Republika e Shqipërisë
Senatus Populusque Aquitanus
Motto: Αμύνεσθαι Πέρι Πάτρις (Ancient Greek)
"To Defend The Country"
Anthem: Hymn To Liberty
|Map of the Eagleland in Belisaria|
Map of the Eagleland in Belisaria
|Map of the Eagleland|
Map of the Eagleland
|Capital||Constantinopolis, Constantineian Prefecture|
|Largest largest city||Peiraias, Pericleian Prefecture|
|Recognised national languages||Hellenic|
|Recognised regional languages||Latin, Illyrian|
|Ethnic groups |
(2012 National Census)
|87.5% Eaglelander, 12.5% Other|
• President of the Republic
• Prime Minister
• The Pericleian Commons
|August 15th, 404 BCE|
• Imperial Day
|September 8th, 356 AD|
• Republican Revolution
|April 24th, 1835|
• Victory Day
|March 7th, 1857|
|316,809 km2 (122,321 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2010 census
|223.81/km2 (579.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Eagleland Drachma (€/δρχ) (ELD)|
|ISO 3166 code||EL|
The Eaglelander Republic (Greek: Αετοχωρική Δημοκρατία; Latin: Senatus Populusque Aquitanus; Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë) or Eagleland (Greek: Αετοχώρα; Latin: Aquitania; Albanian: Shqipëria), is an island nation situated in Ajax's northern hemisphere, in Belisaria, on the Pericleian Sea. It is a parliamentary republic, with 35 provinces, 323 municipalities, the special territory of Agion Oros, and three special administrative areas: Afrodite SAR, Caesarea SAR, and Agion Oros. It shares a maritime border with several nations, i.e. Vannois to the North, Lihindos to the North-West, and Estoni to the North-East. It has a population of 70 million people according to 2017 estimates and has a landmass of X square kilometres (X square miles) large. Its capital is Constantinopolis and its largest city is Peiraias. Its head of state is the President of the Republic Eleftherios Konstantinides, and its Head of Government is Prime Minister Adamantia Demou. As a parliamentary republic, laws are passed by a bicameral parliament, the National Syneleusis. The supreme law of the land is the Eaglelander Constitution, and the country follows a civil law system.
The Eagleland is a developped country with a high standard of living and a highly efficient and talented workforce. Driven by exports, the Eagleland's nominal GDP stands at $3.1 trillion, and has a it's nominal per capita GDP of $44,087. Although it's a free market economy where the private sector dominates, the Eagleland public spending makes up nevertheless 35.26% of GDP and hence plays a relatively important and sometimes pivotal role in financing developments in infrastructure and science. The Eaglelander Government effectively manage a welfare state limited in scope, considered a median between social democracies with generous welfare states and neoliberal economies with no form of welfare.
The Eagleland is also famous for it's rich historic heritage; based on historical evidence, it has been settled by humans as early as 1200 BCE, and has seen the rise of various city-states, some of which evolved into democracies. The area constituting the modern-day Eagleland was unified under the Epirote Empire in 376 BCE, before it was conquered by the Latin Republic in 176 BCE. In 335 AD, the Eastern Latin Empire was established, and in 507 AD, with the rise of the Lurbican Dynasty, the Eastern Latin Empire was renamed the Eaglelander Empire, which still to this day survives, and this was followed by the adoption of Greek as the state language. This was overthrown in 1835 in the April Revolution and since then the Eagleland has been a republic.
The Greek and Illyrian (later Albanian) city states, as well as the long-standing Latin Empire, have all had a great influence in the Eagleland's arts, customs and traditions, something which is evident in all aspects of Eagleland life, culture (the Eleusinian Mysteries still take place ceremonially), architecture (many buildings from the Ancient Eaglelander and early Latin Era have been painstakingly reserved), cuisine (olive oil is used in most dishes), politics and law (the Eagleland preserves the legal system since the times of the Lurbican Dynasty), up to and including the Military (many military units can trace their roots to the Latin Legions or even those of their respective Greek city-states).
The Eagleland is a member of the Belisarian Community.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography & Climate
- 3 Regions and Administrative Divisions
- 4 Politics
- 5 Foreign Relations
- 6 Military
- 7 Law and Order
- 8 Economy
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Education
- 11 Science and Technology
- 12 Healthcare
- 13 Culture
Main Article: Eagleland History
Archaeological evidence suggest that the Eagleland was inhabited by humans at least 86,000 years ago. The first human settlements appear to have been made at least 42,000 years ago, during which time temperatures dropped greatly in the Eagleland proper. Agricultural Activity was severely limited due to the cold - instead, the first humans relied on hunting for millennia, as well as feeding themselves with what berries and other fruit existed in the Eagleland's Mediterranean Climate areas. There was a contrast between humans from the mainland and humans on the islands; the latter relied on agriculture, the former on hunting. The first populations of the Eagleland were organized in a tribal society but had no ideals of national unity, something reflected in evidence, which suggest that wars between such nations were frequent. As agriculture developed, new settlements were formed and the population shifted from a nomadic to a more organised form of society, with small communes spread across the country.
Evidence of city-states, known as phylarchies (φυλαρχίες)
Pericleian Holy Wars
Geography & Climate
The Eagleland covers a total area of 316,809 km2, out of which 4.2% is water. The highest point in the Eagleland is Mount Thermopylae at 3,507m, followed by Mount Illir at 2,407m and Mount Persifoni, which has an altitude of at 1,997m. It is an island country, and is thus surrounded by the Pericleian Sea from its South-West to its North-East, and encompasses the Kastriotis Straight from its North-West to its North. The coastline is extensive, and the Eagleland also includes 51 islands and 345 islets inside its Exclusive Economic Zone.
As aforementioned, a significant portion of the Eagleland's ground area is water. The Eagleland includes twelve lakes, three large and twenty-seven small rivers, all of which provide cleanable water and are all protected by Eagleland Law from pollution. As such, the Eagleland has not only abundant sources of clean, drinkable water, but also a large number of marine species. Additionally, the longest river in the Eagleland, Dios River, as well as Lake Ermioni, the largest lake in the Eagleland, with extremely rich ecosystems, are preserved. However, in eight of the small rivers dams have been constructed, that produce massive amounts of electricity for Eagleland households, at the cost of some ecological damage.
Although the Eagleland has 2 inactive volcanoes (at Mounts Ermis and Eukleidi), natural hazzards, mainly earthquakes, are a live risk, as the country is seismically active, particularly in the East Coast, the Greater Cyclades and the North of the country. In fact, some parts of the Eagleland are included in the list of the most seismically active countries in the region, with an average of 35 earthquakes per year, usually in the so-called "Nemesis Seismic Belt" (Greek: Σεισμική Ζώνη Νεμέσεως). Furthermore, air pollution is an issue in the industrialised areas of the Eagleland, where large factories are present, and in very large urban areas such as Lekanopedion Attikis.
- Aitolian beach.jpg
A beach in Aetolia Carpathia.
- Firada, Eagleland.jpg
- Island Leone.jpg
- Old Latin Castle Eagleland.jpg
Latin Castle in Epirus Pyrrhicus province.
- Nea Venetia.jpg
Nea Venetia island.
- Scenein theAetosIslands.jpg
A rock island in the Aetos Gulf.
- The bridgde of pyrrhus.jpg
The legendary Pyrrhic Bridge.
- Eaglelander winery.jpg
- Agamemnon river.jpg
- Lake Cornelia.jpg
- Soros mountains.jpg
- Village in Ayios Nikolaos.jpg
Village of Aetochori in Agios Nikolaos.
The Eagleland is divided in two distinct climatic zones. The central and southern zone, plus the islands, is, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, characterised by a Mediterranean Climate (Csa). These areas have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. However, winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly. Any precipitation falls in the form of showers or thunderstorms from cumuliform clouds. Heatwaves are common and frequent. The air is usually hot during the day and pleasantly warm at night, but there are some very windy days, especially in the islands, and temperatures these days are lower than normal days. Winters experienced in these areas have very mild temperatures, with frost and snow practically unknown.
To the North of the country lies the Oceanic climate zone (Cfb). This zone features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range. It typically lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year, in contrast to precipitation levels in the southern Mediterranean climate zone, which are lower.
Regions and Administrative Divisions
The Eagleland is a unitary republic, with a national Government based in Constantinopolis, twenty-five prefectures, and three special administrative areas. Furthermore, there are Local Self-Governance Organisations (Greek: Οργανισμοί Τοπικής Αυτοδιοικήσης), or OTAs, of which the prefectures form the second degree and municipalities the first. As a total, there are 117 municipalities.
Main Article: Prefectures of Eagleland
There are 17 Prefectures (Hellenic: Νομός; Illyrian: Prefektura; Latin: Praefectura)) in the Eagleland. The official in charge is the prefect (νομάρχης), and the executive body is the prefectural council (νομαρχικό συμβούλιο), which per the Constitution of the Eaglelander Republic cannot exceed 15 members in size. Their responsibilities are divided into specific sectors:
- Environmental Protection: issue of rural building permits, supervision of topographic studies, approval of topographic charts, waste management, recycling policies in cooperation with municipalities.
- Agricultural Policy: approval of investment plans in agriculture, agricultural quality control, approval of farming permits, enforcement of pesticide control limits, anti-monopolistic actions, and organic certification.
- Industry and Resources Policy: Regulation of Industry, including safety standards, quality control, and certification control; Issuing of resource exploitation permits for natural resources, evaluation of alternative energy forms.
- Transport and Communications: Maintenance of Regional Roads, regulation of transportation support companies such as workshops, gas stations etc.; regulation of communication networks, management of the prefectural central communications systems, management of emergency communication systems for police, paramedical, and firefighting services.
- Education, Sports, and Culture: Promotion of athleticism, sports events and competitions; issue of merit- and need-based scholarships for education, stipends for university studies and research, merit competitions in rhetoric, maths, and science; promotion of historical sites internationally to attract tourism, regulate the local tourism industry and maintain standards within the industry.
- Collaboration between the municipalities under its jurisdiction.
Main Article: Municipalities of Eagleland
There are 117 Municipalities (Hellenic: Δήμος; Illyrian: Komuna; Latin: Municipum) in the Eagleland. The official in charge is the mayor (δήμαρχος), and the executive body is the municipal council (δημοτικό συμβούλιο), which per the Constitution of the Eaglelander Republic cannot exceed 15 members in size. Every municipality must:
- oversee the registration of all citizens, dependents, and the property thereof living within its jurisdiction, execute all political marriages, register all religious marriages, naturalise citizens under the naturalisation code, and share information with the Ministry of Public Order. All births within its jurisdiction must also be registered at that municipality.
- oversee the overall wellbeing of their citizens by means of welfare, sports, and cultural programmes.
- enforce the Eagleland Traffic Code within its jurisdiction, hence all municipalities maintain their own police force.
- oversee, maintain, repair, restore, and upgrade critical infrastructure within its jurisdiction, specifically roads, tram lines, internet and phone lines, as well as water and electricity. They must also oversee that all buildings in their jurisdiction adhere to building standards per national law.
- maintain sanitation standards within its jurisdiction and execute garbage collection and recycling capabilities, per the National Recycling Programme.
Special Administrative Areas
Main Article: Special Administrative Areas of Eagleland
The Eagleland has three Special Administrative Areas (Greek: Ειδικές Διοικητικές Περιοχές). Afrodite SAR, Nova Caesareia SAR, and Agion Oros. All three have their own governments and, while they have the same responsibilities as municipalities and prefectures, they also have their own autonomous government, their own local police forces as well as their own legal systems and economic regulation. However, they cannot secede from the Eagleland, cannot form their own foreign policy, and cannot raise their own standing armies. Furthermore, they are all bound by the Eagleland Government's monetary policy.
Both Afrodite SARs and Nova Caesareia have their own immigration policy. As semi-autonomous areas of the Eagleland, they issue their own passports, visas, and residence permits, and have their customs forces. However, Eaglelander nationals are exempt from this visa system and can settle in these areas without limit. The reverse, i.e. SAR citizens emigrating to the Eagleland, is also possible. Moreover, with the Eagleland's entering the Belisarian Community all Belisarian citizens are entitled to this right as well. However, Agion Oros is an exception to that rule. Most notably, as this SAR is ruled by the Eagleland Orthodox Church and administered in trust by the Eaglelander Government, permission to travel to this area is subject to approval from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs even for Eaglelander nationals. Women were not allowed to travel to the Agion Oros SAR until January 2017 - this restriction has since been lifted, albeit with the requirement for "modest appeareance."
Main Article: Politics of the Eaglelander Republic
The Eagleland is a unitary presidential republic, consisting of a federal government based in Constantinopolis, 25 prefectural governments, 117 municipal governments, and 3 special administrative governments. The head of state is the President of the Eaglelander Republic, elected by the incumbent parliament for two five year terms, and the head of government is the Prime Minister of the Eagleland, who is elected directly by the people for a five-year term, up to a maximum of two terms. The Constitution of the Eagleland is the current constitution of the country. As the supreme law of the land, it guarantees several rights and liberties and defines with clarity the country's political structure and other aspects, such as conscription and the relationship with the Eagleland Orthodox Church.
The Eagleland's Governments can be divided, according to the specific branch of government, as follows:
- Executive Branch: The Prime Minister (Hellenic: Πρωθυπουργός) is responsible for the administration of the executive branch of the government, which consists of the Vice President (Hellenic: Αντιπρόεδρος της Κυβέρνησης), and the Ministers (Hellenic: Υπουργός) of each of the subsequent ministries. Each prefecture has a Prefect (Hellenic: Νομάρχης), a Deputy Prefect (Hellenic: Αντινομάρχης), and a specific number of secretaries (Hellenic: Γραμματέας) in charge of prefectural directorates (Hellenic: Νομαρχιακές Διευθύνσεις). The municipalities have their own government, consisting of a Mayor (Hellenic: Δήμαρχος), the Deputy Mayor (Hellenic: Αντιδήμαρχος), and the Municipal Council (Hellenic: Δημοτικό Συμβούλιο), made up of secretaries for their respective municipal directorates (Hellenic: Δημοτική Διεύθυνση).
- Judicial Branch: Courts exist on government and special administrative level. The judicial process, in the states, begins with the Μagistrates (Hellenic: Πρωτοδικείο), which are state courts administered either by stipendiary magistrates, with specific sentencing powers. If the case is deemed too serious, or if the decision is to be disputed by either side, then it can be appealed to a Court of Appeal (Hellenic: Εφετείο). The third and final tier of the judicial system is the Eagleland Supreme Court (Hellenic: Ανώτατο Δικαστήριο της Αετοχώρας), which is made up of the following courts:
- The Court of Cassation (Hellenic: Άρειος Πάγος) tries cases relevant to the Penal and Civil Codes.
- The Council of State (Hellenic: Συμβούλιο της Επικρατείας) tries cases relevant to Administrative Law.
- The Court of Audit (Hellenic: Ελεγκτικό Συνέδριο) is responsible for overseeing the fiscal stability of the Eaglelander Government, the municipalities, the prefectures, and of the SARs, and are responsible for overseeing the financial records of high-ranking civil servants, judicial operators, military and law enforcement personnel, and incumbents. They are also tasked with auditing all aforementioned persons entering and leaving office. For this reason, the Financial Auditing Service are subordinate to the Court of Audit.
- The Constitutional Court (Hellenic: Συνταγματικό Δικαστήριο) tries cases relevant to Constitutional Law. It also reserves the right to revoke Acts of Parliament if such acts are deemed unconstitutional.
- Legislative Branch: The legislative branch of the Eaglelander Republic, is referred to as the National Syneleusis (Hellenic: Εθνική Συνέλευση, Illyrian: Asambleja Kombetare) and is led by the Syneleusarchis (Hellenic: Συνελευσάρχης, Illyrian: Presidenti e Asamblejes). It comprises of the following:
- The Eagleland Parliament (Hellenic: Αετοχωρικό Κοινοβούλιο, Illyrian: Parlamenti i Shqipërisë), with 300 Members of Parliament. Members of Parliament are elected directly from the people for a five-year period and must fulfill specific criteria before they can even consider taking part in the election process, and may be re-elected twice.
- The Eagleland Senate (Hellenic: Αετοχωρική Γερουσία, Illyrian: Senati i Shqipërisë), with 76 Senators. Senators are elected through an electorate college of Eaglelander Nationals for up to three five-year periods; those who want to be elected or elect Senators must fulfill specific criteria before they can even consider taking part in the election process.
The Eagleland is renowned for having one of the world's first robust legal systems and one of the first countries where the legal profession has blossomed, a tradition preserved through the Latin Empire occupation occupation period and even today. Modern Eagleland Law is essentially a modernised version of the Ancient Eaglelander Civil Code, influenced by the Latin Law. Under the Eagleland's civil code system, Civil Procedure is regulated by the Code of Civil Procedure (Greek: Κώδικας Πολιτικής Δικονομίας). The CCP, as it's commonly referred as, is based on the principle of concentration (there are no pre-trial hearings and all evidence must be presented in the first trial, but pleas are given in out-of-court sessions) and the power statutory law has on judges' decisions. That said, while Eagleland Law is mostly statutory, i.e. Acts of Parliament, case law laid down by judges (usually those from the Supreme Courts), is an equally important part of Eagleland Law, and case law does, in some specific instances, influence Eaglelander Judges. Finally, Eagleland Law is structured on the Government's (and the Nation's in general) relationship with Eaglelander Orthodoxy, and retains some theocratic aspects.
In the Eagleland, at both the state and federal levels, the legal profession of law advocates is split, as in Arthurista, between Barristers (Greek: Συνήγορος) and Solicitors (Greek: Νομικός Σύμβουλος - note the Greek term is somwehat misleading because it literally translates as "legal counsel", although solicitors have the right of audience at lower courts unless they obtain a certificate of advocacy), even though in common parlance the term "Lawyer" (Greek: Δικηγόρος) or the terms in English are used. In Agion Oros SAR, any criminal has right to counsel from a religious law counsel (Greek: Σύμβουλος Θρησκευτικού Δικαίου), usually a priest who is qualified to practice Eaglelander Orthodox Law for any cases that arise.
Judges (Greek: Δικαστές) are officially referred to as "Judicial Operators" (Greek: Δικαστικοί Λειτουργοί) and not as civil servants, because of their independence from the executive branch of Government. The Eagleland Ministry of Justice and the states' Departments of Justice may be responsible for funding the legal system, however a system of checks and balances is in place to ensure that judges are not affected by public policy, and judges may only be removed from their lifetime appointments by a review board of fellow judicial operators (specifically, the Judicial Review Directorate under specific circumstances and with specific criteria. Judges are also hired by the same council, under consensus from the Ministry of Finance in terms of financial feasilbility and from the Ministry of Public Order, which is merely responsible for the background checks. Eaglelander judges are renowned region-wide for their impartiality, independence from government policy but are also notorious for punishing repeat (and sometimes first-time) penal offenders with extremely harsh sentences.
Prosecutors (Greek: Εισαγγελείς) are also considered judicial operators, because of their independence from the executive branch of Government. They prosecute cases in courts, and represent the state at them. They are divided into specific jurisdictions, and have the same rank structure, starting from Junior Public Prosecutor and concluding at Supreme Court Prosecutor. A system of checks and balances is in place to ensure that prosecutors are not affected by public policy. Presecutors have their own board, the Prosecution Directorate, which, much like their equivalent for the judiciary, is responsible for hiring and disciplining and/or laying off Prosecutors.
The Eaglelander Republic maintains diplomatic relations with over 20 nations from around the globe. Specifically, the Eagleland enjoys a special relationship with Arthurista and its former colony Belfras as well as very good diplomatic relations with Yisrael, Latium, Lihindos, Vannois, Afalia and positive relations with other Belisarian Community member states.
The Eagleland Republic maintains a neutral yet cordial stance with all other nations, promoting free trade at every opportunity. The Eaglelander Government is highly criticised for a lack of a certain foreign aid budget; instead the notion that private or public investments in foreign countries are better than sustained flows of foreign aid that breed inefficiencies and create relationships of direct paternalistic dependence.
The interests of the Eaglelander Government remain primarily in the defence of the country's terrestrial sovereignty and people, which includes, when necessary, interventions to protect Eaglelander national sovereignty, military or otherwise. The promotion of free and fair trade between countries, which necessitates the maintenance of trade routes in the Periclean Straight, is also the one of the country's principal interests.
The Eagleland is also a full member of Belisarian Community.
Main Article: Eagleland Armed Forces
See also: Conscription in the Eagleland
The sovereignty of the Eaglelander Republic is maintained by the Eagleland Armed Forces (Greek: Αετοχωρικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις), a semi-professional military force consisting of a total of 323,512 active-duty and over 117,722 reserve-status personnel, spread across five branches, and three independent inter-branch military commands. This gives the Eagleland one of the largest militaries in the Belisarian Community. Administered by the Eagleland Ministry of National Defence, the Eagleland Armed Forces' commander-in-chief is the incumbent Prime Minister of the Eaglelander Republic (Adamantia Demou). It is a technologically-advanced force and consists of the Eagleland Army (along with the Eagleland National Guard), the Eagleland Navy (along with the Eagleland Marine Forces), the Eagleland Air Force, the Protectores Domestici, and the Eagleland Strategic Warfare Directorate. The three independent, inter-branch command are the Information Warfare Command Eagleland (IWCE), the Eagleland Special Forces Directorate, and the Eagleland Military Intelligence Service. All branches and independent commands are subordinate to the Eagleland National Defence General Staff, the commander of which is Field Marshal Besnik Leka.
The Eagleland enforces conscription of all male and female Eaglelanders from the age of 18 to 45 years of age, based on a part-time conscription system. The country's conscription system dates back to the formation of the Eagleland's first city states, in 430 BCE, when it was recognised that the people should defend their own country from foreign invaders and that the military provides men (and later women) with strong moral fibre, necessary for a healthy society. These principles are still applied today, and public support for the national service system still remains strong - albeit with a steady decline (91.3% of the public were in favour of national service in 1989, but this percentage has declined to a mere 62.7% in 2019). The basic principle is the conscription of all capable young Eaglelanders from the age of 18 up to the age of 25 serve and train for 4 months and are then allocated to their National Guard units, in the frameworks of a reserve-status retention and retraining programme for ten years at a minimum and 25 years maximum, designed to maintain a large reserve ready to be partially or fully mobilised on command. National servicemen and servicewomen serve in the National Guard, the Protectores Domestici, the Civil Defence Force, the Eagleland Fire Service, or the National Health System's EMT units.
This conscription system creates a relatively large pool of reservists that can be called up at any time, but only for a war of National Defence (i.e. an invasion), as stated in the Eagleland Constitution. A maximum of 856,907 men and women can be called up within a 72 hours, however in practice only 75% of that number can be called up for combat operations; the remainder are likely to be used as replenishment for casualties or static garrisons for cities. The Ministry of National Defence maintain a specific number of armouries in each of the prefectures of the Eagleland; these include previous service small arms plus ammunition, as well as ration packs and survival equipment. These are locked in peacetime, to be unlocked and accessed by the units stationed within the state or transported to the latter, before an invasion occurs.
Given the Eagleland Government's commitment to the defence of the country, the Eagleland Armed Forces are financed with ELD119,942,132,409.35 (NS$95,953,705,927.48), which constitutes approximately 3.1% of GDP. Owing to the Eagleland's geography, the Eagleland Air Force (with NS$25.419.084.267) and the Eagleland Navy (NS$220.127.116.118,24) receive the majority of the defence spending. The Eagleland Army comes a close third with NS$20.575.577.702,24. Although the Strategic Warfare Branch is the smallest of the branches of the military, it receives NS$9.001.234.502 because of its strategic aerial and CBRN defence and offensive capabilities. This is followed by the Eagleland National Guard (NS$5.510.534.026). Subsequent expenses are allocated to procurement & defence R&D programmes, the Protectores Domestici, the IWCE, the Special Forces Directorate, Veterans Assistance, the Military Intelligence Service, operations and overseas deployments, as well as administrative costs for the Ministry of National Defence proper.
The Eagleland is known to possess Nuclear, Biological and Chemical weapons and it is also known to manufacture them. However, the precise number is classified and the Ministry of National Defence refuse to release data on the nation's CBRN armoury and defence systems/procedures.
Law and Order
The Eagleland boasts a relatively low crime rate by regional standards, which have been declining since 1973, when a historic high was recorded. In 2013, although violent crime such as murder, rape and robberies and/or grand theft autos are rare, scams, money laundering and petty crime are relatively higher. Moreover, crimes such as drug abuse is an issue in some deprived areas, even though cannabis has been legalised in 2008 for medicinal and 2015 for recreational use. Most notably, in the Eagleland cocaine - excluding crack - is legal for all uses, as are most steroids and . Education policies, a high standard of living, liberal self-defence laws and a high standard of policing account for the control of such rates. Another factor is the unique nature of the Eagleland Criminal Justice System, one of the most austere in the region, notorious for its severe sentencing of felony or repeat offenders, as well as a zero tolerance policy for illegal drug or weapons trafficking, sexual molestation/child molestation/rape, public disorder/indecency, draft dodging, or identity theft. This, in tandem with minimum sentencing, results in extremely strict sentencing, which in turn translates into a relatively inflated prison population. The Eagleland's prison system is also notorious for its militarised prison regime and the extreme discipline enforced on inmates, but also praised for the education oppotunities offered to behaving inmates. This results in a below-average reoffending rate within the Belisarian Union.
The Eagleland's terrestrial and maritime territories are policed at the municipal and the national level, with a total manpower force of 670,000 law enforcement officers. Each municipality has their own local police force, most of which are unarmed, that are responsible for enforcing traffic and economic laws, as well as deter anti-social behaviour. That is, while Municipal Police (Greek: Δημοτική Αστυνομία) forces tend to be small, and do not receive large amounts of funding, they do, however, bear the responsibility of traffic enforcement; enforcing traffic code laws on all motorists and vehicles; fines on offending motorists; anti-social behaviour deterrence (as they act as the "heavy arm" of municipal social service agencies); electronic surveillance; economic policing, which entails support of the National Exchequer and the Taxation Service of their municipality; inspect businesses for labour law, commercial law violations; enforce immigration law by identifying and arresting illegal resident aliens; and common alcohol and drug testing on civilians. Moreover, the Afrodite SAR and Nova Caesarea SAR have their own police forces with arresting powers and capabilities similar to the Eagleland Police.
At the national level, the principal organisations for policing are the Eagleland Police (Greek: Αετοχωρική Αστυνομία) and the Protectores Domestici (Greek: Αετοχωρική Χωροφυλακή). The Eagleland Police are a paramilitary law enforcement organisation, set up to enforce law and order in the Eagleland's cities. The Eagleland Police have an established presence in 257 cities and towns across the country, outside of Illyria Prefecture, Afrodite SAR, and Nova Caesarea SAR. The Eagleland Police are technologically advanced and are also responsible for combating all crime within it's specific area of jurisdiction, which includes violent attacks, drug dealing/smuggling/manufacturing, anti-social behaviour and enforcement of Eaglelander law. They also field specialised urban counter-terror units and, from 2015 onwards, arm all officers with pistols and Model 35A2 carbines.
Another national law enforcement organisation of the Eagleland is the Protectores Domestici, which is responsible for national policing in all areas of the Eagleland, including Illyria Prefecture and the SARs It is the most militarised law enforcement agency in the Eagleland, as it constitutes a part of the Eagleland Armed Forces, and is hence notable both for it's military organisation and also for the fact that it features its own armoured vehicles and light or heavy attack helicopters, which may be used for patrol purposes as well. This is because the Protectores Domestici, as a part of the Eagleland Armed Forces, are expected to contribute to the defence of the Eagleland's territorial integrity. The Protectores Domestici are responsible for patrols in rural areas and towns across the country, and has specialised anti-terror or heavily armed "street warfare" units that can intervene anywhere, including the Eagleland's cities, to support the Eagleland Police or the three prefectural police forces in extremis. Among its roles, is the support other law enforcement organisations of the country in severe emergencies; highway patrol; anti-illegal immigration and smuggling of illicit substances, goods and humans; counter-terrorism; and enforce day-to-day law.
Other law enforcement agencies include the Eagleland Coast Guard (Greek: Αετοχωρικό Λιμενικό Σώμα), responsible for maritime policing, Ministry of National Defence Police (Greek: Αστυνομία Υπουργείου Εθνικής Άμυνας) which, with both civilian and military personnel arresting authority, are responsible for guarding sensitive military installations, nuclear power plants, and other critical infrastructure in the Eagleland as well as the Ministry of National Defence proper and the Eagleland's WMD arsenal, the Eagleland Customs and Immigration Service (Greek: Αετοχωρική Υπηρεσία Τελωνείων και Μετανάστευσης) which are not only responsible for both immigration law enforcement, in conjuction with other police forces, but also border control, and the Eagleland Market Police (Greek: Αετοχωρική Αγορανομία), one of the oldest police forces in Ajax, with recorded operations - albeit at a city-state level - traced back to 507 BCE. They are responsible for tackling financial crime, smuggling, and violations of the Eagleland's financial, commercial, and private data law. They are also tasked with tackling illegal immigration, undocumented (or "black") labour (usually over labour code violations, such as payment below minimum wage, unpaid insurance contributions, undeclared hours or undeclared salaries), and they also maintain a hotline where employees can report harassment, discrimination, or other "suspicious practices" in the workplace.
Critical towards the coordination of all of the Eagleland's law enforcement organisations is the Internal Security Directorate (Greek: Διεύθυνση Εσωτερικής Ασφάλειας). As the domestic intelligence agency of the country, the ISD are responsible for coordinating all law enforcement agencies, gathering information on political or religious extremist groups, terrorist cells, track and gather evidence on criminal activity, primarily the drugs, human organ, and human smuggling rings, as well as the criminal organisations that run these rings, monitoring and substantiating evidence pertaining financial crimes, and conducting counter-espionage missions on Eagleland soil. Unlike most law enforcement agencies the ISD has no arresting power, apart from its elite tactical units. They typically have intelligence gathering authority.
The Eagleland public are given a stake in the civil control of their police forces. For their local municipal and Eagleland Police contingents, there is a Civil Police Oversight Council (Greek: Συμβούλειο Πολιτικής Εποπτείας Αστυνομίας), consisting of 21 Councillors, elected every four years in each municipality. Said council is responsible for the supervision of law enforcement agencies and conduct towards the local populations, and retains the ability to lawfully discharge local superintendents of their duties if they are unable to control their police forces efficiently or control crime effectively. However, there are specific procedures and criteria for such punishments to take place, and said councils may not enforce their decisions on all other law enforcement directorates elsewhere.
Main Article: Economy of the Eagleland
The Eagleland is a highly developed and industrialised country, with a high standard of living and innovation, as well as excellent infrastructure and a highly talented workforce. The economy can be described partly as postindustrial but remains an export-based economy with one of the largest maritime sectors in Ajax. As of 2017, the Gross Domestic Product of the Eagleland stands at €3,774,696,506,584.06 ($3,019,757,205,267.25 ), which translates to a GDP per capita of €53,234.04 ($42,587.23). It also has an HDI index of .922 and a Gini Index of 35.3. Τhe country's unemployment rate is 4.3% and both it's absolute and relative poverty levels are some of the lowest in Ajax. The Eagleland, guided by the principle of "independence" in arms, water, food and fuel, is a major regional exporter of ships and ship parts, engines, luxury cars, sedans, SUVs and muscle cars, electronic goods, as well as weapons and ammunition. It is also exporting agricultural goods, lorries, alcohol, cigars, medical products and equipment. The Eagleland also exports natural gas and refined petroleum, as well as petroleum products and iron ore such as silver, iron, steel, uranium, coal, aluminium, sulfur and gold. Services, however, dominate the Eagleland economy, as manufacturing jobs have been in decline since 1982, replaced by jobs in the tertiary sector.
The Eagleland's public sector, compared to many of it's Belisarian Community members, is relatively medium-to-large in size, making up 26.3% of GDP, wile taxation is at 27% of GDP. Although it cannot be characterised as a social democracy by Arthuristan standards, it is not a fully neoliberal country either. The maxim "moderation is excellence" can correctly characterise Eaglelander public policy. Though the Government invests heavily in infrastructure, education, healthcare and, of course, defence and law enforcement, the welfare system is strictly limited in scope and no subsidies are issued. Furthermore, regulations for SMEs and corporations are minimal and the public sector does not tamper with the free market, a policy which has been applied since 1954 (when price ceilings on several goods were withdrawn) and has functioned well since.
Compared to many nations in the Belisarian Community the Eagleland imposes a lighter tax regime; for instance, a 10-30% progressive tax rates with 4 brackets and a tax threshold of €12,400 ($14,880) p.a., with several tax cuts if households have 2-4 children.
The Constantinople Stock Exchange (Greek: Χρηματιστήριο Κωνσταντινούπολης) is the largest stock exchange in the Eagleland and ranks at the top positions in Ajax in terms of market capitalisation. Equally important is the second largest stock exchange, the Piraeus Dry Index, one of the largest stock exchanges in the region for maritime stock trading, as well as the Athenae Stock Exchange. The Eagleland is home to some of the largest (commodity) companies in the region, including but not limited to, Aetochoric Petroleum, ABOX Motors, Eagleland National Bank, Palaimachos Arms Limited, Poseidon Naval Industries Limited, Marvenitis Limited, Aetochoric Classification Society, Naftiliaki Trapeza, Etairopetrogaz, Kallirois Corporation, Spartan Incorporated, Ouranikon, Legion Armories, Federal Shipping S.A. and Aetochoric Aeronautics Industry Limited. The country is also part of the Belisarian Community's common market and enjoys freedom of movement of goods, services, and labour across the entire Belisarian Community.
The Eagleland's currency, the Eagleland Drachma, is the legal tender currency of the Eagleland. Through careful management by the Bank of the Eagleland it's exchange rate currently stands at $1=€1.25.
The Eagleland is a major producer of agricultural goods in Ajax. Owing to its Mediterranean climate, coupled with abundant irrigation and sustainable practices, yields are high in the Eagleland year round, for a large variety of agricultural goods. Though much of the Eagleland's agricultural output satisfies final demand in the Eagleland per se, some agricultural goods (about 20% of total harvests) are exported. The Eagleland is a net exporter of emmer, rice, what, grain, corn, oat, barley, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, onions, and courgettes. Furthermore, significant exports of olive oil, olives, oranges, mandarins, figs, apples, pears, peaches, cherries, grapes and pomegranates also take place, as are the exports of avocado, couscous, dates, corianders, oregano and vinegar (both 'regular' and of the balsamic variety). The Eagleland is one of Belisaria's largest olive oil producers.
The Eagleland is also a net exporter of dairy and meat products, produced from the Eagleland's large number of ranches. Dairy products include milk and cheese types, notably including Feta, Graviera, Kefalograviera, Myzithra, Kaseri, Kefalotyri, Halloumi, and Metsovono, alongside exports of yoghurt. Dairy products typically come from bovine as well as goat milk. In regards to meat products, the Eagleland produces a large variety of meat products, usually encountered in Hellenic and Latin cusines, such as beef, poultry, and pork. The Eagleland is renowned for the high quality of agricultural products produced, with strict regulations on the liberal use of pesticides, growth hormones etc.
Edible crops aside, the Eagleland is also one of Ajax's largest lavender producers.
The Eagleland is one of Ajax's largest exporters of alcoholic beverages. Some of the region's most renowned drinks, notably beer, wine, and beverages with high alcohol content such as raki, tsipouro, and ouzo, are all brewed in the Eaglelander Republic. Beer, since its introduction by Germanic tribes that settled in the Latin Empire, including the Eagleland proper, during Latin rule, is now the second most popular beverage of Eaglelanders, after coffee, and the country hosts 276 breweries produces over 3,500 brands of beer, making it one of the most diverse beer producers in the region. From white to dark beer varieties, and from beer with alcohol contents as low as 5% to those varieties with 8.5% alcohol, virtually every regional area has it's own unique variety of beer, all of which are protected by the state. Wine, in spite of its historical significance, is slightly less popular but is also produced massively, with 2.94 billion bottles produced in 2013, making the Eagleland one of the largest wine producers in the region.
The Eagleland is also Ajax's principal producer of ouzo, tsipouro, and raki, exporting over 250 million bottles abroad. Although ouzo exports amount to 80% of that figure, exports of tsipouro have increased significantly over the last few years. Other alcoholic drinks, such as cognac, liqueurs and boza are far less prevalent but are, nevertheless, produced in some limited areas of the Eagleland. Boza, in pariticular, is brewed predominantly in Illyria Prefecture by seven breweries and has seen limited exports over the last 20 years.
Tobacco and Hemp
The Eagleland is one of Ajax's largest tobacco and hemp exporters. Eaglelander cigars are famous in the region, especially the oversized brands, as they are consumed by wealthy persons or connoisseurs worldwide. Most Eaglelander cigars have a modest length of ten centimetres, and are characterised by their parejo shape and oscuro colour. The Eagleland is also unique in that it markets and sells a very limited qualtity of the "Aguilano", better known as "penintara" (literally, "the big fifty"), being a cigar with parejo shape, an oscuro colour but more notably a length of fifty centimetres (more than twice the Double Toro band, with a length of 24 centimetres); these have been the subject of comedy and satire, but it's also associated with "extreme smokers" and wealthy politicians. The Eagleland also produces the so called "Metro", a cigar which is a metre long (hence the name), to a very limited cadre of connoisseurs.
Cigarettes form the bulk of the Eaglelander tobacco market. These are less famous among the rich and wealthy but are nevertheless popular among the working classes and have met with commercial success. In 2013 the Eagleland has produced 957,000 tonnes of tobacco, most of which was exported (~86%). Despite being one of Ajax's largest tobacco producers, the ratio of exported tobacco is lower than some analysts would expect because the internal market for cigars remains large nation-wide, as Eaglelanders are some of Belisaria's heaviest smokers. In 2013, 63.6% of males and 39.8% of females nation-wide have been confirmed as tobacco smokers, a figure that puts the Eagleland within the top three nations in Ajax where tobacco consumption is concerned.
Equally important is industrial hemp production. In order to preserve the forests of the Eagleland, Industrial Hemp is commonly raised in the country in order to provide for adequate fibre for books and most documents. Hemp is also grown for fuel, composite materials, as a nutritional source, cordage, jewelry, building materials, animal bedding, weed control and water and/or soil purification. Furthermore, hemp clothing is common in the Eagleland. Eaglelander hemp farmers also export commercial hemp to several countries in Ajax for commercial uses. As of 2012, the Eagleland has legalised cannabis for recreational use, as well, hence cannabis for recreational use is commonly produced and exported to countries where cannabis for recreational use is permitted. The quality of all cannabis products is regularly controlled by the National Food and Medicament Control Service.
Main article: Manufacturing in the Eagleland
A number of cities and towns within the Eagleland are focused on manufacturing. Though manufacturing of goods has somewhat declined in the last twenty years, the Eagleland remains one of Ajax's most industrialised countries. The manufacturing focuses on expensive goods, machinery and chemical products. This includes luxurious automobiles (such as sedans), sports cars, muscle cars, SUVs and the shipbuilding of military ships and yachts, the manufacturing of lorries and helicopters, home appliances, electronics such as CPUs, televisions, computers and mobile phones, but also weapons, military vehicles, ammunition, explosive ordnance and other weapon systems. The Eagleland also manufactures engines for automobiles, ships and aircraft, and is also an important regional player in the shipbuilding industry; even though wages are considerably higher than in many economies with cheaper labour, the Eagleland can compete by laying keel to commercial ships with higher fuel and structural efficiency than that of the competition, or highly desireable cruise ships or ferry boats. There is also a strong industry for propulsion, cargo handling, communication, automation, environmental and security systems for ships. The Eagleland also manufactures -and exports- medicaments, orthopedics, vaccines and surgical or medical equipment, as well as chemicals.
Part of the Eaglelander manufacturing success is the contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises, which are highly specialised and enjoy massive economies of scale and focus on creating innovative and high-value manufactured products, such as spare parts, mechanical parts, chemicals, electrical equipment, machinery, weapons, ammunition, engines and even small vehicles, to name but a few. Such manufacturing takes place at remote, rural communities and the craft is passed down from generation to generation. Such SMEs employ a large portion of the Eaglelander labour force and are often export-oriented, although a domestic market for their services is also sizable. These focus on long-term profitability and combine a cautious and long-term-oriented approach to business, by adopting modern management practices. These include employing outside professional management, implementing lean manufacturing practices and also applying a total quality management system.
Though a few manufacturing jobs will continue to die off, their outlook looks stable at the bare minimum for the near future as demand for such produced goods remains high in the Eagleland, emerging global markets not inclusive. Machinery manufacturing will continue to rise, as industrial countries (in particular Rodarion) have a continuously large demand for expensive yet highly efficient machinery for industrial uses. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical industry is expected to rise considerably in the coming years, given the increasing demand for medicine region-wide. Furthermore, Eaglelander products are known region-wide for their high quality and have as such received status in the region. In early 2014, the No Taxes on our National Industry (Greek: Όχι Φόρους στην Εθνική μας Βιομηχανία) campaign, which advocated the erradication of corporate taxes on heavy industry in the Eagleland, has gained significant ground and is currently being discussed in the Eagleland Senate.
Banking & Insurance
The mainstray of the Tertiary Sector in the Eagleland is banking and insurance. The Eagleland has been, since 1756, attracting a large number of banks and insurance corporations. Specifically, from the insurance standpoint, though life, health, agricultural and automobile insurance are major parts of the Eaglelander insurance market, a large number of insurance corporations are centered around the maritime industry (both marine insurance companies and P&I Clubs), particularly in Peiraias, Athenae, Constantinopolis, and Salona, as well as other harbour cities.
The financial industry is also very strong, particularly in Constantinople, but also in Athenae, Piraeus, Corinthus, Nea Alexandreia, and other cities. However dominated by commercial and investment banks in most cities, Hedge Funds, Private Equity Funds, S&Ls, Credit Unions, Management Investment Companies and brokerages have a stronger presence in the major financial centres. Low taxes on financial companies and insurance companies, plus a robust and transparent legal system and a simplified yet not at all relaxed regulatory framework are responsible for their presence in the Eagleland. The complete lack of any tax on stocks and capital gains on the stock market also boost trading in the Eagleland. In these financial centres, other types of insurance, such as trade credit insurance, liability insurance, are also common. Private Banking is also very important in the Eagleland - the Eagleland's taxation system incentivises high-net-worth individuals that invest in the Eagleland and deposit their money in the country.
The Banking sector of the Eagleland has grown significantly for several reasons. Firstly, the Eaglelander banking system is one of the region's most secretive. Eaglelander Banking Law enforces the respect for bank secrecy, even though that may be violated only when there is adequate suspicion that tax evasion or money laundering or other financial activities are linked directly to the Eagleland, and that requires a special warrant to investigate. This has led to an exponential growth of Eaglelander banks and also attracted various banking institutions from other countries. Equally important is the lack of taxes on financial (and later, insurance) companies in the central business districts of Constantinopolis, Athenae, Piraeas, Salona, Nea Alexandreia, and Corinthus. proper. Such firms situated within the CBD of each of these cities enjoy a tax haven, which has attracted myriads of corporations to them and is one of the city's key sources of economic growth.
Each financial centre has its own nice, even though Constantinopolis features the largest financial industry in the country and provides all financial services. This is followed by Athenae, which specialises in FinTech and Venture Capital funds, and Piraeas, which has one of the largest Maritime Finance and FinTech sectors, even though many Investment Banks and Hedge Funds are based there. The FinTech scene of Athenae and Peiraias are engaged in a form of coopetition, being arch rivals and important partners at the same time, linking the vibrant startup scenes of their respective cities to each other. All three cities are also renowned for their stock exchanges, i.e. the Constantinopolis Stock Exchange, the Attica Stock Exchange, and the Maritime Stock Exchange in Constantinopolis, Athenae, and Peiraias, respectively, are the largest in the country. Salona, Nea Alexandreia, and Corinthus boast a comparatively smaller financial sector. Peripheral financial centres include Avlona, Sirmium, Tarsus, and Dyrrhacium, which mostly feature small boutique banks.
Because of their autonomous status from the Eagleland, Nova Caesareia and Afrodite SAR both have the authority to impose their own taxation system and have their own financial regulations. As such, both areas are also important financial centres, particularly as far as private banking are concerned.
A very important branch of the Eagleland economy is the maritime industry. The Eagleland has one of the largest maritime industries in Ajax, both in number as well as the size of ships, both in Deadweight Tons (DWT) an well as in Gross Tonnage (GT). As of June 2017, there are 5,546 ships registered in the Eaglelander Republic's National Ship Registry, one of the highest number of ships in Ajax. Many of the wealthiest and most influential shipowners, brokers and charterers in the region are based in the Eagleland and operate out of the country's harbours, in particular Peiraias, the largest and busiest transport harbour in the country. The Eagleland is also home to some of Ajax's largest and most influential Hull & Machinery (marine insurance) firms and P&I Clubs, and the Eaglelander Shipowners Association (Greek: Ένωση Αετοχώριων Εφοπλιστών) is one of the most influential interest groups in the country and the region.
The Eagleland's shipping model is based on "hollistic maritime services". That is, whereas some shipping countries focused on developing para-shipping activities like marine insurance broking and not shipping in the form of shipowning and other models focused on the exact opposite, the Eagleland has combined both into a successful combination, which entails an advanced network of para-shipping industries and shipping industries per se. That is supplemented by government investments in infrastructure projects that enhance the quantity of shipping that can be done. Additionally, the Eagleland follows a policy of "maritime privilege". That is, while the official tax rate for corporations currently stands at 15%, the Eagleland's Maritime Industry's businesses pay no corporate tax at all, and tonnage taxes are some of the lowest in the region.
Ships registered in the Eagleland are divided into two service groups. The first is the Eagleland Merchant Navy, which includes all ships owned by private maritime corporations. The second is the Eagleland National Merchant Navy, which includes all ships owned by the Eagleland Government. The EMN differ from the EFMN in that it's ships cannot be requisitioned by the government, even in times of war; this is a reason why 5,446 ships are owned by private corporations. The rationale behind the Government's owning ships (specifically, ~100 vessels) is down to two factors. Firstly, when used on the free market this generates revenue for the Government, which operates those ships as if as though it was a private corporation. And secondly, those ships can be requisitioned by the Government in times of war to fulfill critical strategic needs, without causing problems for the Eaglelander private maritime community.
Part of the Eagleland's success as a shipping nation includes investments in infrastructure. The Ministry of Infrastrcuture spends €25 billion from its budget investing in and upgrading maritime infrastructure, via the Maritime Directorate. This massive amount of money is justified in that the Eagleland features 30 commercial ports, all open to overseas shipping, 20 marinas and 15 passenger ports, and that number does not include the number of fisheries. In addition, most machinery utilised in commercial harbours is highly automated, reducing costs of operation and reducing loading times. Furthermore, maritime security is a necessity given the Eagleland's large volume of shipping on a per annum basis. Hence, a significant proportion of the Ministry of Public Order's spending is allocated to the Eagleland Coast Guard.
Safety is considered important in the Eagleland Maritime Industry; the Eagleland's Aetochoric Classification Society (Greek: Αετοχωρικός Νηογνώμονας) is considered to be one of the most influential and largest classification societies in Ajax, with stringent standards for the certification of ships. The Eagleland's National Ship Registry (Greek: Εθνικό Νηολόγιο) has some regulations, i.e. the ship satisfy stringent safety standards and that minimum manning requirements are met at all times, while crew must satisfy all STCW requirements relevant to their role. However, for all those requirements the NSR offer incentives and rebates for specific categories of ships or ships with 'eco-friendly' characteristics, a block transfer scheme which can reduce registration fees up to 80%, flexibility on crew nationality, recognition of foreign certificates of competency and classification society recognition (ships classified by the Aetochoric Classification Society receive further rebates).
Registering a ship in the Eagleland is a straightforward process taking place in only 1 hour online, the only requirements being that the ship be owned by Eaglelander shipowners and that the ship comply with stringent safety standards, as certified by a recognised classification society. While the Eagleland's Maritime Law has stringent regulations, these are in no ways excessive and it's viewed by lawmakers and entrepreneurs alike as the perfect median, meaning that ships registered in the Eagleland are of a good quality. This goes for freight as well as passenger ships, where in fact passenger ship safety standards are considerably higher. The Eagleland has stringent health and safety standards for seafarers; the Eagleland Coastguard have the right to seize and/or deny entrance in Eaglelander harbours if seafarers are not competent according to STCW requirements and/or the vessel does not satisfy SOLAS standards, should a search be conducted.
The Eagleland has a total of 32 private, non-profit maritime schools, which turn out a large number of high-quality ratings, petty officers, engineers and officers for both the Merchant Navy and the Federal Merchant Navy (not including foreign merchant navies), as well as shipwrights, maritime economists and other shore-based specialties. Furthermore, while the Eagleland's EEZ is considered to be among the region's safest bodies of water, for ships sailing in Pirate hotspots in Ajax or beyond 27 Private Maritime Security Corporations are active in the Eagleland, all of which are regulated by the Ministry of National Defence for quality of personnel. These are not only responsible for maritime counter-piracy protection per se, but also specialised ship-borne self-defence training and advisory services. PMSCs employ not only veteran Eagleland Armed Forces personnel, but recruit foreign military talent region-wide.
The Eagleland is one of Ajax's top tourist hubs, attracting more than fifty million tourists on an annual basis. A significant percentage of those tourists come in summer, with fewer during winter, spring or autumn. In summer, by far, most tourists visit the Kentrades, Constantinopolis, as well as Attican cities, followed by the state of Illyrian, Lacedaemon, as well as Macedonian cities, either for recreational purposes or athletic ones (including, but not at all limited to, surfing, water polo and other aquatic sports). In winter, most visit the states adjacent to the Aetos Mountain Range, mainly for skiing and hiking. Tourism contributes 2.3% annually to the Eagleland's GDP.
The Eagleland is famous for it's hotels and nightlife. Even in small towns, a relatively large number of competing nightclubs are present, and hotels are anything but few and far between. In Athenae, for instance, roughly 12% of all businesses in total are nightclubs and 13% are hotels and motels. The Eagleland is regionally unique in that closing times for nightclubs are considered abnormal before 06:00 am; most typically end at 06:30-07:00 am, although nightclubs in islands can close as late as 09:00 am the following morning. Apart from it's vivid nightlife, another aspect of the Eagleland is sports. Especially in summertime, there is a plethora of sports events taking place, such as super-marathons, including the notorious Islander Marathon, a brutal 90 kilometre-long marathon in the island of Ayios Nikolaos in August, with an average temperature of 49 Degrees Celsius, attracting some of the most extreme athletes in Ajax. The Eagleland also hosts regional Crossfit games in all of the country's environments.
A significant percentage of tourists are historical tourists; these persons visit the Eagleland to take a glance at the nation's many historical monuments. From the beautiful and rich museums of the Eagleland, the oldest and most famous ones being the Panhellenic Museum in Peiraias and the Eagleland Military Museum in Constantinopolis, to the Ancient Greek-styled temples and monuments and statues. Millions visit the Eagleland just for that purpose. Many are also attracted by the Eagleland's rich cuisine, as well as foreign cuisines, and are thus attracted via the culinary tourism programmes. It should be noted that nearly 12.7% of all businesses nationwide are restaurants, bistros, souvlaki shops (souvlatzidika), or cafes. Furthermore, the Eagleland is a preferred nation for medical tourism, eco tourism and agri tourism, christian tourism, wildlife tourism and even gun tourism, to name but a few.
Main article: Government Spending in the Eagleland
The Eagleland Government, at all levels, is characterised by fiscal conservatism. Government spending, as of 2017, is at 26.7% of GDP, wile taxation is at 28.4% of GDP, indicating that the Eagleland Governments' budgets end up with surpluses, in this instance standing at 0.8% of GDP. Public debt is at 35.92% of GDP and there is a constitutional mandate that public debt (interest rates non inclusive) never exceed 50% of the country's annual economic output so as to facilitate repayments. The governments, and in particular, the federal government, must fulfill strict criteria before they even consider taking on loans, and a decision to refuse payment is seen as legal grounds for impeachment. This intense fiscal conservatism has been criticised by Keynesian economists but has allowed the Eagleland economy to endure, and recover from, the Ajax Economic crisis of 2008, as there was large amounts of accumulated capital that could be used to finance the economy during trying times.
The surplus that is accumulated at all levels is distributed as follows. Α part of the surplus is saved so it can be used as an emergency fund in future recessions, and everything else is typically invested in either large domestic projects, or is invested abroad at competitive interest rates. Such an amount may also be invested in infrastructure, education or healthcare facilities, scientific projects and part of it is typically dispersed in the form of tax credits or tax returns, supplementary to the ones already offered to the public via the Ministry of Finance. In the event of a deficit, spending cuts and layoffs are the norm until the budget is balanced. Typically, since the Neoliberal Revolution, deficits were rare in the Eagleland and, when they did occur, were met with a compulsory spending cut so that the budget can be balanced; loans were typically avoided unless it was deemed necessary to do so. Part of the budgets to be spent across the board is also allocated to the financing of existing financial obligations. Hence, it's AAA Rating has been consistent over the last two decades and the Eagleland can, if necessary, take loans at either premiums or low interest rates.
The total spending for all of the Eagleland's levels of governance, after discounting for the 2017 surplus, is $806.27 billion. Of said amount, $723.1 billion is spent by the Eagleland Government and $83.17 billion by all municipalities and prefectures combined. The Eagleland Government's largest spending is in education, followed by defence, medical care, infrastructures, and justice and law enforcement. The local governments invest in welfare, local infrastructure, and cultural events (theatre, sports etc.). Concurrently, of the 2017 surplus, $50 billion was saved and $25 billion was invested in the Eagleland proper or markets abroad, much of which were invested in countries with emerging or powerful economies, primarily developing countries in Scipia. In fact, the Eagleland is one of the biggest investors of countries in the south of the continent, investing $70 billion annually in said countries (accounting for both private and public investments).
Main Article: Infrastructure in the Eagleland
As of 2014, the Eagleland entails 653,876 km of serviceable roads, including a total of 11,907 km of motorways, expressways and military expressways. Of the 653,876 km, 231,000 km are non-local roads. The Eagleland also includes a total of 43,407 km of railways, which includes regular, high speed, and metropolitan rail networks serving national, provincial, and municipal communities, respectively, of which rail networks nearly 37% are electrified. This figure also entails train lines, tram lines, as well as subways in some of the Eagleland's largest cities. The country also features 37 civilian airports and airfields, 30 of which are open to international travel. Most infrastructure are managed by a joint public-private system through state-owned private corporations, while other parts of the country's transportation network are completely privatised. All parts of the network are quality and reliability assessed by the respective governing bodies.
Driving is on the right; general speed limits, unless otherwise stated, are 50 km/h (31 mph) in urban areas, 90 km/h (55 mph) outside urban areas save motorways and expressways, 110 km/h (68 mph) in expressways for private vehicles (90 km/h (55 mph) for buses and lorries lighter than 3.5 tonnes and 80 km/h (49 mph) for lorries heavier than 3.5 tonnes) and 130 km/h (80 mph) in motorways, unless stated that speed limit is set to the responsibility of the drivers. Minimum speed limits for the latter and the former are set at 45 km/h in clear weather conditions. However, in practice the Eagleland Motorways have speed limits set to "responsible", authorising speeds higher than 130 km/h or lower than 45 km/h in about 90% of the network. This means that individual drivers accelerate or decelerate based on existing conditions and take full responsibility for their actions.
The Eagleland, as of July 2017, has a population of 70,907,575 people, with nearly 98.6% of Eaglelanders living in the mainland and 1.4% living in the islands within the Eagleland's EEZ. According to the 2010 census, the Eagleland's total population is generally homogeneous, with 85.5% of the population being Eaglelander nationals. 9.24% of the population is made up of nationals from other Belisarian Community countries, primarily Lihindos, Latium, Arthurista, and Vannois, and the remaining 5.76% come from all other parts of Ajax, including Belfras, Rieutemark, Pallamara etc.
The Eagleland is also homogeneous in other aspects. In terms of race, the vast majority of Eaglelanders are caucasians, who constitute 94.6% of the total population. This is followed by other racial groups, principally the Asian (2.6%), Scipian (1.3%), Latin (0.7%), Indian (0.5%), as well as other (0.3%) racial groups. Of the Eaglelander Nationals that make up the total population of the country, 86.71% are characterised as Hellenic Eaglelanders, 7.85% Illyrian Eaglelanders, 4% Germanic Eaglelanders, and 1.44% Naturalised Eaglelanders. The diversity of the Eagleland's population (both in terms of race and in the diversity of the Eaglelander population per se) is expected to rise in the coming years.
The Eagleland mildly suffers from the phenomenon of the ageing of the population, in that the number of kids the average Eaglelander household have has declined since 1982. However, that phenomenon is limited in scope, as it's total fertility rate currently stands at 2.21, greater than the rate needed to replace the current population (2.1). The Εagleland Government offer tax breaks and municipalities offer financial grants to incentivise couples to have children, by covering expenses related to pregnancy fees and in some instances fertility treatments at local hospitals, and given the widespread religiosity of the Eagleland people, even in the younger generations, it's considered the norm to have between 2-4 children, although those who cannot have owing to fertility problems typically adopt children.
The Eagleland's population is only slightly urbanised; 39.6% of Eaglelanders live in rural areas, compared to a 61.4% that live in large towns and cities. Urban migration is limited compared to other countries in that the agricultural and manufacturing industries in some local communities remain strong, which incentivise children to remain with their families in the farms, even though the number of farmer or worker offspring that attend university of technical institution or polytechnic schools has increased significantly. Nevertheless, a considerable number of kids from agricultural backgrounds do return to their hometowns, as agriculture is a profitable enterprise in the country (for instance, it is not uncommon for some Business Administration graduates to manage their family farms); those with technical skills can expect to return to their hometowns better prepared for the challenges of their respective industry.
Immigration and Ethnic Groups
The Eagleland has a clear distinction between nationality and citizenship. Nationals and Citizens have the right to vote and be elected in elections at a municipal and state level, and may enlist in the Armed Forces, but unlike nationals, "pure" citizens cannot be elected in, or vote for, the Eagleland Government elections, nor are they able to enlist as officers. Citizenship laws dictate that an applicant be a permanent resident for a minimum of four years before applying, be of "good" moral character and display a level of academics (in Modern Greek and Eaglelander Civics, History and Culture) which is deemed "acceptable" in written examinations. Orthodox Christians can apply for citizenship after three and a half years of permanent residence but they must take the same tests as other potential citizens.
Immigration to the Eagleland is strict and tightly regulated, dependent on vacancy reports from the Eagleland Ministry of Labour and Welfare. They release annual quotas for visa classes each year, and set strict criteria for permanent residence permits depending on each class. This is done not only in order to "eliminate" immigrants who do not possess the skills that employers demand, but also to encourage immigration of talented and highly skilled people, without leading to increased unemployment or bring about a collapse in public order. Security clearance is also required for permanent settlement visas, hence it's very difficult for nationals of hostile to the Eagleland states to migrate to the country.
Even so, there is an estimated 850,000 illegal immigrants in the Eagleland, principally from Scipian countries and Estoni. The Eagleland, being a member of the Belisarian Community, an island state with a geostrategic location, and with a high standard of living, is a favourite destination for illegal immigrants in the local area, even though it remains a difficult country to reach. A significantly smaller number of such illegal immigrants (~10,000) includes persons on work visas that have expired and consequently have committed immigration offences.
The Eagleland is a highly religious country, which is evident by many factors. As described by it's full name, the country is a predominantly Orthodox Christian country, as 90.4% of the population describe themselves as Eaglelander Orthodox Christians. Other religious groups exist, but to a far lesser degree. Judaism represents 3.5% of the country's population, Roman Catholicism 3% and Islam 2.1% of the country's population. Other religions account for 0.4% of the country's population, as does the secular (0.15%), agnostic (0.15%) and the atheist community (0.3%).
As Eaglelander Orthodox Christians Christians represent the predominant majority of the country's population and has played an important role in the Eagleland's History, it is considered the "prevailing" faith of the country. The Eagleland Government follows the Greek Orthodox almanac, respects and follows it's traditions, and Eagleland Law dictates that all legislative, executive or judicial personnel swear allegiance to God, unless they follow other religions or are atheists; this predisposition also exists for citizenship, military, witness and other oaths. This does not mean that the Eagleland Government does not respect other religious groups as well.
The amount of those with no religion, atheist or agnostic, has increased, but at a low rate, over the last twenty years; in 1980, only 0.15% of the population claimed to have no religious affiliations. It's growth rate, however, remains low, and has declined over the last five years. Church attendance rates, on the other hand, have declined sharply over the same period, particularly due to the fast rates of modern life; less than 50% of the population attend churches regularly, down from 80% in 1982.
See also: Eaglelander Language Dispute
Modern Greek is the official language of the Eagleland. It is the dominant language in most conversations, media outlets, documents in the country and is the language with which almost all political dialogues are facilitated. 92.8% of the Eagleland's population show mastery in Greek, 4.9% mediocre or limited proficiency and the remaining 2.3% show an inability to comprehend Greek; these are immigrant populations that are unable to speak the language for the time being. Greek is also utilised almost exclusively by 90.8% of all households in the country, while 7.4% use both their native language and Greek and 6.9% use mainly their native language at home. Greek language courses, public or private, are compulsory for migrants on permanent residence visas, and a critical naturalisation requirement is a 'good command' of Modern Greek.
The variety of Greek used is dimotiki, which in this case refers to the standard variant of Modern Greek used. The more archaic form of Modern Greek, kathareuousa, fell out of favour in 1983 when it has officially been replaced, and is seldom used by the population (typically, small fringe groups reject the dimotiki and speak in kathareuousa). Families within the Eagleland's Old Aristorcracy group, which includes the Eaglelander Imperial Family, plus some isolated communities nation-wide, speak Ancient Greek, primarily in the Attican dialect, although for said isolated communities local variations exists. Those who speak kathareuousa and Ancient Greek employ the polytonic system, which has been officially rescinded in 1985 in favour of a simplified monotonic system in use today.
Even though the Eagleland is a unitary state, the Eagleland's cultural traditions among the Eaglelander population vary significantly from state to state. This is reflected by the dialects of Greek spoken in the country. The most commonly understood (and official) is standard Greek, which is the dialect spoken in Athenae and Constantinopolis. However, reflecting strong regional cultural differences between Eaglelanders, many other dialects are used. These range from those that bear small differences from Standard Modern Greek, such as the Epirote, Thracian, Lacedaemonian, Corinthian, Macedonian, and Thessalian dialects, and those that differ greatly (to the point that other Eaglelanders typically treat them as 'foreign languages'), such as the Cretan, Pontite, Afroditian, Cappadocian, Grico, Romaniot, and Tsakonic dialects.
However, Greek is not the only language utilised in the country. 82.9% of all Eaglelanders, immigrants non inclusive, are able to communicate to a good level in English. English is officially recognised in the country as a language to be used by the governments, and in the corporate world, it's commonly used. In fact, Eaglelanders working in the maritime industry are famous for communicating almost exclusively in English. When communication in English is necessitated, Arthuristan English is used; it is the variety of English most commonly taught and used in the country. It is almost universally understood, even though older people do not show the same kind of capacity with the language as their children or grandchildren. It is held at the same level as Ancient Greek as official languages to be used whenever necessitated.
In the Eagleland, there is also a small number of languages that are recognised at a national level. These include the Illyrian and Germanic languages, alongside Latin. These are spoken by the small non-Greek and non-naturalised communities in specific regions of the country, and are mostly common in rural areas. These and any other languages spoken in the Eagleland are nationally recognised but nevertheless not national languages, meaning that, before submission to a central government authority or before a court of law, documents must first be translated into Modern Greek, English or Ancient Greek, and trials take place exclusively in Modern Greek, meaning that in some limited cases the hiring of an interpreter is necessary.
Apart from said languages, the relatively multicultural composition of the immigrant population of the Eagleland means that more languages are spoken, at least at an individual or, at best, a small community level. Overall, over 100 languages are spoken in the Eagleland, albeit at varying levels of frequency.
Main Article: Education in the Eagleland
Primary and Secondary Education
The Eagleland's education system is divided between public schools and private schools, all under direct supervision from the Ministry of National Education, which oversees standards. Homeschooling is nationally protected by law but under specific and strict guidelines. Parents can choose, therefore, to either send their kids to public schools, administered for free to all Eaglelander nationals, citizens, resident aliens of Eaglelander descent, as well as offspring of permanent residents or other foreign nationals who pay taxes in the Eagleland (the rest must pay marginal school fees), or receive vouchers to send their offspring to a private school of their choice, or homeschool their children. A purely meritocratic view on education (i.e. only the best minds should go to university) also reflects on Eaglelander education.
In any case, the Eagleland has laws mandating the education of every child living in its jurisdiction. That is, every child aged 6 must either attend a school or be homeschooled and demonstrate regular progress. Nationally, the legal requirement is to complete both primary education at elementary schools (Δημοτικό), which lasts 6 years, then complete secondary education at a middle school (Γυμνάσιο), which lasts 3 years. The very few who systematically fail to meet the standard are either sent to elementary military schools (Πρωτοβάθμιο Στρατιωτικό Σχολείο), that last nine years at the very most, or are removed from the schooling system and denied their right to vote and be elected in elections until their educational situation ameliorates.
Kindergarten attendance, before enrolling in elementary schools, is compulsory as well, from the age of 4. Insistence is given on reading, writing, and arithmetic askills. The primary language of instruction is Modern Greek, even though Ancient Greek is also taught at the elementary and, sometimes, the kindergarten level. At the end of the obligatory level of instruction pupils must be numerate and capable to write, read and communicate in Modern Greek and English. Regional schools also teach Illyrian or Gothic and use them in tandem with Greek as media of instruction.
Upon successful completion of this obligatory level, students can elect to either continue their education in General High Schools (Γενικό Λύκειο - ΓΕΛ), Vocational High Schools (Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΕΠ.ΑΛ), Military High Schools (Στρατιωτικό Λύκειο - ΣΛΥ), Artistic High Schools (Καλλιτεχνικό Λύκειο - ΚΑ.ΛΥ), or Experimental High Schools (Πειραματικό Λύκειο - ΠΕΙ.ΛΥ). Homeschooling through this way is done through the National Homeschooling Programme (Greek: Εθνικό Πρόγραμμα Κατ΄Οίκον Μαθήσεως) or NHP (ΕΠΚΜ), an oversight programme, voluntary in nature, designed to oversee the child's progress as it prepares to attend the final exams. Students of all high schools and homeschooled candidates can, at will, sit the Panaetochoric Exams (Παναετοχωρικές Εξετάσεις) for entrance in public Higher Education Institutes (Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - ΑΕΙ) or Technical Educational Institutes (Τεχνικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - ΤΕΙ). Those who did not attend the Panaetochoric Exams can enroll at Professional Qualification Institutes (Ινστιτούτα Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης - ΙΕΚ) or private universities - even though some now demand the Panaetochoric exams.
Standards remain high throughout the process; although 98.9% of all children who begin their compulsory education will complete it by the ages of 15-16 years, only 40% will make it to any kind of high school, each with their own examinations and other requirements. At elementary school, classes are divided depending on the students' ability; those who excel learn more than those who aren't as adaptive, as the latter receive an education more suitable to their capacities. The ratio of Eaglelanders who attend AEIs stands at 25% and TEIs at 45%. Although it is compulsory to attend and pass standardised exams on the national level at the end of elementary and middle schools, until age 15/16, the Panaetochoric exams are not. Success at these exams will determine which university they will attend, even though some universities may impose additional exams and tests before enrollment can be facilitated.
Foreign language learning is popular in the Eagleland. Schools typically teach English, but also Illyrian, French, and Gothic, to name but a few. Although schools are seen as a facilitator of learning foreign languages, primarily English (which is a compulsory part of the education programme), frontistiria, i.e. private institutions, exist to provide foreign language acquisition programmes. Classes, be it supplementary or acquisitional, are offered in English, French, Gothic, Latin, Illyrian, Estonian and many other languages. The average Eaglelander can expect to learn 3 foreign languages, including English, on completion of their compulsory education. Frontistiria are considered successful enterprises, amassing €25 billion ($20 billion) in 2017.
Tertiary education in the Eagleland consists of undergraduate, graduate and doctoral studies, and entails lifelong education programmes. Educational institutes are divided into Higher Education Institutes (Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - ΑΕΙ), Technical Educational Institutes (Τεχνικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - ΤΕΙ) and Professional Qualification Institutes (Ινστιτούτα Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης - ΙΕΚ). AEIs typically last 4 years, TEIs last 3 years and IEKs can be anything from six months to two and a half years in length, depending on the course. The Eagleland is renowned region-wide for it's high-demands learning culture, which demands that students develop critical thinking and absorb efficiently information without rote memorisation, as well as the high scientific level of it's professors.
Eaglelander universities can be described by the high quality of students that enroll in their programmes. Some universities are more demanding than others and the universities in the Kallimachos Group demand additional examinations for all candidates. Foreign students do not have to sit the Panaetochoric Examinations but must pass an interview by the universities, which will screen potential applicants before a visa is granted. The Kallimachos Group universities have the tendency to reject from 40-70% of original applicants through their stringent academic selection programmes. For those that make it into university, the demands increase for the development of critical thinking and learning information, and the workload is considerably heavier in Kallimachos Group Universities. Candidates must complete their course graduation requirements in accordance to the n+2 rule, where n indicates the years of the institution, i.e. within six years for AEIs and 5 years for TEIs; each IEK sets their own graduation requirement standards. Punishments for poor student behaviour are also some of the strictest in Ajax.
Attending any of these aforementioned institutes requires the payment of tuition fees, including the prices for books and accommodation/feeding/extracurricular activities of students. Universities tend to issue scholarships to the best students in each year, paying in full tuition and book acquisition fees, and providing a specific amount of money for accommodation and food. Other students must rely on the National Studies Assistance Programme (Greek: Εθνικό Πρόγραμμα Χρηματικής Βοήθειας Φοιητητών), known as NSAP (Ε.Π.Χ.Α.Φ), i.e. a student loans/bursaries system. The Eaglelander Government issues loans for attending public and private institutions, which covers all fees, save extracurricular fees, all within specific thresholds. The loans have to be paid back whenever the students enter the labour force. The payments depend on the salary students will make upon graduation, and the loans are issued with a zero interest rate.
The National Students Assistance Programme is open to all students, Eaglelander and foreign, and must be refunded. However, student loan debts are dischargeable by bankruptcy, per the Eaglelander Bankruptcy Code. Debts are erased, as a general rule, after a period of 30 years, but there are specific exceptions, specified in specific articles of said code. Futhermore, the Ministry of National Education have a policy of financing a maximum of one undergraduate and two postgraduate programmes per student, and at no point can a student be reconsidered for the programme should "grievous failure to perform" be exhibited (neglecting studies, or violating the n+2 rule). If a student is rejected for this reason from universities or commits serious criminal offences, they must refund the Eaglelander Government. Moreover, foreign nationals that have debts outstanding in the Eagleland are prohibited from leaving the country until such debt is repaid; moreover, foreign nationals with Eagleland Government student loans that discharge their debt for reasons other than financial distress are deported from the Eagleland and receive a lifetime ban from visiting or emigrating to the country.
Science and Technology
The Eagleland is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 75,000 researchers share a $7.8 billion public research and development budget. The Eagleland is one of the most scientifically advanced countries in Ajax, with multiple regional citations in physics, biology, chemistry or medicine. Some of the Eagleland's more prominent technological contributions are in the fields of electronics, weapons, automobiles (mainly military, but also civilian), aircraft, machinery, earthquake engineering, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. The Eagleland is also a leader in automation technology, with thousands of robotics in widespread use in industries.
The Eagleland Space Exploration Directorate (Greek: Αετοχωρική Διεύθυνση Εξερεύνησης Διαστήματος), or EFSED, is the Eagleland's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. The Eagleland boasts a large number of satelites (26 for civilian uses, classified numbers for military uses), and it's own Space Station called the "Eaglelander Space Station" Greek: Αετοχωρικός Διαστημικός Σταθμός), otherwise known as the "Citadel" or the "Acropolis" (Greek: Ακρόπολη), which is shared with other allied states in the Belisarian Community on a case-by-case basis. The Eagleland boasts it's own Positioning System network, designated as AST (Greek: Αετοχωρικό Σύστημα Τοποθέτησης - Eagleland Positioning System).
The EFSED's programmes are funded by the Eagleland Government, which provides the Eagleland Space Exploration Directorate with $2.5 billion on an annual basis. The EFSED plans to set up a research base on the Moon in 2020 and in Mars in 2025.
Health care in the Eagleland is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. The Eagleand National Health System (Greek: Αετοχωρικό Εθνικό Σύστημα Υγείας) or ESY system, overseen by the Ministry of Health, which provides free healthcare for all Eagleland citizens and nationals, as well as Eagleland Permanent Residence Permit holders or other foreign nationals that pay taxes to the Eagleland Government. In the Eagleland, there are over 5,327 registered Hospitals and clinics, and a total of 900,670 beds between them. All hospitals and clinics are assessed for standards, and only hospitalisation in public hospitals is financed by the government. Emergency, ambulance and air-ambulance services in the Eagleland are provided by the National Centre for Direct Aid, known mostly by the acronym EKAB (Greek: Εθνικό Κέντρο Άμεσης Βοήθειας).
Health insurance is not compulsory for all persons residing in the Eagleland. International civil servants, members of permanent missions and their family members may apply to join the Eagleland Social Security Institute (Greek: Ίδρυμα Κοινωνικής Ασφάλισης), known as IKA, within five years of settling in the Eagleland. What should be noted is that the IKA is publicly-administered but no payroll taxes are levied; instead, employees take their full salary and invest it in the insurance scheme they believe is best. Public family doctors are entirely paid by the ESY, must offer visiting time at least five days a week and have a limit of 1,500 patients. Patients are assigned a doctor by the ESY but if they are dissatisfied with the assigned doctor they are free to change doctors, provided the doctor they choose has free slots. If no free slots are available, families are free to select private doctors, not funded by the ESY.
Prescription drugs can be acquired only if prescribed by any doctor. If prescribed by the family doctor, they are generally subsidized, requiring only a copay that depends on the medicine type and on the patient income. Over-the-counter drugs are paid out-of-pocket. Both prescription and over-the-counter drugs can only be sold in specialised shops, i.e. pharmacies (Greek: Φαρμακεία). Visits by specialist doctors or diagnostic tests are provided by the public hospitals or by conventioned private ones, and if prescribed by the family doctor require only a copay (of the order of €50 ($42) for a visit without any diagnostic test) and are free for the poor. Waiting times are usually up to a few weeks or months in the big public facilities and up to a few days or wees in the small conventioned private facilities. Patients, however, can opt for the "free market" option, provided by both public and private hospitals, which are paid completely out-of-pocket and have generally much shorter waiting times.
Health insurance covers the costs of medical treatment and hospitalisation of the insured. Surgeries and hospitalization provided by the public hospitals or by conventioned private ones are completely free of charge for everyone, regardless of income. For the planned surgeries waiting times can be up to many months, especially in the big cities. For private hospitals and clinics, however, the insured person pays part of the cost of treatment. This is done by either means of an annual excess called the Health Bill (Greek: Λογαριασμός Υγειας), which ranges from €420 ($350) to a maximum of €1,200 ($1,000) as chosen by the insured person (premiums are adjusted accordingly), or by a charge of 10% of the costs over and above the excess up to a stop-loss amount of €840 ($700). In case of pregnancy there is no charge. For hospitalisation, one pays a contribution to room and service costs.
Insurance premiums vary from insurance company to company, the excess level chosen, the place of residence of the insured person and the degree of supplementary benefit coverage chosen (dental care, private ward hospitalisation, etc.). As far as health insurance is concerned, the insurance companies cannot set any conditions relating to age, sex or state of health for coverage. Although the level of premium can vary from one company to another, they must be identical within the same company for all insured persons of the same age group and region, regardless of sex or state of health. While premiums tend to be risk-based, IKA insurance is not. The insured person has full freedom of choice among the recognised healthcare providers competent to treat their condition on the understanding that the costs are covered by the insurance up to the level of the official tariff. There is freedom of choice when selecting an insurance company, provided it is an officially registered caisse-maladie or a private insurance company authorised by law, to which one pays a premium, usually on a monthly basis.
While in practice private firms would charge higher premiums than IKA policies, in actuality both public and private firms compete for premiums, even though IKA premiums are discounted based on actual income capacities in some marginal circumstances, hence a price difference does exist between IKA and several top-tier private insurance. However, the number of uninsured Eaglelanders is low, and where patients are uninsured, hospital management can exercise their own choice whether to admit or reject a patient, based on hollistic criteria.
Main Article: Culture of the Eagleland
The Eagleland utilises the metric system, alongside the imperial system and, to some limited extent, the Ancient Eaglelander system. The metric system is the most universally understood in the country, and is mandated officially, but the imperial system is also used in some circumstances (and it is mandatory, in road signs, to be used alongside metric measurement systems). For instance, while Eaglelanders measure height with metres and centimetres, area in square metres, square kilometres or hectares, volume in litres or square litres, distances in metres or kilometres, weight in kilogrammes or metric tonnes, temperature in Celsius and speed in kilometres per hour, they use horsepower for automobile powers (for other electrical devices, they use kilowatts), wind speeds in miles per hour etc. They are also familiar with pints, feet, yards, inches, miles (both land and nautical) and miles per hour. However, they tend not to be familiar with other imperial measurement units (such as Fahrenheit, gallons etc.).
On top of those, Eaglelanders are familiar with some of the Ancient Eaglelander units of measurement. Length-wise, these include the Eagleland Foot (pous: 0.308 m or 1.01 ft), the Plethron (100 podes, 30.8 m or 33.7 yd), the Stadion (600 podes, 184.9 m, 202.2 yd), and the Eaglelander Mile (8 stadia, 1,479 m or 1,617 yd). All other such units of measurement are no longer in use, and even the aforementioned ones are rarely used, given the prevalence of the metric and (to some degree) of the imperial measurement units, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar and the changes in the measurement units in the Eagleland Drachma non inclusive.
When splitting decimals, Eaglelanders use commas instead of full stops, and when splitting millions and thousands (and so forth) they use full stops, instead of commas, corresponding with the Greek language. For instance, the amount "ten million, eight hundred and fifty-nine thousand, nine hundred and seven Dollars and thirty-nine cents" is written in English (particularly in nearly all Free Pardes nations) as "$10,859,907.39", whereas Eaglelanders write "10.859.907,39 $" or "$10.859.907,39". However, this tendency tends to be limited to Greek, as Eaglelanders tend to use the English decimal division system when using the English language, even though this is not always the case.