actress whom is the princess's aunt by marriage to her uncle, and her own similarly named paternal aunt, the Princess Royal, she would often refer to the much older actress as Grandmother Kate, in alluding to her more advanced age compared to the other two Catherine's, while both Houghton and the Princess Royal are more appropriately and simply referred to as Aunt Kate themselves respectively.
Unlike most of her predecessors, Alexandra was subsequently exposed to a more public form of education, as she was first enrolled into the Primrose Hill Primary School in London for her primary education, before furthering her secondary education at the Regent High School. Generally, the princess was described as being a "shy, yet a complimentary moderate achiever" by her educators. Concurrently, at the age of three, upon being confirmed as heir apparent to her father through an Act of Parliament, an infant Alexandra was promptly created Duchess of Cornwall, becoming the first female royal to ever hold the title in her own right. Just a month later, with overwhelming support from both the British public and government, she was historically created Princess of Wales, a title she also held for the first time in her own right as a female royal in British history. Prior to her creation as Princess of the Welsh, the title has been traditionally held by male royals only, due to the succession laws being formerly that of a male primogeniture nature. Her creation as Princess of the Welsh was notably referred to as being a "proud and wonderful milestone for gender equality in Britain" by the then Prime Minister, Tony Blair whom also compared the event to that of his predecessor, Margaret Thatcher being the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom herself. Nevertheless, despite the overall positivity, the occasion was briefly disrupted when on the evening of May 11th that year, the state legislative builiding in Hanover, which had prior saw its legislators voted in a majority to recognise the princess's succession to the Hanoverian throne through the abolishing of its traditional Semi-Salic Law, was momentarily occupied by a lone German separatist, Theodor Gerstr. Ultimately, after a two hours long siege, Gerstr himself was killed in a firefight with a joint Hanoverian SRU (Special Response Unit) and British SAS (Special Air Service) task force.
On the basis of her paternal ancestry, Alexandra is summarily related to most European monarchs, namely Queen Ilse of the Netherlands, her fourth cousin, whilst also being the third cousin twice removed of both King Charles of Denmark and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, and finally the fourth cousin once removed of King Philippe of Belgium. Otherwise, through her maternal ancestry, she is notably the granddaughter of the reigning King Harald V of Norway.
In contrast to her younger sister, academically, Alexandra generally exhibited a modest performance, albeit slightly less so compared to the former, whilst maintaining an active degree of involvement in sports activities at her schools. Subsequently, her keen and passionate interest in sports, particularly in the game of football, prompted her father to successfully secure the fourteen year old princess a spot at the Manchester United Academy, which was supposedly preferred due to her father's own support for the football club itself. Nevertheless, for the next four years, whilst carefully balancing both of her academic and football commitments, she performed expectedly well for herself in the attacking midfielder position. The year afterwards, she was officially included as part of the club's U16 team, in which she was later described as having performed well too, made evident by her appointment as team captain for a total amount of ten times. Thus, with the unanimous backing and support she received, Alexandra furthered her youth football career through a contract extension, propelling her next to the U18 squad, in which this time, she distinctively played instead in the central midfielder position, whilst being appointed captain for a total amount of seven times and even vice-captain on a couple of instances. During her subsequent university years, she also played in the same position for the University at Albany's women's soccer team, easily becoming one of its most decorated players.
Particularly from the age of five, following a particular incident in which the young princess failed to wholly see her reflection in the mirror, her apparent lifelong vision problem quickly became a subject of interest and especially a matter of concern by her parents, the King and Queen. To that end, it was initially thought that she had indeed suffered from either near-sightedness or long-sightedness, but it was eventually revealed that the distinct placement of her eyes, which were judged to be somewhat particularly distant from one another, may have been the major cause behind her vision all along. As a result, at the age of five and six, Alexandra's education mostly took place at her own royal residence, before she was finally allowed to enjoy a more public form of education, beginning from the age of seven. Then, at the age of eight, in light of a medical advice given out by one of the serving royal doctors, she was promptly made to wear a pair of contact lenses to remedy her troubling vision, with the initial choice of a pair of sunglasses having been discarded due to its perceived interference and its fair share of possible problems in regards towards Alexandra's particular passion in sports. Nevertheless, the decision would later allow her to secure a path of her own in the armed forces, along with other activities despite her natural vision problems. In a later interview soon after her ascension to the throne, she ultimately disclosed her lifelong condition to the public, in which she revealed that she had in fact been diagnosed with hypertelorism sometime after her condition was first noticed by doctors.
Princess of the Welsh
As Alexandra matured well into her teenage years, so did her future responsibilities as Queen. On March 3rd 2011, Alexandra undertook her first official public appearance through a speech commemorating her recently deceased grandfather, King Charles III. Her speech, which lasted for approximately fifteen minutes was widely received and praised though she would not appear in public again until a year later to make way for her studies. Upon completing her secondary level education at the Mulberry School for Girls, she refocused her interests in assuming her official duties as a princess. For instance, prior to that moment, Alexandra had mostly been accompanying her parents in their usual state visits but was soon given a chance to do so herself through a solo state visit to Dubai in March 2012, where the sixteen year old Alexandra was hosted by the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. During the visit, she was exclusively treated to an aerial performance by the Emirati Air Force and later a tour around Dubai's landmarks. Following the visit, the princess abruptly chose to revert back to her academic studies. To that end, in a manner similar to that of her father's, Alexandra chose instead to enrol at a university abroad, namely the University at Albany in New York, all the while being accompanied there by her grandmother, the Queen Mother. Then, for the first few days atleast, the princess reportedly suffered some setbacks in her studies due to the overwhelming amount of media concentration surrounding her at the time, although this was promptly resolved by the state's Governor, whom legally barred media presence within at least a twenty feet radius distance from the princess. Soon enough, her academic situation drastically improved, with one of her lecturers in particular describing her as a "modestly outgoing student". Nevertheless, following the Queen Mother's passing on August 2014, Alexandra unexpectedly chose to cut short her studies, leading her to graduate only with an associate's degree in Political Science. At the same time, the death of the Queen Mother that year, the former whom Alexandra had deeply loved and admired, sparked some concern among members of the British government, with some of the ministers reportedly urging then Prime Minister, David Cameron to amend the succession laws, which would theoretically bypass her in the line of succession in favour of her younger brother, Prince Richard, amidst speculations of her mental health's deterioration. Ultimately, this decision itself was never implemented by Cameron whom, along with the other government leaders of the Commonwealth re-affirmed Alexandra's future role as Head of the Commonwealth, a role that she would later assume upon succeeding her father as monarch.
In light of her abrupt departure from the university, the princess promptly left the United States before subsequently departing further eastward for Tonga, an Oceanic island nation that had been a favourite spot of her late grandparents, albeit under much secrecy, as her supposed arrival in the United Kingdom at nightly hours was instead reported to the public by the BBC, as to conceal her true whereabouts. Soon enough, after temporarily residing in secrecy at the island, Alexandra herself privately departed back for Britain, after which, she then abruptly announced her decision to pursue a military career. Thus, on May 3rd 2015, she was formally commissioned as a Second Lieutenant with The Rifles regiment serving in Afghanistan as part of Operation Freedom's Sentinel, amidst much concern and public debate over her safety and wellbeing. Soon after her promotion to Captain on the June 7th 2016, she was able to successfully enlist in the elite Parachute Regiment, during which she gained personal acclaim for being the very first woman to do so, thereby furthering her duties in Afghanistan as part of the regiment's 2nd Battalion. Despite serving with distinction afterwards, heightened concerns over her safety in light of a Taliban-claimed ambush in the Kandahar Province prompted the British Ministry of Defence to instead transfer her over to the 4th Battalion, an Army Reserve unit. At the same time, following the setback in her army career, Alexandra then opted to take up flying lessons instead with a tutor loaned from the RAF, whom later certified the princess as being "flight-ready" after two months of training.
Since assuming her official duties as sovereign, Alexandra continues to maintain a considerably active degree of participation in the military as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces, having participated in the 2018 and 2019 Eager Lion exercises alongside her Parachute Regiment servicemen. Furthermore, despite her inherent vision problem from birth, which was promptly remedied with the usage of contact lenses, Alexandra is generally credited by her fellow servicemen and commanding officers as being a "remarkably proficient markswoman". In addition, she also possesses considerable skills in a range of martial arts techniques, as she is currently a Brown belt practitioner in the IDF-derived Krav Maga martial arts system, whilst also being a 2nd Dan Black belt practitioner in karate. She is also a trained and recognised boxer, having taken lessons in the sport since her transfer to a more reserved role in the British Army.
Investiture of the Princess of the Welsh
Ever since her creation as Princess of the Welsh through letters patent issued by her father, prospects of an investiture ceremony for the new Princess of the Welsh were quick to gain nationwide attention, having received the support and endorsement of both the late King Charles III and the late Queen Lauren, alongside a number of Welsh-born politicians themselves whom argued for a more gender-inclusive take towards the ceremony itself. Eventually, plans for an investiture ceremony were formally announced by Buckingham Palace following her 20th birthday. Soon after, as to familiarise herself with the local Welsh community in Wales, she was sent to live in the country for approximately two weeks under the care of a prominent local Welsh family, from whom she was expected to learn the Welsh language. While residing in Wales, Alexandra notably visited a number of local Welsh factories, alongside a number of prominent historical sites around the country, with the likes of Pembroke and Caernarfon castles. Eventually, on June 5th, her investiture ceremony was held at Caernarfon Castle, from which her speech, which controversially included several subtle references to the then recently brewing Brexit issue was read aloud in both English and Welsh.
Abdication of William VI
During the last few years of her father's reign, the former had shown little signs of ailing health. The king was also said to have been a keen sportsman, particularly in the game of polo. However, on October 6th, while the princess was away on a diplomatic trip to Pakistan, the King unexpectedly collapsed in his chambers and was promptly treated to by palace doctors. By the insistence of Queen Märtha Louise, both the British and Pakistani governments agreed to restrict any knowledge of the King's condition as to not disrupt the state travel which successfully concluded two days later with Alexandra's return to the United Kingdom. By the time she returned to the United Kingdom, the king was reported to be in stable condition but questions over the latter's ability to reign further in the near future quickly became a matter of concern and discussion. After a subsequent two days long discussion between the Britsh royal family and government, William agreed to finally abdicate in favour of his daughter, Alexandra, on the premise of "ill health and inability to sustain the continuation of royal duties".
Queen of the British
On December 17th, she was formally crowned Queen of the British at Westminster Abbey under the regnal name of "Alexandra". Her coronation, which was viewed by tens of millions in both the United Kingdom and others was the second coronation in British history to involve a female sovereign following that of Queen Anne, whom was coronated 315 years ago, and was also notable for its renewed sense of modernity, with the traditional act of homage being discontinued, and for the very first time in the history of British coronations, the inclusion of other major religious faiths in the coronation ceremony. In particular, just weeks prior to the coronation ceremony, the latter decision, due to its controversial nature, supposedly led to a brief, but intense feud between the then King William VI and the Archbishop of Canterbury over the decision's supposed legality. Ultimately, despite the reportedly firm opposition by the Archbishop himself, along with other clerical figures, the decision itself was nevertheless implemented, with its success owing largely to a provision in a will by the already deceased but largely popular King Charles III. In particular, by the new Queen's behest, as the coronation itself had fallen on the same day as the birthday of the recently abdicated King William VI, it was then successively followed by an intricately planned birthday ceremony honouring the former monarch, which took place in the later hours of the day.
At the same time, in a decision mirroring those of both her reformist great-grandfather and grandfather's, Alexandra markedly had the traditional title of Defender of the Faith changed to that of Defender of the Faiths, in what was deemed as a symbolic gesture of recognition of the present-day United Kingdom's multi-religious society. Furthermore, her December 17th coronation then notably saw the attendance of the Catholic representative in Britain, the Archbishop of Westminster, whom was in turn followed by the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, Ephraim Mirvis, Abdul Qayum, chief Imam of the East London Mosque, and the subsequent religious representatives of the Buddhist, Hindu, and Sikh faiths. Her coronation oath, which was reportedly scrutinised and revised multiple times during the buildup to the coronation by the then King William VI and said religious representatives, also underwent a drastic shift in tone, with Alexandra being ceremonially required to instead "uphold the inviolability and purity of all recognised faiths in the United Kingdom with utmost equality and tolerance, and free from any preferential treatment and judgement". Additionally, the coronation oath itself was repeated several times respectively in the Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, Pali, Sanskrit, and the Punjabi languages, all of which were also included in the rehearsals, thus establishing the Queen as the "upholder and defender" of all the present religions in the United Kingdom.
In inheriting a royal tradition since established by her grandfather, Charles III, Alexandra became the third British monarch so far to voluntarily pay in both forms of income tax and capital gains tax. In particular, by her own personal virtue, Alexandra, following her ascension to the throne, reportedly had the initial percentage of the income tax rate applied towards the sovereign raised from a supposed initial amount of 5% to 8% in total. Following the ongoing COVID-19 recession, it was then further increased to a slightly higher amount of 13%, with the stated intent of "benevolently using the amassed wealth for the general public's benefit".
Prior to her coronation, her first act as Queen had been creating her father Duke of Hanover in light of the latter's abdication, which was eventually formalised on December 22nd. Then, on January 27th of the following year, her most notable act in the early months following her coronation came during the Holocaust Remembrance Day when Alexandra, in an apparent break from royal protocol, openly spoke at length about the challenges of religious harmony in the United Kingdom, in which she said, "Personally, as a British Jewish woman born to an American Jewish grandmother, it is a pain to see that even after sixty years later, people of either the Jewish or any other religious faiths in the country are still forced to experience what my late grandmother had to experience when she first came to the UK; discrimination and intolerance due to the actions of a small group of people culturally or religiously similar to her. That kind of judgement should stop immediately for each individual are themselves, judged by their own actions rather than by the actions of his or her associates". Following this, while she was criticised by some for her abandonment of royal protocols, she was nevertheless praised for her outspoken nature, with Pope Francis of the Vatican City in particular referring to her as a "young Joan of Arc of harmony", while the King of Jordan, Abdullah II praised the Queen's speech, whilst referencing it as a "young and shining beacon of the words of global religious pluralism". Additionally, then Israeli Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu also commended the speech, before praising the Queen as a "strong, fierce, and independent young Jewish woman of the century".
Then, just a week later, she became the second British monarch after her grandfather, Charles III, to officially visit Israel in her own capacity, during which, she personally met with both then Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, and Palestinian President, Mahmoud Abbas, both of whom then subsequently accompanied her, along with a sizable amount of security forces, to religious and historical sites in both Israel and Palestine, including the Western Wall and the nearby Al-Aqsa Mosque.
In the following year, Alexandra addressed the United Nations General Assembly for the first time as the United Kingdom's reigning monarch, in which she emphasised the need to combat "all forms of extremism, global instability, and climate change".
UIA Flight 752
On January 9th 2020, just a day after the controversial shooting of an Ukrainian international passenger flight by Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, Alexandra and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei reportedly held an emergency, private meeting at the royal Al Alam Palace in Old Muscat, Oman, where the two head of states, according to local Omani media, held a "tense but respectable" discussion surrounding the incident. Later on, after having attended together the funeral of Oman's Sultan Qaboos bin Said the next day, and after a reported three-way private dialogue with the new Sultan of Oman, Haitham bin Tariq, the Iranian government then historically bestowed upon the Queen with a first class grade of the Order of Islamic Republic, in recognition of her "openness to peaceful and diplomatic communication in times of crisis". Upon receiving the decoration, she became the very first European and a member of royalty to do so, as the award had only been prior given to the likes of the presidents of South Africa, Syria, and Venezuela, namely Nelson Mandela, Bashar al-Assad, and Hugo Chávez respectively.
Resignation of Prime Minister Theresa May
On July 24th 2019, amidst the worsening Brexit controversy, she accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Theresa May, before promptly asking the latter's successor, Boris Johnson to form a new Conservative government. This was then followed by a speech in which she declared, "It is in mine, and those of the general public's interest to see that in the face of the burgeoning trials and tribulations that we are currently facing, Mr Johnson's administration would show utmost resilience in reaching for a solution to the crisis ahead". In the following month, Alexandra incurred a degree of controversy when she, under the advice of Prime Minister Boris Johnson himself, chose to prorogue the Parliament of the United Kingdom. When this was unanimously ruled as unlawful by the Supreme Court, Alexandra herself generally escaped any substantiated criticism for she was judged to had acted under the constitutional convention, as per the tradition of her predecessors.
On January 31st 2020, following the emergence of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom, Alexandra privately moved to Highgrove House, located westward in Gloucestershire for safety measures. Consequently, all planned public engagements were promptly cancelled. On March 5th, following the first COVID-related death in the country, she promptly addressed the public through a televised broadcast from Highgrove House, in which she declared, "Eighty years ago, the British people had calmly, and vigilantly endured the gruelling troubles and deathly hardships of the Blitz. Today, it is time that we repeat the very same calmness, and vigilance that had propelled us forward, and past our misery. Success is what we cherish, and shall fight for together". Later, on May 8th, in commemorating the 75th VE Day anniversary, she once more addressed the nation, in which she spoke of the importance of "perseverance, vigilance, and rationality" in facing the COVID-19 pandemic. Just three days later, which coincided with the date of her 24th birthday, she carried out her first public engagement since the beginning of the pandemic by notably visiting the St. Mary's Hospital in London, which had prior served as the birthplace of Queen Alexandra herself. At the same time, she also publicly commented on the surrounding protests, urging protesters to "prioritise health and safety for the struggle to continue". In the following month, in light of the Black Lives Matter protests in the United Kingdom, Alexandra markedly introduced a reform of the British chivalric order system, whereby the chivalry order known as the Order of the British Empire was ultimately renamed to the Order of British Excellence, thus supposedly ridding it of its former "imperialistic past".
US Capitol Incident
On January 7th 2021, at approximately 9:00 A.M., Alexandra, following a reported meeting with Prime Minister Boris Johnson, announced that then President Donald Trump would be barred from entering the United Kingdom, on the grounds of his connection to the January 6th incident at the United States Capitol in Washington D.C. As per the opening statement from the announcement, the Queen declared that "the Crown and the Government has found it unjustifiable to continue to permit the entry of Mr Donald J. Trump into the United Kingdom in light of recent events". On the month of June that year, Alexandra later hosted sitting US President Joe Biden in a scaled-down ceremony at Buckingham Palace, after which she, alongside her twin brothers and younger sister, then attended that year's G7 summit held in Cornwall, England, alongside Prime Minister Boris Johnson.
Jamal Khashoggi Controversy
Figgate Park Incident
On October 10th 2018, at 7:15 a.m., while on a routine early morning jog at Figgate Park in Edinburgh, she was nearly abducted by a group of five Saudi nationals, believed to had been part of the alleged Saudi death squad group, popularly known as the Tiger Squad. However, the attempt was decisively foiled by the troupe of her personal security and by her own self-defence efforts. A follow-up trial promptly declared all five of the male Saudi perpetrators guilty of attempted kidnapping and murder and subsequently imprisoned for a maximum amount of twenty years at the HMP Edinburgh prison.
While the verdict was unanimously praised by the British public, it was however met with fierce criticism and opposition from the Saudi government, following allegations of links between the group and their home government in a plot to supposedly silence the Queen in light of her fallout with the Saudi Crown Prince, something that was persistently denied by Saudi officials. On August 1st 2019, then newly appointed First State Secretary, Dominic Raab declared "no further commitment in any joint effort concerning the release of the five incarcerated Saudi nationals". Around the same time, the MI6 intelligence agency then revealed new links linking one of the five incarcerated Saudi kidnappers to the president of the Saudi intelligence agency, Lt. Gen. Khalid bin Ali Al Humaidan. These new findings were again refuted by the Saudi government, which firmly demanded the extradition of said perpetrators to Saudi Arabia in order to stand trial.
On December 5th that year, nonprofit organisation WikiLeaks published several previously classified documents detailing a planned arms sales agreements between the two countries which reportedly included the purchase of six Panavia Tornado combat aircraft and two Sentinel R1 surveillance aircraft, all of which were reportedly cancelled following the incident, in which it was alleged that the Queen herself had direct knowledge of the botched arms sales agreement itself, although Buckingham Palace itself offered no reply to the alleged findings.
October 15 Controversy
On October 15 2018, in light of the Queen's abrupt separation from her former relationship with the Saudi Crown Prince, British tabloid newspaper The Sun had published an article condemning the Queen for her scandalous past and alleged involvement in the Jamal Khashoggi assassination. Despite creating a surge of revenues for the tabloid newspaper, the article, titled Queen Alexandra: Mistress of Oil & Men, was soon widely condemned and attacked by politicians from both sides in the House of Commons with Orpington MP Jo Johnson labelling the article as an "egregious, over-the-limit act by a notorious tabloid newspaper". Approximately five hours after the article was released, Buckingham Palace promptly announced that a case of defamation was being pursued against the tabloid newspaper for its controversial article, with the former citing "baseless accusations, inflammatory tone and language regarding the Queen" though The Sun's editor-in-chief Tony Gallagher defended the article's publishing, citing the law's guaranteeing of free speech.
On October 31st, the trial concluded in favour of Buckingham Palace, with the High Court ordering the tabloid newspaper to cease further printing of its copies containing the controversial article, alongside reparation payments totalling £55.5 million. In its aftermath, the controversy was said to had been "fundamentally important" in restoring Alexandra's then partially tarnished image, as the controversially worded article helped drew mass sympathies towards the Queen. At the same time, it prompted fresh debates concerning the state of British tabloids in general, with support for a stricter approach against contents published by the respective tabloids, which they deemed as being "lethally damaging, and precarious to national unity".
In the years prior to and after taking the throne, Alexandra, among other things, is generally known for her affinity towards international travelling which, as a member of the royal family, would often be done in the form of state travels to countries around the globe. In particular, upon taking the throne on October 13th 2017, she first symbolically visited Norway, home to her maternal relatives, under the intention of explicitly forging a "new era in British-Norwegian relations". Additionally, though Alexandra would mostly be flown to her country of destination by her royal staff, she has also occasionally done so herself within her own capacity, thanks to her prior flight training with the RAF, with the earliest instance being her first visit to France as Queen where she piloted a BAe 146 aircraft from Heathrow Airport, London to the Charles De Gaulle Airport in Paris. In the case of flying within the UK herself, Alexandra would occasionally fly her late grandfather's de Havilland Tiger Moth biplane, famously named Charlie by the latter. For road travelling, she generally drives either her McLaren Senna for leisure purposes, or either her late grandfather's modified 1948 Triumph Roadster. On March 3rd 2019, under the guise of a charity race, Alexandra notably raced her cousin, Queen Ilse of the Netherlands, in a ten laps race at the TT Circuit Assen racetrack, which was ultimately won by the then recently inaugurated Dutch monarch, whom was mostly ahead of the former with the exception of during the third and fourth laps respectively. For the race itself, both queens each rode a pair of equally tuned Yamaha YZR-M1 motorbikes.
At the age of twelve, following a short incident during a camping session at school, Alexandra was momentarily diagnosed as being claustrophobic although this condition was gradually remedied over time. In a related interview on February 2018, she openly described how the condition "kept her from doing some activities that required her to be in closed places, such as crawling through tunnels".
Among the general public, she is widely known for her sizably health-centric lifestyle, made evident through her almost daily appearances on early hours, donning a matching running jacket and a pair of running leggings whilst jogging around the streets of London from her residence of Buckingham Palace. However, for other sports-related purposes, when visiting either sports facilities or gyms around the UK, Alexandra, if not during formal visits to said places, would mostly don a sports bra and a matching pair of spandex pants, which has courted some degrees of controversy due to its revealing nature being against her royal dress code. In regards to the latter issue aswell, Alexandra is also known for her general preference for a Katharine Hepburn-inspired loose-fitting suit on most occasions, as opposed to the traditional gown or dress, which mirrored her own late grandmother's habit of commonly wearing everyday clothes in both inside and outside of the royal palaces.
In the past, aside from her notable military career, Alexandra had also prior taken up other careers aswell, namely in sports, and particularly in the game of football, and a career in acting, in which capacity she served as a minor role on one particular episode in the British drama series, Downtown Abbey, alongside other appearances, including on the British documentary show, The Young Iron Lady: From Buckingham Palace to The Parachute Regiment, along with a guest appearance on her own sister's podcast program, British Girls: Growing Up & Its Challenges.
Like her immediate predecessors, Alexandra herself, on a personal level, is notably associated with a number of celebrities, with the most notable instance being her close, public friendship with British singer, Ellie Goulding, whom she had first met at one of her concerts sometime in June 2017. In addition to Goulding herself, she is also said to be particularly close with the likes of American singer and actress, Nancy Sinatra, whose father had been a close friend of Alexandra's grandfather, and fellow American actress, Katharine Houghton, whom is Alexandra's aunt by marriage, and also the niece of famed and late American actress, Katharine Hepburn, whom the Queen was personally acquainted with for some time prior to the latter's passing in 2003. Furthermore, by virtue of marital ties, the famed and late American actresses, Hedy Lamarr and Rita Hayworth, are both the Queen's first cousin in law once removed, and her great-great grand aunt respectively.
Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum
Popularly dubbed as the "socialite princess" by her contemporaries, Alexandra Is markedly known for her two previous romantic relationships, both of which specifically involved a royal Middle Eastern crown prince. For instance, following her solo state visit to the United Arab Emirates, she fell in love with the Crown Prince of Dubai Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum, whom was fourteen years her senior, and the two soon began a public relationship which lasted for four years. The relationship, which was routinely documented by both royals on their respective social media accounts, also received much media coverage due to the staggering age difference. In general, throughout the course of their four years long relationship, the two were at times photographed with one another on various occasions, ranging from the Royal Ascot races to their own private holidays in the other's home country. Furthermore, it was believed that Alexandra herself was the subject of several poems written by the crown prince, himself an avid poet. However, in the latter half of their relationship, with Alexandra's departure for the United States to further her university-level studies, followed by her subsequent commissioning as an officer in the British Army, the couple's relationships concurrently cooled down, as their reported engagements with one another became less common. Eventually, on April 15th 2017, the royal couple made their separation public through their respective social media accounts, although they are believed to have remained on generally good terms from that point on, with Hamdan himself attending Alexandra's December 11th coronation.
However, two years later, this gesture was not seemingly reciprocated when the Queen herself did not attend the former's May 15th wedding to his cousin instead, with rumours alleging that Alexandra wanted to avoid being pressured on the status of Hamdan's stepmother, Princess Haya bint Hussein, whom had recently divorced and fled from the crown prince's father, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Nevertheless, a news report published that day by the BBC revealed that the Queen had then been on a state visit to Malaysia, where she was confirmed of having met the country's newly ascended Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), Abdullah of Pahang. On the day after the wedding, Alexandra herself personally posted a congratulatory message on her social media account in honour of Crown Prince Hamdan's marriage, including a brief apology in regards to her absence at the ceremony.
During the two years span of her living in the United States as to pursue her studies at a local university there, Alexandra, according to several members of her own inner circle at the time, was believed to had been in a much discreet romantic relationship with fellow collegemate, Rhad Kelley, an African-American and native New Yorker, with whom she had then coincidentally shared a class with, concerning the subject of Political Science. Reportedly, despite her much elevated status compared to the latter, both of them were able to generally limit the knowledge of their relationship to only a select few, while Kelley himself was made to refer to Alexandra in her absence by her assumed alias, Elizabeth Morgan, as to prevent any immediate leak on the subject of their relationship. Nevertheless, while the couple's relationship would consequently come to an abrupt end following Alexandra's impromptu departure from the United States in light of her grandmother's passing, the former herself, during one particular interview, spoke positively of the nature of their past relationship, with Alexandra, albeit without mentioning her former romantic partner by name, praising Kelley for being a "wonderful partner in times of uncertainty and ambivalence".
Mohammed bin Salman
Around a month into her separation from her previous romantic partner, rumours of Alexandra's new romantic relationship with the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman, then recently appointed as the Minister of Defence for Saudi Arabia began to surface when on May 11th 2017, the two were exclusively photographed onboard the crown prince's Serene yacht celebrating her 21st birthday. Almost immediately, like her previous relationship, her new romantic relationship with the Saudi Crown Prince quickly courted mass attention from the media, which highlighted the crown prince's marital status in addition to the similar disparity in ages between the two. At the same time, the British media popularly dubbed her "The Crown Princes' Jewel", in alluding to the fact that she has since so far dated both Middle Eastern crown princes in her two consecutive relationships, while sources close to the Saudi Crown Prince alleged that among the couple's close circles in the country, she was affectionately known as Malikat al-Halib (Queen of Milk) due to the colour of her skin or rather, in a supposedly more regal form of nickname, Malakat al-Malakat, or Queen of Queens, possibly derived from her distinct status of being the simultaneous head of state of multiple countries, similar to that of an empress or an emperor, although this was also believed to had been a historical reference to her past predecessors' former title of Emperor of India during the period of the British Raj. On May 11th of the same year, in honour of her own birthday, Alexandra personally founded the Princess of Wales's, later renamed to the Queen's Saudi Women's Foundation, a non-profit charity organisation based in the capital city of Riyadh, with herself serving as its chairman and Crown Prince Mohammed as its vice-chairman.
Overall, the royal couple were afterwards further photographed together, with the last sighting of the two being at Alexandra's 22nd private birthday celebration at the Four Seasons hotel in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ultimately, on October 3rd 2018, just a day following the Jamal Khashoggi controversy, she promptly announced her separation from the Saudi Crown Prince, citing "irreconcilable differences" for doing so. Soon after that, for some period of time, Alexandra was met with a series of both condemnations and criticisms for her past affair, while also receiving praises and commendations aswell for her decision to end the relationship. In response, Alexandra, through the use of an op-ed in a The New York Times article, then proceeded to reveal the "hidden and unexpressed" nature of their former relationship, stating that she had strongly supported bin Salman's reforms on women's rights in the country whilst being generally opposed against the latter's political conduct, particularly in Yemen. At the same time, due to both the complex and sensationalised nature surrounding their former relationship, unsubstantiated rumours alleging that the two had actually divorced as a married couple, with the marriage having supposedly taken place just days prior to their separation, were briefly circulated though these were quickly denied by Buckingham Palace, while it was instead peculiarly supported by bin Salman himself, in what was believed to had been the latter's attempt in reclaiming his previous gifts, as the crown prince asserted that Alexandra had allegedly converted to Islam and had instead taken the name Ameera Sara Al-Saud. Most notably, on October 10th 2018, Alexandra herself survived an attempted kidnapping attempt which, upon subsequent interrogations, was believed to had been personally orchestrated by the Saudi Crown Prince himself, although the latter in turn fervently denied the accusations.
Despite her abrupt distancing from the Saudi royal family in general, Alexandra nevertheless continues to maintain links with other particular members of the House of Saud, namely the former princess, Ameera al-Taweel, with whom she would reportedly hold dialogues with concerning women's rights in Saudi Arabia, and namely King Salman himself, due to the latter's current position as absolute ruler of the kingdom. Reportedly, in a much publicised and highly regulated state visit to Saudi Arabia on January 2019 by Alexandra herself, local news agencies reported that the Saudi Crown Prince had been absent for the state visit due to a supposed diplomatic trip to the neighbouring United Arab Emirates instead, in what was promptly acknowledged as being a rare occurrence, and later believed to had been a premeditated arrangement orchestrated by King Salman himself in order to avert a direct confrontation between the two royals, in light of their recent history.
Rianne Van Rompaey
As of now, Alexandra is currently being in a romantic relationship with Dutch fashion model, Rianne Van Rompaey, whom is of a similar age to the Queen herself. The relationship, according to several sources close to the couple, was said to have roughly begun around the month of January 2019, when the two had met one another at a private dinner party celebrating Van Rompaey's birthday, which was hosted by a mutual friend, namely Queen Ilse of the Netherlands, a distant cousin of the British royal and a rumoured lesbian herself. In the following months, the two were said to have continued seeing one another on a mutual basis, with the common choice of the venue either being heavily isolated or exclusive locations, as to avert media attention. Nevertheless, the couple's relationship first came into the public eye in the month of June that year, when Van Rompaey was photographed being physically close to the Queen on several occasions during the annual Royal Ascot event, although by chance, her identity at the time remained fairly unrevealed by local British media.
In a rather different approach compared to that taken during her previous two romantic relationships, Alexandra herself notably adopted a rather silent response to the growing speculation surrounding her relationship between the two, with her and Van Rompaey being further photographed together in the succeeding months, whilst also being occasionally compared to that of Alexandra's own aunt, the Princess Royal's relationship with American singer, Madonna, with whom the princess is popularly believed to have been romantically involved with. Ultimately, on January 3rd 2020, the general state of the couple's relationship was eventually revealed when the two were once more photographed together at Buckingham Palace, celebrating the model's 24th birthday. Subsequently, along with the much intimate nature of the photograph's accompanying message, rumours of the two seemingly living together were then gradually confirmed by the likes of Van Rompaey's close associates, whom confirmed her current whereabouts in the days immediately following the event. Later on, in the immediate aftermath of that year's Trooping the Colour event, which had then been scaled down and made private due to the ongoing pandemic, Alexandra subsequently came out as bisexual to the general public, during which she proclaimed, "It was never easy for me to come out when I have a religious organisation under my belt. But in the current 21st century, I personally think that a situation such as the one I am in right now could be gradually accepted overtime by the religious community, for it is my promise that the Church's sanctity and purity will never be desecrated, even with myself as its leader". In response, the incumbent Governor of Oregon, Kate Brown, whom is also a bisexual herself, applauded the Queen for her decision to come out in regards towards her sexuality, with the former labelling Alexandra as "an extraordinary, and an extremely brave young woman". In addition to the statement itself, Alexandra has also referred to the current relationship with her romantic partner as a "fresh air of blessings", as to emphasise her departure from her two preceding heterosexual relationships, both of which had since accumulated some degree of notoriety in the previous years.
Due to the rather different nature of the couple's relationship, which stood in marked contrast to Alexandra's own previous two relationships, it quickly became the subject of mass media scrutiny across the country, with some media outlets such as Daily Mirror celebrating the "existence of Britain's first LGBT confirmed monarch", while several other media outlets raised questions surrounding the monarchy's future, as a theoretically adopted heir would be wholly unable to succeed to the throne on legal grounds, although the said situation could also be theoretically possible through the marriage of said adopted child with the future heir to the throne. Additionally, in addressing speculations surrounding Van Rompaey's future title upon a later marriage to the Queen, Alexandra herself has neither suggested nor denied any possibilities in regards to the matter. Nevertheless, it is believed that the most likely options would either see the Dutch model being created a Princess Consort upon her marriage, or rather the title of Queen herself, albeit strictly defined as a queen consort. Furthermore, ever since her relationship with the Dutch model was made public, both Alexandra and Van Rompaey have been popularly compared to the likes of the celebrated Queen Mary II and King William III of England, with Van Rompaey's Dutch ancestry and nationality being likened to that of the 17th century king, whom was also the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. In one particular writing about the couple, a writer from the Daily Mirror once wrote, "While Mary and William jointly brought peace and tranquillity to Britain as her beloved Queen and King, Alexandra and Rianne will bring much more to Britain itself aswell, as it's two cherished Queens". Furthermore, in regards to their own respective given names, Alexandra and Rianne, were also noted by observers to have possessed similar regalist meanings, with the former's name having the meaning of "defender of men", akin to her own current role as head of state, while on the other hand, the latter's name is believed to had meant "great queen", or "goddess", thus seemingly alluding to her future post-marital role as a hypothetical queen consort.
Ironically enough, despite currently being in a relationship with an actual fashion model, Alexandra herself has never wholly dabbled in the modelling industry, a decision she attributed to her self-described "weird-looking" facial features. Nevertheless, in an online interview held in the days following the publification of her relationship with Van Rompaey, Alexandra publicly revealed, that in the days immediately after she had officially become the first female member of the Parachute Regiment, she was offered by the then editor of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue magazine to appear on the magazine's annual cover in the following year, under the premise of "exhibiting womanly prowess and strength". Ultimately, Alexandra herself promptly rejected the offer, which she then explained by stating that her notable feat in the Parachute Regiment is "not worth a magazine cover photoshoot in a bikini, but rather an actual sense of determination and courageousness present in young girls attempting to join the regiment themselves". Nevertheless, had she opted to do so, Alexandra would have markedly been both the second British-born and of royalty status person to ever appear on the magazine, thereby following in the footsteps of her aunt, the Princess Royal, whom had personally modelled for Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, along with being a former Victoria's Secret Angel, and one of the United Kingdom's most successful and respected supermodels.
Norwegian Royal Family
Following her ascension to the throne, she was made an Honorary Colonel-in-chief in the Norwegian Army by her maternal grandfather, King Harald V of Norway during her inaugural state visit to the country as a reigning monarch. Currently, she is also the fourth in line of succession to the Norwegian throne, ranking behind her cousins, Prince Sverre Magnus and Princess Ingrid Alexandra, with the latter expected to become Norway's second queen regnant. The first in line to the Norwegian throne is her maternal uncle, Crown Prince Haakon, whom is to succeed her maternal grandfather, the reigning King Harald V of Norway.
In regards to her own personal interests, Alexandra is additionally known for her keen and unwavering interest in books and poetry, in which some of her reading materials had been previously exhibited to the public. For instance, around the month of October 2017, she became a royal patron of several organisations and charities related to poetry and reading, such as the National Center for Reading and Wordsworth Trust. In addition to that, drawing on from her own personal experiences in the military, Alexandra is also an outspoken supporter of better treatment for veterans of all branches of the British Armed Forces.
Furthermore, having been born partly Jewish herself, Alexandra is also a committed supporter and defender of the general Jewish populace in the United Kingdom, made evident by her occasional appearances at various Jewish synagogues across the country, along with her own outspoken speeches in which mostly condemned anti-Semitism as a whole.
Titles & Honours
- 11 May 1996 - 15 January 1997 Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Wales
- 15 January 1997 - 11 May 1999 Her Royal Highness The Princess Alexandra
- 11 May 1999 - 2 June 1999 Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall
- 2 June 1999 - 13 October 2017 Her Royal Highness The Princess of the Welsh
- 13 October 2017 - Present Her Majesty The Queen of the British
National & Commonwealth
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Royal Family Order of King William V
- United Kingdom - Recipient of the Medal of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of King Charles III
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Royal Guelphic Order
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Order of St. George
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Most Gallant Order of British Excellence
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order
- United Kingdom - Sovereign of the Williamite Cross
- Canada - Sovereign of the Order of Canada
- Australia - Sovereign of the Order of Australia
- New Zealand - Sovereign of the Order of New Zealand
- Barbados - Sovereign of the Order of Barbados
- Saint Lucia - Sovereign of the Order of St Lucia
- Solomon Islands - Sovereign of the Order of Solomon Islands
- Belize - Sovereign of the Order of Belize
- Antigua and Barbuda - Sovereign of the Order of Antigua and Barbuda
- St Christopher and Nevis - Sovereign of the Order of St Christopher and Nevis
- Grenada - Sovereign of the Order of Grenada
- Tuvalu - Sovereign of the Order of Tuvalu
- Puerto Rico - Sovereign of the Order of Puerto Rico
- Spain - Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Pakistan - First Class of the Nishan-e-Pakistan
- Norway - Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of St Olav
- Norway - Dame of the Royal Family Decoration of King Harald V of Norway
- Norway - Recipient of the Medal of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of King Olav V
- Norway - Recipient of the Royal House Centenary Medal
- Norway - Recipient of the King Harald V Silver Jubilee Medal
- Sweden - Member of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
- Sweden - Commander Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Sword
- Denmark - Knight of the Order of the Elephant
- Denmark - Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog
- United Arab Emirates - Collar of the Order of Zayed
- Jordan - Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
- Saudi Arabia - Collar of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia
- Portugal - Grand Collar of the Order of the Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, and of Valour, Loyalty and Merit
- France - Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour
- Malaysia - Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm
- Germany - Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Japan - Collar and Grand Order of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
- Japan - Golden Medal of Merit Japanese Red Cross
- Japan - Golden Medal of Honorary Member of Japanese Red Cross
- South Korea - Member of the Order of Mugunghwa
- Italy - Dame of the Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Republic
- Iran - First Grade of the Order of Islamic Republic
10 May 2014 - 3 May 2015: Officer Cadet, British Army
3 May 2015 - 7 June 2016: Second Lieutenant, The Rifles
7 June 2016 - 20 December 2016: Captain, Parachute Regiment
20 December 2016 - 25 May 2017: Lieutenant Colonel, Parachute Regiment
25 May 2017 - 13 October 2017: Brigadier, Parachute Regiment
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces
1 February 2017 - 13 October 2017: Admiral, Royal Navy
13 October 2017 - Present: Lord High Admiral, Royal Navy
25 February 2017 - 13 October 2017: Air Marshal, Royal Air Force
13 October 2017 - Present: Marshal of the Royal Air Force
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Army
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Navy
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Air Force
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Army
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Navy
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Air Force
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the New Zealand Army
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Navy
13 October 2017 - Present: Commander-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Air Force
(1996 - 1999)
(1999 - 2017)
(2017 - Present)
|Ancestors of Alexandra I of the United Kingdom|