This article belongs to the lore of Kylaris.

Florena

Floren Republic

República Florana (Floren)
Flag of Florena
Flag
Coat of Arms of Florena
Coat of Arms
Motto: "Nosaltres, hereus de la terra"
"We, inheritors of the earth"
Anthem: Marxa del Progrés
"March of Progress"
MediaPlayer.png
Location of Florena (dark green)– in Euclea (green & dark grey)– in the Euclean Community (green)
Location of Florena (dark green)
– in Euclea (green & dark grey)

– in the Euclean Community (green)
Map of Florena
Map of Florena
Capital
and largest city
Demora
Official languagesFloren
Recognised regional languagesLusitan
Almerian
Enderan
Demonym(s)Floren
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic
• Premier
Rosa Escudero
Melcion Auleda
Llorenç Rio
Dèbora Lloses
Ricard Sisó
LegislatureGeneralitat
Senate
Grand Syndicate
Corts Populares
Establishment
• Nèstor's coronation
1708
• Treaty of Savona
1729
• Vilavend regime
1911
• Modern Republic
22 April 1935
• Founded the EC
1 January 1948
Area
• Total
387,609.60 km2 (149,656.90 sq mi)
• Water (%)
2.7
Population
• 2018 estimate
55,000,000
• 2017 census
54,821,712
• Density
156.91/km2 (406.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$1.928 trillion
• Per capita
$31,699
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$1.512 trillion
• Per capita
$24,860
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 21.5
low
HDI (2013)Steady 0.921
very high
CurrencyEuclo (EUC)
Time zoneUTC-1 (Floren Regional Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+55
ISO 3166 codeFLR
Internet TLD.fl

Florena (Floren: Floranya), officially the Floren Republic (Floren: República Florana) is a sovereign state in Euclea, bordered by Gaullica to the north, Carcosa to the east and Etruria to the west. Its coastline extends along the Gulf of Assonaire and the Solarian Sea. The country spans an area of 387,609 square kilometres (149,656 square miles), and hosts a population of 54,821,712. The ancient city of Demora is the nation's historic capital and largest city.

Occupying a strategic position at the gateway to Euclea, Florena was a prized possession of the Carcosan and Solarian empires, who conquered it from the native tribes. As a core region of Solaria, Florena would flourish under its rule, until the mid 400s CE, following the empire's retreat and subsequent collapse. Following a brief period of local Solaro-Floren rule, much of Florena would come under the control of the Verliquoian Empire from the 500s to the 700s. Following this, the country bore the brunt of the Waratha Caliphate's invasion of Euclea. Despite lengthy rule, Mumin culture only truly permeated the island of Bokela. The post-caliphate period was characterised by the feuding of the fractured city-states and petty kingdoms of the peninsula. The largest among these were among the wealthiest cities in Euclea.

During this period of disunity, the country would earn its moniker as the land of blood and wine; the states feuded both economically and militarily, resulting in the emergence of strong, powerful mercenary groups. Later in this period, the peninsula would be home to the Renaixement; an explosion of thinking, in which traditional medieval thought was challenged, and the works of the ancient Solarians were revived. Following the reformation, the Floren city-states would find themselves isolated from many of their former northern trade partners, and would endeavor to trade with the new world and with Coius instead. Conflict over trade reignited old rivalries between the city-states, and began a new period of warfare. Starting in 1691, Florena would be united during the Floren Unification Wars under the leadership of Nèstor Pereramon; a revolutionary leader of the Enlightenment, who would endeavour to spread enlightenment ideas across Euclea during the following Pereramonic Wars. Following his defeat, his reactionary son Enric was crowned King of the Florens, while the Treaty of Savona would enshrine the concept of Savonian sovereignty into Euclean law.

In the following years, Florena would rebuild from the wars and movements within the country would seek to reconcile the divisions that the country suffered from linguistically, politically and culturally. During this period, the aristocracy established itself firmly as a potent force in the country, leading to a relative reduction in the population of freedmen, and a return to medieval serfdom in rural areas. This led to general discontent, which culminated in the 1911 general strike, and a general period of intense instability and political unrest. The Great War which followed saw Florena occupied and ruled by a puppet regime, until its liberation by partisans led by Isabela Elíamar, who later went on to become Premier of the first Floren Republic. Accompanying this was a vast social revolution, which saw the overturning of the old order, and a mass syndication of the economy. In 1948, Florena became a founder of the EC. This was accompanied by a decrease in revolutionary fervor, and by the 1980s, the partial de-syndication had taken place alongside privatisation initiatives and Euclean integration.

Today, Florena is a federal constitutional republic, operating a mixed economy with syndicalist characteristics with a GDP (PPP) per capita of $31,699. The current Premier is Rosa Escudero, while the current First Speaker of the Generalitat is Melcion Auleda. Florena is considered a regional power in Euclea, and is one of the more influential members of the Euclean Community. It is a member of the Community of Nations, EC, NAC, ICD and AF.

Etymology

The Estmerish name "Florena" is a bastardisation of the native Floren name for the country, Floranya, itself derived from the Solarian provincial name Floreania, meaning "thriving/blooming land". It is believed that the Solarians gave the province its name due to the vast expanse of arable land across the country, which was perfect for the cultivation of grapes for the production of wine.

Other common names for the country have contrived origins. La Península i les Illes (the Peninsula and the Islands) - referring to the geographical shape of the country - is believed to have emerged around the Pereramonic Wars to describe Nèstor Pereramon's vision of a united Florena, while Terra de Sang i Vi (Land of Blood and Wine) is believed to have emerged during the late Renaixement period during the Wars of the Vines, due to the intense level of brutal conflict experienced in the wealthy region.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

Temple of Artimnus in Sarcus, an example of ancient Elladan architecture in Florena.

Acting as the gateway to Euclea, Florena records the first human settlement on the continent. First inhabited by Neanderthals close to 400,000 years ago, modern Humans are believed to have appeared as migrants from Coius some 45,000 years ago, gradually wiping out and replacing the native Neanderthals on the peninsula to become the sole human species by 35,000 years ago, paving the way for the human domination of Euclea and the world.

Prior to the Solarian conquest of the region, the local peoples were divided into two groups; the Hyndo-Euclean Tenoflorens and the pre-Hyndo-Euclean Aureans. The Aureans dominated the country's southern coastal region along the Solarian Sea and Aurean Strait, while also maintaining a presence in Transmuntanya, while the Tenoflorens inhabited a significantly larger portion of the country, stretching from the Fi del Món mountain range to the Lusitan peninsula. Conflict between the two groups, though evident, was not as common as intra-group conflict, which has far greater documentation. Important groups included the Lusitani, the Pelonii, the Ostrianaes and the Oscanii.

Beginning in the 8th century BCE, the ancient Carcosans and ancient Elladans established a number of colonies along the southern coast of the country, and on the island of Bokela. Major colonies included Vassalia, Zifini and Eriala, all of which grew to become major post-Solarian cities. The rising influence of these colonies would ultimately lead to conflict, and the subsequent expansion of the Carcosan Empire's territory in mainland Florena.

Solarian and Verliquoian Florena

Depiction of the Floren-born Solarian Emperor Tulius.

Having conquered and integrated the Transmuntanya region in 311 BCE, the rising Solarian Repbulic would establish control over the southern Floren coast by 276 BCE, ultimately seizing the region from the Carcosan Empire during the First Aurean War. By 259 BCE, the entire Floren peninsula had been fully subjugated by Solaria, and was organised into the provinces of Floreania Superior and Floreania Inferior. The Elladan-speaking city of Vassalia - granted special autonomy under the Republic due to having sided with Solaris over Carcosa during the Aurean war - would grow to become a major Solarian port city in the region, alongside the rebuilt city of Carcosium Novium.

Gradually, the Floren peninsula and its local population were Solarianised, and grew to speak Vulgar Solarian, while local leaders were absorbed into the greater Solarian aristocracy. Following this Solarianisation, Florena would flourish, becoming a bulwark of Solarian strength, and a united province of Floreania would become a Senatorial province during the Imperial period. Owing to it's rich Solarian culture and position as a powerful province within the Solarian domain, it is of little surprise that Florena produced five Solarian Emperors; Aurelian, Tulius, Parian, Zenus and Castamanus, and numerous other Solarian individuals of note, such as philosopher Palageo the Wise.

Solarian control and influence over Florena would essentially collapse following the Solarian Cataclysm and the Sack of Solaris in 426 CE. The Solarian legions which had kept the peace in the region for so long retreated to defend the homeland, leading to a general breakdown in law and order and the rise of localised leadership. Such petty kings proved unable to combat the many threats to the region; the remaining few Tenic tribes returned from the mountains to pillage, and a resurgent Carcosan Empire began a hushed attempt to reclaim lost power in the region. Ultimately, it fell to an influential outside power to restore law and order to the once-prosperous region.

Tacitus de la Croix brought the Last Solarian Expedition to Florena starting in 501 CE, in which vast northern and coastal portions of the country would come under the control of the the largest and most successful of the Solarian successor states, the Verliquoian Empire. Though centred in Verlois, in Gaullica, the Empire invested heavily in the reconstruction of the province, and Florena benefited greatly from the peace brought by Verliquoian rule. Such rule would continue largely uncontested until the War of the Cross and Crescent, and the landing of the rising Waratha Caliphate in Euclea 689 CE, which marked the definitive end of Solarian-influenced rule in Florena.

Florena under the Caliphate

Nobles of Florena bow to the Mumin conquerors.

Warfare between Verliquois and the Waratha Caliphate would continue, but by 701 CE, it had become apparent that Florena had fully fallen to the Caliphate. This was to be the beginning of Mumin rule in Florena, though it would be a relatively light rule, ensured by a preoccupation with fighting the Verliquoian-led Euclean alliance. The Sotirian Floren population was granted rights and freedoms with greater scope than the rank of dhimmi traditionally allowed, to defuse tensions and to prevent a Sotirian uprising from cutting off the Caliphate's supply-lines. This would continue after the peace of 717, as the locals had solidified themselves in the Caliphate's administration.

Only the island of Bokela became truly permeated with Salamic culture; though there was a sizable migration of Mumins and Atudites to the peninsula. Florena during this period also saw the rise of the cities; under the protection of the Caliphate, they were able to grow into modern trading hubs to rival even Carcosa. Lanta, Vesalla, Panorma and Demora were among these rising cities, and they received special favour from the Caliphate, thanks to the great wealth they had begun to generate. The ruling classes of these cities saw their influence rise as their incomes did, and they were soon able to largely control affairs on the Floren peninsula.

Ultimately, the rise of the cities would lead to the downfall of Caliphate power in the peninsula. The Caliphs found that true power in the peninsula laid in the hands of the local merchant families, who were able to use their influence to defy the will of the Caliphate. To combat this, in 886 CE Caliph Yazid III marshaled an army in Adunis, with the intent of sailing it to Florena to bring the near-rebellious province to heel. Unbeknownst to the Caliph, Floren leaders had been preparing for such an eventuality and, having received news of his plans, notified the leaders of Carcosa, and paid them to blockade the Caliphate and to prevent their fleets from leaving port.

Unable to effectively combat the Floren plotters due to the Carcosan blockade, the Caliph was forced to stand down, and the cities and kingdoms of the Floren peninsula effectively seceded from the Caliphate, with the notable exception of the largely-Mumin island of Bokela. Independent of the Caliphate and unbound by its regulation, the city-states of the peninsula continued to flourish, and would soon rise to become regional powers in their own right.

Middle Ages

Depiction of the wealthy merchant city of Lanta, 1399.

Following the withdrawal of the Caliphate, the peninsula devolved into disunity, and the numerous fractured city-states and petty kingdoms of the peninsula emerged as independent polities. The shift in power contributed to the rise of the medieval commune as a common institution across Florena, a process which had began slowly following the retreat of Solaria. Now fully independent, the process accelerated greatly across the country, as local communities sought to take matters of law and order into their own hands, autonomously. Both these smaller towns and rural communes and the larger trading cities were capable of maintaining the region's independence, as seen by the defeat of the invading force of Gaullican border prince Louis de Belouix at the hands of a hastily-assembled army of the Floren city-states united under the loosely organised Lantan League in 1112.

Vesallan mercenaries march into battle, 1414.

While the smaller towns grew into communes, the larger cities grew into merchant republics, in which a newly-entrenched class of merchant families largely controlled the affairs of the burgeoning metropolis. The coastal breed of these were the maritime republics, the largest of which - Vesalla, Oriel, Tirosa and Valentí - maintained navies large enough to rival that of Carcosa. These cities became heavily involved in the Crusades, and grew exceedingly wealthy on lucrative trade routes to the Orient. Meanwhile, the landlocked cities - such as Lanta, Panorma, Demora and Tolosa - grew wealthy through manufacturing and the art of money-lending, their affluent banking families growing increasing influential across every court of Euclea.

Though these republics reigned over much of the peninsula, they were not the sole governing forces. In the Transmuntanya, a number of border princes rose to dominate the area, feuding with their Etrurian counterparts in order to maintain control over the region. In the northeast, the Princedom of Lusitana maintained control over a shifting but significant domain, centred in the bustling city of Lesba. The island of Bokela had largely been unified by the Emirate of Savona following the further decline of the Caliphate, and had managed to cement itself as a significant force in the mercantile and naval worlds, rivaling the maritime republics in many respects.

During this time, a new standard of relations between the feuding states arose; with all seeking to gain an upper hand over the others in a grand game of political machinations and military campaigns known as el Joc dels Trons. Strong, wealthy mercenary groups emerged to take advantage of this. These free companies and their leading Conductants would soon become famed in both Florena and across Euclea for their size, skill and reliability.

Renaixement

Miquelángel's Ezekiel, a masterpiece of Renaixement art.

With the demise of the Verliquoian Empire by 1407 and the rise of the feudal Empire of Gaullica to the north, the last remnant of Old Solaria was lost to history. Across Euclea, much of the knowledge of the Solarians and their methods were lost, giving rise to a stagnation in the accumulation of knowledge. An influx of Solaro-Gaullican and Atudite scholars to the wealthy cities of the Floren peninsular following the Sack of Adunis, brought forth from the 1456 Atudite Rebellion, would ultimately lead to the birth of the Renaixement; an explosion of thinking, culture and the arts, eventually building the foundations for the later Enlightenment, and helping to drag Euclea out of the Middle Ages.

Though not at the epicentre of the crisis, the Amendist Reformation had a profound effect on Florena during this period. The legacy of Joan Moyà - an early Church reformer - was pertinent enough to lead to a resurgence in reformist thought in the region. The Moyáite movement, in particular the more radical strands which had been wiped out a century prior, saw a revival during the reformation around 1517. Alongside the Kasperist movement among the Enderans, this formed a threat to Solarian Catholic dominance in the region. Although the Church would ultimate triumph in securing the region, it would come at great cost, and an undercurrent of anti-Church sentiment would persist. Another issue wrought by the reformation was a decline in trade with northern Euclea; as Amendism gradually solidified itself as the dominant sect in Werania and other northern countries, Floren merchants began to find it difficult to trade with these heretics without losing trade elsewhere. As such, there was a shift in preference for trade from northern Euclea to the New World and the farther reaches of Coius. Many Floren states would therefore begin minor colonisation efforts.

The new focus on trade outside of Euclea would lead to an increase in conflict among the Floren city-states, as they began to feud over trade contracts and colonisation in Asteria. This renewed period of intense warfare, known as the Wars of the Vines, were devastating for the common people, but proved lucrative for the mercenary companies. In one of the most decisive and brutal moves of the conflicts, forces of the Serene City of Lanta utterly annihilated those of the rebelling Republic of Benvinta, and as punishment set the city ablaze, putting an abrupt end to a city of fifty thousand. This act would bring widespread condemnation from across the Sotirian world, severely damaging trade relations.

Floren unification and the Pereramonic Wars

Nèstor Pereramon, first and sole Emperor of the Florens, and uniter of modern Florena.

Nearing the end of the 17th century, there was a rise in nationalist ideas across Florena. Spurred on by the brutality of the Wars of the Vines and the decline of the power of the city-state on the world stage, there eventually emerged vast popular support for a unified Floren state. In many of the cities across the country, secret societies were set up to push for unification. These societies, though small and secretive, were often comprised of incredibly influential individuals, who could lobby for Floren unification with great effect. Unfortunately for these societies, the rulers of the independent Floren states did not wish to give up their power to a centralised government, and opposed the secret societies relentlessly, often utilising capital punishment against members of these societies to dissuade new members from joining the organisations.

Although such secret societies and mass, popular action would prove ultimately unsuccessful in providing a unified Floren state on their own, they would indirectly help lead to the unification of the country. Upon his return from Gaullica, where he had completed his education, the heir to the Comtat of Bonivida - Nèstor Pereramon - would be introduced to a member of one of these groups, and become enamored with dreams of uniting the Floren peninsula. With the death of his father leaving him as Compte of Bonivida in 1687, Nèstor would begin his efforts to unite Florena in 1691, when he marched from his homestead and settled an age-long feud with the rivaling Comtat of Ovienta. Despite his forces being outnumbered, Nèstor secured victory thanks to his use of modern tactics. The Floren Unification Wars had begun. Following this initial victory, the young Nèstor integrated prisoners from the opposing force into his army, declaring that they were all Florens, not Bonividans nor Ovientans. This strategy of "taking whole" would follow Pereramon throughout the coming wars, and inform the creation of his Gran Nou Exèrcit.

Following his victory at Ovienta and the consolidation of his new forces, Nèstor Pereramon sought to unite and consolidate his control over the rest of the region of Oscana, culminating in the Siege of Panorma in 1694 and the subsequent fall of the first of Florena's great cities. Pereramon relocated his capital to Panorma, and in the great palace of the city declared that the misrule of the unpopular Vedivi family was at an end, declaring himself Duc of Oscana and Defensar Popular, while establishing a council of influential citizens to aid in his rule over the city-region. From this position, Nèstor would secure the allegiance of the border princes of Transmuntanya by answering their call to arms and defending their holdings from an advancing Etrurian army. Named Salvador de Transmuntanya, he allocated resources to the defence of the region, before continuing his unification of the rest of the country.

By 1707, the only powers posing a threat to Pereramon's unification project were the Princedom of Lusitana, the Vall Verd League, the Emirate of Savona and the Republic of Demora. He met the armies of this final coalition on the open plains outside Sombra, drawing the forces into a battle with favourable conditions. Utilising his advantage in artillery and the superior discipline of his troops, Pereramon coordinated a decisive victory, ultimately crushing the numerically superior force and breaking the back of the enemy coalition. Following a short naval campaign against Savonan forces and the fall of Lanta, Pereramon's campaign was at an end.

Coronation of Nèstor Pereramon, by Jan Dálmases.

In an extravagant grand ceremony in the Church of Our Indestructible Lady Mary in Demora - the largest cathedral in the country - Nèstor Pereramon was crowned Nèstor of the Pereramon Dynasty, first of his name, Emperor of the Florens, First Prince of the Realm, Defender of the People and Saviour of Transmuntanya by the Archbishop of Demora, in front countless gathered foreign dignitaries and citizens of the new realm. There, Nèstor vowed to defend the Floren people with his life, and to rule with a fair and just hand according to the principles of enlightened absolutism, as the role of Philosopher-King demanded of him.

As Emperor, Pereramon centralised his rule at the expense of local nobility and the burgher class, while encouraging the common people to take more responsibility in their own lives, advocating for communal rule at the local level. He frequently organised plebiscites on matters which he deemed were controversial. Such actions brought him great love from the common folk, though disdain from the entrenched nobility and other established powers. Increasingly, Pereramon found himself having to punish nobles that were stepping further out of line. Determined to put an end it, he made an example of the rebellious Compte Gregori of Affera, banishing him without appeal.

Following the banishment of Gregori and the seizure of his lands - which did little to halt the machinations of the nobility - Nèstor responded to reports of Etrurian attacks on Transmuntanya, marshaling his professional Gran Nou Exèrcit and marching to defend the province. When he arrived, he drove the Etrurians from the region, and proceeded to march into Etruria. The 1711 Etrurian Campaign, the first of the Pereramonic Wars, had begun.

Catching the Poveglian army unprepared in the field, Nèstor secured a decisive opening victory in the Battle of Crecini, putting the Poveglian forces onto the back foot, and forcing a withdrawal to the south. The armies would again clash at Udicci, where the numerically superior Florens were able to force a second defeat onto Poveglia, which sued for peace. Seeing a chance to make further gains into Etruria, however, Nèstor crossed the border into Vicalvi, securing a victory over the Vicalvian army at the Battle of Menzina. With Vicalvian forces scattered, and his flank secured, Nèstor made a move on the ancient and prestigious city of Solaris. Marching into the city with only a beleaguered garrison to oppose him, Pereramon quickly secured the eternal city. Inviting the Pope to retake his residence in the city, Nèstor was soon forced to leave the city to deal with growing Vespasian opposition. Following an inconclusive engagement at Vicivica and a Vespasian tactical victory at Poena, the Floren army was forced to withdraw in the direction of Solaris. The Pereramonic forces would be drawn into a year long guerrilla conflict against Vespasian forces, until an ultimate Floren victory at Oclava brought the Vespasians to the negotiating table in 1713. The peace led to the creation of the Kingdom of Vespasia, with Nèstor as it's first King, and the establishment of Solaria as a province of Florena. Nèstor's brother, Conradí August Pereramon, was crowned King of Novalia, while his comrade Pròsper Pere Subirà was placed on the throne of Carinthia.

Binding of Two Empires, by Victor Gardet.

By this time, the eyes of the world were on Nèstor Pereramon, and his rapid conquests. Exiled Etrurian nobility were pushing the Empire of Gaullica and other major Euclean powers to combat the growth of the Floren Empire, and Nèstor feared that he would be backed against the wall. To avoid this, he married Gaullican princess Marie-Liliane de Telois in 1716, securing a pact of non-aggression with Louis V of Gaullica. The following year, he negotiated an alliance with the Bororatule Dynasty of Rhakhataa and a treaty of mutual defence with the Kingdom of Werania, ensuring that Florena was not isolated in Euclean affairs. Not wishing to squander the new position he had attained, Nèstor moved to quickly neutralise the threats to his power in the Transnovalian plain, securing a victory over the Elladan forces in the Battle of Hirakles and instituting his rule over the entire region by 1719.

This unmitigated expansion was justified by Pereramon as a restoration of order, but still drew the ire of Euclea. Determined to halt Floren expansionism, the leaders of the Estmerish Commonwealth, Grubalevian Atamanate, Kingdom of Amathia, Commonwealth of Wazovia-Lotuye, Kingdom of Vredlandia and Kingdom of Ostroszka signed the Pact of the Six, vowing to put an end to the Floren Empire, its allies, and the threat of Nèstor Pereramon. With war declared on Florena in the May of 1720, the First War of Containment began. The united armies of the Pact met the Gran Nou Exèrcit at the Battle of Bragasna, which saw a stunning victory of the outnumbered Floren forces.

The following consecutive series of battles were less decisive, but the arrival of fresh Weranian forces and a Rhakese victory at Constanrad saw the war turn in Florena's favour. A second decisive victory at Želierok forced the Pact to sign the 1723 Treaty of Demora, in which territory was ceded from Grubalevia to Florena, Amathia became a client state, and forced alliances were signed between the remaining pact members and Florena. The peace saw Pereramon triumphant across Euclea, with the continent aligned to his empire. In an lavish ceremony in Solaris, the Pope crowned Nèstor Emperor and Hegemon of Euclea, Defender of the Faith and Restorer of Solaria.

Néstor's victory at Charroux proved only to delay the inevitable.

Floren dominance over the continent was not to last long. The already fragile foundations of the nascent empire would be shaken to their core when Gaullican Emperor Louis V died in the April of 1723. His successor, Louis VI, repudiated the royal marriage and non-aggression pact, declaring that the tyrant Pereramon must be cast down. The Gaullican Emperor raised his forces, and signed secret deals with the leaders of Grubalevia, Wazovia, Vredlandia and Ostroszka to break their forced alliances with Florena, and to enter into into a second anti-Pereramon coalition. War was declared in the March of 1724, and the Gaullican-led Pact forces met with those of the Floren Empire at the small town of Charroux. Despite severely outnumbering the Floren forces, the overconfident Pact forces were defeated, and Nèstor advanced into Gaullica from the south, while his Estmerish allies attacked from the north.

Such a valiant victory at Charroux was not decisive enough to bring an end to the war, however. As Pereramon's army advanced, it met increasing resistance from Gaullican forces. The armies met on the field at Saulès, and the Floren forces - having marched the great distance from their homeland into the heart of Gaullica - were decisively defeated by the Gaullican army. Nèstor's prestige was hit hard, and news of the defeat spread across Euclea. Forced to withdraw, Pereramon's army retreated southwards, towards the safety of the Fi del Món mountains. Continually harassed during their retreat, the Floren forces were significantly diminished when they reached the mountains.

Setting up a defence at the mountain pass of Samento, Nèstor and his remaining army clashed with the advancing Gaullicans in a decisive engagement. Initial victories in the battle - feigned by the Gaullican commander - played into Nèstor's hubris. Believing the Gaullicans outmatched, the Emperor led a cavalry charge into their flank, only to find upon his arrival that the enemy commander had anticipated his move. Emperor Nèstor I was gunned down in the crossfire, and the Floren army routed and was sent into a full-scale retreat. The news spread like wildfire across the continent, and proved to be a decisive blow against the Floren Empire. Nèstor's first son - Enric Pereramon - had defected to the Gaullicans, and so without a direct heir to take the throne, a council of regents took control of the state. News of the Emperor's death led to riots and revolution in the cities of Vespasia, the overthrow of the puppet regime in Amathia and the tide of war turning against Florena.

Gaullican forces marched into Florena proper, while Etrurian nobles returned to lead the popular uprisings, defeating Floren armies across Vespasia. Florena was ultimately defeated by 1729, though the Euclean continent had been shaken to its core, and had been irreversibly altered. The council of regents were forced to sign the Treaty of Savona with the Pact powers, putting an official end to the conflict. Enric Pereramon was placed on the Floren throne as Enric I, Transmuntanya was transferred to Vespasian control, Florena was forbidden from declaring war for the next hundred years, and the concept of Savonian sovereignty was established. Enric would overturn much of his father's reforms, and transform Florena into a reactionary state.

Reaction, reform and revolution

Enric I's reactionary policies provided stability in the short term.

Established under Enric I by 1730, the nascent Kingdom of Florena struggled to maintain an influential place in Euclean politics. It's inability to declare war fundamentally undermined any attempts to regain lost power and prestige following the Pereramonic Wars. Further, the wars themselves had severely damaged the country; disastrous attempts to maintain guerrilla resistance in the latter stages of the war had sapped the country of its manpower, and what remained of it's economy was in a sharp decline. The mass influx of nobles returning from exile in Gaullica, combined with Enric's reactionary politics and the weakened bargaining power of the common people, led to an intriguing scenario, in which freedmen were essentially returned to a position of serfdom in rural areas; the communal rule set up under Néstor was brought to an end, and a new instance of feudalism emerged across the country.

Determined to avoid alienating the nobility as his father had, Enric established the Corts Senyorials, granting the high-ranking members of the aristocracy political power at the national level, and greater influence on the laws of the realm. Similarly, Enric granted titles to the burgher class that had emerged in the cities, creating a new class that would become known as the petita noblesa. With the general loyalty of the governing classes assured, the King was able to maintain an effective control over the country, and fully engaged in rebuilding the war-torn country. By the time of Enric's death aged 89 in 1798, the country had effectively been transformed into a stable feudal state.

Enric's son, Gabriel I, inherited the throne in a far weakened position. The nobility, old and new, had entrenched their power, and Gabriel proved to be little more than a figurehead. An admirer of his grandfather, however, Gabriel waged a war of influence against the aristocracy, attempting to pass reforms to benefit the common people. These attempts would prove largely futile, with only insignificant minor reforms ever reaching fruition.

With the aristocracy continually increasing their repression of the common people, and the King powerless to stop them, the common people looked inwards for salvation. 1834 saw the emergance of the left populist Cartista movement in the form of the Popular Action League, one of the predecessor organisations to CTS. Organising rallies, strikes and marches, the movement sought to attain popular suffrage, political representation and land reform. Though supported by large sections of the population, the Cartista movement proved unable to meaningfully challenge the entrenched powers, who were successful in their attempts to repress the movement.

Though the Cartista movement had failed to achieved their aims and were ultimately wiped out, they provided inspiration for the next generation of opposition to the dominance of the aristocracy. By the 1870s, the syndicalist CTS had been established, and alongside the Floren Socialist Party, was constructing a significant power base among the country's increasingly impoverished lower classes, growing in power by the year.

La Gran Vaga, by Eulàlia Rosa.

The loss of the small but profitable island planter colony of Nacau in the 1888 Nacauan War of Independence had a far larger ripple effect than anyone had anticipated. Such a sudden defeat shocked Floren industry, and led to a loss of confidence in the regime and the economy. By 1890, it was clear that the economy had spiraled into a steep decline, and average incomes began to drop rapidly. This, combined with threats of pay drops and redundancies, led to a massive resurgence in the power and influence of the trade unions and the CTS. A general strike, the first to grip the country, was called in 1891. The strikers were ultimately defeated by military repression.

Following the 1891 strike, limited concessions were gained in terms of working conditions and labour rights, but redundancies were not avoided, and unemployment steadily increased. Although the economy saw signs of recovery by 1906, a market shock in 1909 would once again send the recovering economy into a sharp decline. This time, the general strike which emerged was a serious threat to the power of the government. Rallying close to a million strikers in the capital of Demora alone, and setting up barricades to occupy the streets in protest. Seeing the situation spiral out of control, military commander Màrius Vilavend took the initiative and marched his forces into the capital to restore order. A bloody slaughter ensued, and the general strike was at an end. In gratitude of his service to the country, King Micolau I named Vilavend Marshal of State, and granted him wide-sweeping powers. From the position of Marshal of State, Màrius Vilavend was soon capable of amassing and centralising his power; and by the 1920s, had emerged as an effective dictator, labeled as authoritarian or proto-functionalist by onlookers.

Great War

The famed and ill-fated cavalry charge of King Gabriel II at the 1927 Battle of Demora.

With the outbreak of hostilities in Euclea and Coius following the Kelang Incident, Vilavend sought to appease his Gaullican neighbours, providing funding for the initial Entente war effort and denying war materiel to the Grand Alliance. As the war in Euclea progressed however, Vilavend's health deteriorated, and as his coming death became apparent, a conflict brew over his successor. His ultimate successor was to be Duc of Ciradila Leodogari Guifré de Minguez, who - repulsed by national functionalism - immediately reversed his predecessors policies, initiating an embargo against the Entente and providing aid to the Grand Alliance. When he offered to lease the largest naval base in the country to the Alliance in March 1927, Gaullica launched an invasion of the ill-prepared country. Better prepared for the invasion, Gaullica succeeded in pushing past the mountainous border and into the Floren heartland.

Capturing the capital of Demora by June 1927 after heavy fighting, the Entente established the Popular Duchy of Demora as a puppet state to govern the occupied territories. Popular opposition to the regime, however, resulted in the rise of the Floren Underground Resistance; one of the more successful of the anti-Entente resistance movements. Led by Princess and heir presumptive Isabela, the Floren partisans would wage an underground war of resistance and guerrilla warfare against the Gaullican occupiers, particularly in rural regions. With the support of the CTS, socialists, communists, democrats and vast swathes of the nobility, the Floren Army of Partisans for National Liberation was capable of orchestrating a guerrilla war of attrition against the Entente. Collaborationist Floren forces were nearly overwhelmed, until they were reinforced by Gaullican divisions.

Though bloody, the Demora Uprising proved successful.

With the Negaran Republican Army capturing Carcosa in June 1934, the Floren resistance organised the largest single military effort undertaken by any Euclean resistance movement during the war, and initiated the Demora Uprising in July 1934. Although heavy casualties were taken, the partisans secured the majority of their objectives - thanks in no small part to aid from the allied air forces - and declared the liberation of the city. The partisans were relieved by members of the NRA by September 1934, and joined them in their March to Verlois, liberating the remainder of the occupied Floren countryside as they advanced towards the heavily-defended Gaullican heartland.

The ultimate, unconditional surrender of Gaullica in February 1935 brought an end to the war, and an end to most of the national functionalist regimes across Euclea. Having met the arriving Negarans as independent allies, Florena was treated as a full member of the Grand Alliance and the Community of Nations during the peace negotiations, and the Floren Underground Resistance was capable of establishing itself as the voice of the Floren nation. Despite their seat on the peace council however, Floren delegates were forced to accept what they described the tracte agredolç - the bittersweet deal. Floren independence was restored under Isabela Elíamar, but it was at the cost of their long-standing claims on the region of Transmuntanya. Millions of Exiliats Occidentals were moved to Florena from the region. Though ostensibly to ensure future peace in Euclea, in Florena the treaty was seen as a betrayal.

Social revolution and Syndicalist Florena

Floren partisan in Oscana during the 1941 Solarian War.

Having begun in the closing stages of the Great War with the gradual advance of the Floren partisans, the Floren Social Revolution came into full-swing in the post-war climate. The prevailing ideology of post-war Florena was syndicalism, as supported by the CTS and most of the EFPAN. As such, workers had been encouraged since the March on Verlois to take control of the reclaimed workplaces, and to set up worker committees and communes to govern their places of work. By the end of conflict in Euclea, close to 75% of the country's economy had been put under worker control. According to guidelines issued by the CTS, the option to participate in collectivisation was voluntary, and companies with less than one hundred employees were to be allowed to operate with independence indefinitely. Despite the guidelines, evidence of isolated attempts to coerce individuals to collectivise have emerged.

With the social revolution as a backdrop, the Floren Underground Resistance drafted a constitution by 1935, which was accepted via referendum and authorised the creation of the Floren Republic; a federal syndicalist republican state. The established position of Premier was held by Isabela Elíamar, after her crushing victory in the first premerial election, while a CTS-led leftist coalition swept to power in the Generalitat following the first general election.

Destruction brought by the war led to a government focused on rebuilding the country. Due to the country's syndicalist economics, it found itself isolated from the Federation-backed United Nations of Euclea, and the funding that membership of the organisation brought. In order to fund the rebuilding efforts, Florena instead looked to the Republic of Negara, establishing a lucrative trade deal with the country in exchange for funding. Fortunately for the Floren state, the mass-syndicalisation combined with the Euclea-wide post-war economic boom led to an explosion of Floren economic growth. Economists estimate that, due to syndicalisation, general productivity increased by up to 20%.

Florena had largely rebuilt by the onset of the 1940s, though it would prove a pointless endeavour, as in 1941 Etrurian troops crossed the Floren border, signalling the start of the Solarian War. Caught by surprise and largely without an organised army, Floren attempts to hold the line faltered, and the Etrurians reached the town of Toros, a stone's throw from the capital, before they were finally halted, and engaged in static warfare. After an effective campaign of guerrilla warfare and extensive aid from the UNE, however, Florena successfully repulsed the Etrurian invaders by 1944, though the country had now been irreversibly scarred by yet another conflict.

To avoid further conflict - and to help recover the Floren economy a second time - Florena was granted associate status by the UNE, and under Premier Elíamar began negotiations that would culminate in the foundation of the Euclean Community on the 1st of January 1948, with the signing of the Euclean Charter. Elíamar stepped down from the position of Premier in early 1950, with Vícenç Cirueno elected as her successor.

In the succeeding period of relative world peace, Florena saw substantial economic growth, and emerged as a middle power, and one of the leading forces within the Euclean Community, generally aligning itself with Gaullica to form a leftist bloc in the organisation. In the Great Game, Florena remained largely inactive and neutral, except when acting alongside allies in the Euclean Community.

Geography

Topographic map of Florena.

Located in Southern Euclea, most of the country consists of the Floren Peninsula, while it also maintains sovereignty over the islands of Bokela. The Floren Republic is bordered on land by the Gaullican Republic to the north and the United Transetrurian Federation to the west. It also shares maritime boundaries with the Free City of Carcosa and the Aurean Isles and the Transtsabaran Federation.

The borders of the country are roughly delineated by the Fi del Món mountain range to the west and north, the Solarian Sea to the south and the Gulf of Assonaire to the north and east.

The country is located between latitudes 25° and 34° N, and the longitudes and 10° E.

At 5,219 m (17,122 ft), Florena's highest point is the peak of Muntanya Negra in the Fi del Món, which is additionally among the highest points in Euclea and the highest in the Euclean Community.

Lakes are prevalent in the Fi del Món region, and are among the largest in the country. In descending order of size, the fifth largest are Lake Vermell, Lake Pungat, Lake Ótana, Lake Lliri and Lake Cavila. The longest river in Florena is the Noba, which flows 821 kilometres (510 miles) from the central Fi del Món to the Gulf of Assonaire, travelling across the Cirdailan plain and through the Gaullican state of Assonaire.

The valley-region of Vall Verd, located in the south of the country, is notable for hosting Montral, the largest city at a high altitude in Euclea.

With an area of 387,609 km2 (149,656 sq mi), Florena ranks as the world's forty-first largest country, and the fourteenth largest country in Euclea. Of its area, 2.7% or 10,465 km2 (4,041 sq mi) is water, while the remaining 97.3% or 377,144 km2 (145,616 sq mi) is land. As a peninsula, Florena has one of the longest coastlines in the Euclean Community.

Stratovolcano Muntanya de Foc, the largest active volcano in Euclea at 3,509 m (11,512 ft), is located in Florena on the island of Bokela.

Environment

Flora and fauna

Climate

Volcanology

Hydrology

Politics

Camila Antonia Amaranta Vallejo Dowling.jpg Jean-Luc Melenchon Front de Gauche 2009-03-08 (cropped).jpg
Rosa Escudero
Premier since 2016
Melcion Auleda
First Speaker since 2015

Florena is a federal state under a democratic republic with elements of syndicalism, parliamentarianism and presidentialism. Rosa Escudero has served as the head of state and government via the position of Premier since 2016, while Melcion Auleda has served as First Speaker since 2015. The current Floren system of government has largely been in place since the culmination of the Great War in 1935, and was established following the Floren Social Revolution and a constitutional referendum. The 1935 constitution has remained in place since it's initial authorisation, and contains the fundamental law of the realm. Amendments to the constitution can be suggested by made by the Premier or any member of one of the three houses, but requires the support of a supermajority in all three houses and the approval of the Premier to succeed. The most significant amendment was the 1978 amendment which allowed for partial de-syndication.

Government

Florena maintains a unique government in the Euclean Community, hosting what has been described as a "syndo-parliamentarian government with a presidency". The Generalitat of Florena operates on the principles of tricameralism and as such maintains one upper house and two lower houses: the Senate, the Grand Syndicate and the Corts Populares, all of which meet in Pereramon House in the capital city of Demora. There is a President elected by each house whom is responsible for maintaining orderly conduct within each house, for organising sessions, and for making the will of each chamber known to the government at large.

Under the current system, elections to the Senate are conducted via mixed-member proportional representation among the twelve regions of the nation, while elections to the Corts Populares are conducted via party-list proportional and elections to the Grand Syndicate via union democracy and the election of workplace delegates. The last elections to take place in Florena were in June 2015, the next scheduled for June 2019.

The position of Premier is elected by popular vote for a five year term. The Premier leads the executive branch of the Floren government and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Floren National Defence Forces as outlined within the constitution. The Premier is empowered to appoint members to the Council of Ministers of their own volition and has the power to veto parliamentary legislation on the condition that was not in the governing party's manifesto. The Premier is also responsible for conducting diplomacy on the country's behalf and has the power to sign treaties with foreign powers without the ratification of the Generalitat.

Florena enjoys a healthy multi-party democracy, though some detractors argue that the country can be described as a dominant-party system. Political scientists argue that since the end of the Great War, Floren politics has been organised around a post-war consensus; with most major parties advocating a position that evokes certain levels of syndication, mixed economy, strong trade unions, pro-Eucleanism and a decentralised political system. The two largest parties in Floren politics are the left-wing Confederation of Syndicalist Labour and the centre-right Catholic Democratic Party, between the two of which have been involved in every government since 1935. The triad parties of the Moderates, the Democratic Socialist Party and the United Anarchist Federation all share significant influence in the political arena, and tend to be involved in government as lesser partners in coalitions. Other parties in Floren politics include the Green Union, the Communist Party of Florena, the Party for a Free Lusitana and Traditional Catholic Voice.

Administrative divisions

Regions Capital Population (2017)
Arcada Valentí 2,356,182
Augusto Sombra 3,631,019
Bokela Savona 3,618,912
Ciradila Septima 5,516,291
Demora Demora 9,079,012
Fi del Món Valosa 638,102
Lusitana Lesba 8,227,556
Oscana Panorma 2,068,172
Posta d'Estiu Osona 2,158,201
Remana Sartosa 5,422,093
Sarcus Tirosa 6,734,143
Vall Verd Lanta 11,372,029
Penela Peninsula Penela 2,238

Law

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Military

Economy

Agriculture

Tourism

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Energy

Science and technology

Demographics

Language

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Ethnic groups

Education

Health

Culture

Art

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Cinema

Literature

Philosophy

Society

Architecture

National symbols

Fashion and design

Cuisine

Sport

Public holidays

Citizens of Florena enjoy a large number of public holidays. The origins of the holidays are varied; some are cultural holidays, steeped in Floren history, while others are derived from the Sotirian tradition, and others are derived from the country's modern history. There are currently 17 official public holidays, all of which are non-working days.

Date Estmerish name Floren name Holiday Notes
1 January New Year's Day Dia d'Any Nou Yes
6 January Epiphany Epifania Yes Also known as Three Kings' Day.
12 February Day of National Liberation Dia d'Alliberament Nacional Yes
22 April Kylaris Day Dia de la Terra Yes
movable Friday Good Friday Bon Divendres Yes The Friday before Easter Sunday.
movable Sunday Easter Sunday Diumenge de Pasqua Yes
movable Monday Easter Monday Dilluns de Pasqua Yes The Monday after Easter Sunday.
1 May First of May Primer de Maig Yes
5 May Euclea Day Dia Euclorea Yes
13 June Unification Day Dia d'Unificació Yes Celebrates the unification of Florena under Nèstor Pereramon.
1 November All Saints' Day Dia de Tots Sants Yes
2 November All Souls' Day Dia de Tots Ànimes Yes
movable date Election Day Dia de les Eleccions Yes
24 December Nativity's Eve Nit de Nadal Yes
25 December Nativity Day Dia del Nadal Yes
26 December St. Stephen's Day Dia de Sant Esteve Yes Also known as the second day of Christmastide and Boxing Day.
31 December New Year's Eve Cap d'Any Yes Also known as Old Year's Day.