History of Caldia
This article is incomplete because it is pending further input from participants, or it is a work-in-progress by one author.
Please comment on this article's talk page to share your input, comments and questions.
Note: To contribute to this article, you may need to seek help from the author(s) of this page.
The History of Glytter has its earliest roots in
- 1 Glytter before 550
- 2 Unification and the Kingdom of Gayls (550-1017)
- 3 Centralisation (1017-1535)
- 4 Early Modern Glytter (1535-1810)
- 5 19th and early 20th centuries (1810-1935)
- 6 Postwar (1935-Present)
Glytter before 550
Stone and Bronze Ages
What is known of Glytter before the Warring Clans Era comes from references in Solarian writings, Gaylic poetry and myth, and archaeology. While some possible Paleolithic tools have been found, none of the finds are convincing of Paleolithic settlement in Glytter. During the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Glytter was covered with ice, most of the time. Sea levels were lower and Glytter, like the other Euclean isles, formed part of continental Euclea. By 12,000 BCE, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Glytter to become separated from Euclea. There is no evidence of any humans being in Glytter before Mesolithic people arrived by boat from Sveltlana between 8000 BCE and 7000 BCE. The earliest confirmed inhabitants of Glytter were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived some time after 8000 BCE, when the climate had become more hospitable following the retreat of the polar icecaps.
From about 4500 BCE Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, a housing culture, and stone monuments. It was at this time a more advanced agriculture developed, with the inhabitants of Glytter moving away from hunter-gathering. The Chéide Fields located in present-day Pouth, is an extensive field system. Consisting of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls, the fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BCE and 3000 BCE. Wheat and barley were the principal crops imported from continental Euclea. This marked the establishment of a high Neolithic culture, characterised by the appearance of pottery, polished stone tools, rectangular wooden houses and communal megalithic tombs. Some of these tombs, as at Glanneen and Danlaghy, are huge stone monuments and many of them are astronomically aligned.
The Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BCE, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel, harnessing oxen, weaving textiles, brewing alcohol, and skillful metalworking, which produced new weapons and tools, along with fine gold decoration and jewelry, such as brooches and torcs. There was a movement away from the construction of communal megalithic tombs to the burial of the dead in small stone cists or simple pits, which could be situated in cemeteries or in circular earth or stone built burial mounds known respectively as barrows and cairns. As the period progressed, inhumation burial gave way to cremation and by the Middle Bronze Age, remains were often placed beneath large burial urns.
During the Iron Age, a Tenic language and culture emerged in Glytter. Glytter's earliest routes as a form of confederacy are found in the Tenic tribes. These tribes migrated from continental Euclea and settled the island, bringing with them that Tenic language, Ogham script, and culture. This theory draws on the language and artifacts found in Glytter such as Tenic bronze spears, shields, torcs and other finely crafted Keltic associated possessions.
There were four separate Tenic invasions of Glytter. The Priteni were said to be the first, followed by the Belgae from northern Gaullica. Later, Laighin tribes from Armorica (present-day Amañaod) were said to have invaded Glytter. Lastly, the Goedels were said to have reached Glytter from either northern Lusitana or southern Gaullica. It was claimed that a second wave named the Euerni, belonging to the Belgae people of northern Gaullica, began arriving about the sixth century BCE.
The result of a gradual blending of Tenic and indigenous cultures would result in the emergence of Gaylic culture by the sixth century. It is also during the sixth century that the main petty kingdoms of Aerach, Diabhal, Mumgialla, and Laithraid began to emerge among the túatha. Within these kingdoms a rich culture flourished. The society of these kingdoms was dominated by an upper class consisting of aristocratic warriors and learned people, which possibly included Druids.
Linguists realised from the 17th century onwards that the language spoken by these people, the Goidelic languages, was a branch of the Tenic languages. This is usually explained as a result of invasions by Tenics from the continent. However, other research has postulated that the culture developed gradually and continuously, and that the introduction of Tenic language and elements of Tenic culture may have been a result of cultural exchange with Tenic groups in southwest continental Europe from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The hypothesis that the native Late Bronze Age inhabitants gradually absorbed Tenic influences has since been supported by some recent genetic research.
The Solarians referred to Glytter as Coeldonia (which would later evolve to be Goeldonia). Ptolemy, in 100 CE, recorded Glytter's geography and tribes. Glytter was never a part of the Solarian Empire, and while Solarian influence was often projected well beyond its borders this appears not to be the case with Glytter. However, some Glytteronian confederations attacked and settled in northern portions of Estmere, which at the time was either under Solarian influence or direct occupation.
Unification and the Kingdom of Gayls (550-1017)
Warring Clans Era and the rise of Aerach
During the sixth century the tribes of the Caldish Isles had begun to move away from their tribal based societies and instead began to become organized into various túatha. Among the túatha four powerful Gaylic over-kingdoms began to emerge: Aerach, Diabhal, Mumgialla, and Laithraid. Each of the four over-kingdoms became dominated by a different ruling family. The High Chieftan of Areach, which formed on the main island's southern coastline, was ruled by the powerful Clan Mac Aillán. All of the clans in Areach would eventually swear fealty to the High Chiefain or Chieftess, whether it was done through familiar ties, diplomacy, economic incentives, or battle. For decades Aerach would spar with their neighbors, the Ó Raghallaighs of Diabhal.
It was Piran of Aerach who changed the High Chiefdom's policy towards Diabhal. He arranged the marriage of his eldest daughter, Daireann of Aerach, and his much younger rival, Torán of Diabah. According to popular legend, the two were wed in September of 717 and, following the death of her father, Diabhal was united with Aerach. In about 718 Daireann, with the support of her husband's forces, began rallying her armies and launched a campaign to unify the islands. She first took the southern realms of Ulaig and Mannhain, uniting all of southern Glytter. She then invaded through Folctachta into Mumgailia, which was ruled by the Clan Ó Dhomhnuill. Following their defeat and the defeat or vassalage of the remaining minor states, Daireann turned her focus to the last remaining independent over-kingdom, the Highland Laithraid.
While she was ready to invade Laithraid towards the end of 719, Daireann was forced to wait until the harsh winter season had ended. This gave the ruling Clan Mac Coinneach time to prepare for the defence of their mountainous homeland. Chief Art Mac Coinneach was able to cobble together what quickly became a significant fighting force, consisting of warriors and conscripts from his own realm as well as fighters loyal to exiled chiefs from the other túath. Darieann and Art would spar across their ever changing border for months. It was in late May of 720 when the tide would turn definitively in the favor of the High Chieftess, following the defeat of Art and his armies at the Battle of Pasdorcha. Laithraid was subsequently subdued and in mid June Darieann declared the Kingdom of the Gayls, with herself as Queen. Chluaitch, the ancestral seat of the Mac Ailláns, was declared the capital of the new kingdom, with the monarchs residing in Dun Seoda. However, under Morcan I the capital was moved to Spálgleann following the construction of Lumley Castle, which became the new seat of the monarchs.
Sotirinisation of Glytter
The middle centuries of the first millennium CE marked great changes for Glytter. As the islands were unified under a single banner and several villages became sprawling cities, groups of Gaylic pirates began to strike the coasts of Stornö and northern Estreme in a similar way to which the Varangians would later attack Glytter. Some of these groups established entirely new kingdoms in Cathia and on the northern isles of Estmere. To a lesser degree, some new realms were established farther south is Estmere. Perhaps it was some of those pirates or conqeueres returning home as rich mercenaries, merchants, or slaves stolen from Estmere, that first brought the Sotirian faith to Glytter. Some early sources claim that there were missionaries active on the southernmost Caldish Isles long before Saint Cuchulain.
Tradition maintains that Saint Cuchulain first arrived on the island of Holyhead, then known as Ulaig, in 711 AD. In the years that followed he established a monastery in Iona and worked to convert the Gayls to Sotirianity . Cuchulain is traditionally credited with preserving and codifying Gaylic laws and changing only those that conflicted with Sotirian practices. However, this largely conflicted with Gaylic society due to the normalisation of homosexuality and the equal status that women held to men. As a result, he was forced to abandon certain changes in order to win over the populace.
He was met with great success on the island and would soon begin work on the island of Mannes and along the coastline of the High Chiefdom of Areach. As time went on members of the aristocracy and merchant classes in the region began to convert. He had several audiences with High Chieftess Darieann of Aerach during the winter of 719 and tradition says that it was his work that led to the conversion of Darieann and other members of her family. As a result of his role in converting integral parts of Gaylic society and introducing monasteries, Saint Cuchulain became affectionately known as the "Apostle to the Gayls" in Glytteronian tradition.
Cuchulain is also credited with introducing the Solarian alphabet, enabling monks to preserve large swathes of the extensive oral literature and history which had existed in the Caldish Isles. Gaylic scholars excelled in the study of Solarian learning and Sotirian theology in the monasteries that flourished shortly thereafter. Missionaries from Glytter to Stornö and Continental Euclea spread news of the flowering of learning, and scholars from other nations came to Gaylic monasteries. The excellence and isolation of these monasteries helped preserve Solarian learning during the Early Middle Ages.
Darieann converted to Sotirianity following the Mircale of Pasdorcha following the battle by the same name. As her armies were preparing to engage those of her northern rival, legend maintains that she saw a cross in the sky. During the battle she absolutely vanquished the army that fought against her. Convinced this was the work of the Sotirian God, Darieann was baptised by Saint Cuchulain before she declared the Kingdom of the Gayls in mid-June of 720. Her husband, Prince Torán, and their children converted soon after. As a result, Sotirianity became the religion of the royal court and de facto religion of the state. However, many Gayls were still practicing pagans.
Glytter was first part of the Diocese of Angloplace and remained part of the diocese for several decades. In 786, Saint Bono was sent to the Caldish Isles by pope to serve as the first bishop to the Gayls who believe in Sotiras. He organised the kingdom into the Diocese of Spálgleann and began to work closely with the Gaylic Queen Ailbe I. Several churches, sponsored by the royal court, were constructed in the capital city and efforts to spread the faith through the southern cities of Glytter soon began. However, Bono was very unpopular among the pagan gentry of Glytter. He often stated that pagans were savages and in a letter to the Pope said he viewed their acceptance of sodomy as a sin against Sotiras and his Church. He was killed in 789 by a mob of angry pagans after he publicly insulted several of the principal Tenic gods.
Ailbe I, who was a religious fanatic, was outraged by her close allies murder. As a result, she led a brutal a campaign of violence against the
pagan population of Spálgleann. The persecution, sanctioned by the Pope in Solaris, soon spread to to rest of southern Glytter. Oppressive laws were implemented by Ailbe I, who was being advised by senior Sotirian clerics who had been sent to Glytter from Solaris. These laws placed a ban on sodomy and persecution of homosexuals. Revolts began to break out across Glytter, with powerful pagan clans threatening the stability of the realm. In early 791, Ailbe I was assassinated by members of her own court in an attempt to restore order.
Following her death, Ailbe's eldest child, Morcan I, soon ascended to the throne. She quickly rolled back her mother's laws and had many of the papal clerics executed. She then announced the Magna Decretum (Solarian for "the Great Decree). The Magna Decretum declared that all non-Sotirians would no longer be faced with persecution.Instead, they would have to pay per capita tax known as the homaighcáin. While being a Sotirian was not enforced, overtime it became essential for moving up the social pyramid within the kingdom and proved to benefit merchants and craftsmen immensely. As a result, many non-Sotirians converted to the faith. Morcan I had restored peace and order to the kingdom and harmony between Sotirian Gayls and pagan Gayls ensued.
One of the most important native Sotirians was Saint Caoimghen. In 801, he established a monastery in a remote portion of the modern county of Tarenny, known as Gleanthrílough Abbey. The Caoimghen and the monks at Gleanthrílough worked to convert the Highland population of Glytter, as well as those on the eastern portion of the Lowlands. By the start of the eleventh century almost the vast majority of the population had converted to Catholicism, with few enclaves of Gaylic paganism surviving in the Highlands. It is important to note that homosexuality and the equal status of women became a part of Sotirianity within Glytter, along with elements of Gaylic pagan tradition.
Norse invasions and the Kingdom of Sklesland
The first recorded Varangian raid occurred in 670 before the Gaylic Wars of Unification. A raiding party dispatched by Hardjon II of the Thunderlands attacked the trade port of Snarksburgh in the High Chiefdom of Aerach. The city, which at the time was rather prosperous due to its advantageous coastal location, was devastated by the raid and would take over a century to recover. The islands' coastal settlements and monasteries would fall victim to raids for over a century.
It was in 802 that the Varangians had begun what would become the Norse invasion of Glytter, marked by the loss of the island of Holyhead to Geirolf Grimarsson. Iona Abbey, which had been established by Saint Cuchulain early in the eighth century, was leveled by the Norse conquerors. The Kingdom of Sklesland was established with its capital in Iona. Iona, which was known to the Norse as INSTERNORSENAMEHERE, became the center of Varangian power in the Caldish Isles for over a century. From it, raids were conducted on many coastal settlements, as well as several expeditions up various rivers in order to attack the settlements there. The island of Mannes was conquered by the Varagians in 805.
Morcan the Great, who was the Gaylic monarch at the time, found herself unable to defend the island from the Norse and abandoned it that year. She struggled to organise her forces for the next two decades, until her death in 823. Her daughter, Morcan II faced similar struggles throughout her reign. Despite the capital's proximity to the Varangian kingdom, Spálgleann was well defended by Lumley Castle, which had begun construction in the late 700s, and had managed to resit the bulk of the Norse attacks.
Towards the end of her reign, Morcan II's kingdom was in chaos. The Norse had launched a full scale invasion of the main island in 835, which had begun with the second sacking of Snarksburgh. The Gaylic armies attempted to resist the advancing Varangians, but struggled due to weak military leadership. Morcan II was in her early sixties and was unable to personally lead her armies. Instead, a series of rather inept generals who had been appointed due to their noble or familiar status were in charge of her forces. Many of these generals were killed or retreated from battle, failing to put up a formidable resistance. However, the Varangians were slowed by a collection of castles, forts, and tower houses found on the western half of the island. The fortifications, which had belonged to the various heads of the clans, slowly came under siege and would eventually fall. In 836 when Morcan III rose to the Gaylic throne the situation only continued to deteriorate. The Gaylic armies had been defeated and were on the retreat. A year after her ascension the Queen, her family, and her court were forced to flee her capital for the city of Invertwinc. Soon after the court's flight the Varangian armies, led by Grimarson, arrived at Spálgleann. The city surrendered and was raided. Many of the churches established by Saint Bono had been destroyed and Lumley Castle was reduced to ruins. After the fall of the capital nearly half of the main island found itself incorporated into Sklesland and following the conquest of the eastern islands of Piernás, and Éirness the Morcan III found herself and her court threatened once more.
In 838 Morcan III led her armies at the Battle of Brocbach. Her army was shattered and both she and her husband, Prince Miach, were killed before the battle had ended. Glytter's military leadership was completely shattered, and upon his ascension to the throne Lughaidh I of Glytter was king of a kingdom in utter panic. He began to reorganising his armies and purged what remained of the military leadership of the inept commanders. Lughaidh then led a campaign to retake Spálgleann and after months of brutal fighting the Gayls had begun to reconquer Glytter meter by meter. The capital was liberated before the winter of 838 and Lughaidh I had the upper hand. In March of 839 he launched a second offensive, this time with the goal of retaking Snarksburgh. In late March he met the Norse King Balgruuf Haraldsson and his forces outside the coastal settlement of Basdon. Their armies clashed and following the Battle of Basdon and the death of the Varangian king, the Norse organised a full scale retreat from the main island and retreated back to Holyhead.
Following their retreat, Lughaidh I moved the capital back to Spálgleann. The city was still heavily damaged due to its sacking in the years prior and the royal court acted out of Dun Seoda, his ancestral seat, while construction of the new Dun Carraigard commenced. He also helped with the Church's effort to reestablish sites of worship within the city, as all of them had previously been raided and destroyed. Elsewhere on the island the Varangians had begun to rebuild Snarksburgh, which had become home to a Norse temple. The temple was raided by Gaylic warriors loyal to their king and its contents were used to help finance the rest of Snarksburgh's reconstruction. Likewise, many of the fortifications on the western half of the island also required repairs. Many of them were rebuilt by the various clans' chiefs, but the less financially capable chiefs were forced to abandon their former seats and they fell into ruin.
Before his death in 871, Lughaidh I launched his third and final offensive against Sklesland. The campaign to retake Mannes began in 869 and had come to an end by 870. Raids would continue from Sklesland's only remaining possession, Holyhead, but they were met with less success than before. he Kingdom of the Gayls entered a brief golden age starting in 866 which would outlast Lughaidh I. For his roll in the brutal reconquest of the main island from the Norse, he is remembered in Gaylic tradition as Lughaidh the Warrior.
Gaylic control over the Caldish Isles was once again challenged in 936. Following years of rather uneventful peace and prosperity, Morcan IV was faced with a new crisis. The Norse of Holyhead had reorganised and launched an invasion of Glytter for a second time. They first landed along the coast near Killeagh in the modern county of Bodrick, just south of Spálgleann. Morcan IV rallied her armies and marched to meet the invades, who had pillaged the coastal village and established it as a beachhead on the main island. She was soon met with disaster, suffering a massive defeat at the Battle of Killeagh. Prince Caoimhín, Morcan's husband, was killed during the battle and many of her commanders were wounded or captured. She led the retreat back to the capital, where she would soon abdicate. Morcan, still mourning the loss of her husband, would soon become a nun, later establishing Mhothair Nunnery. Her eldest daughter, Princess Buddug, ascended to the throne. The new queen soon appointed her husband, Prince Vaughn, as head of the Gaylic armies who quickly reorganised his forces. The Varangians fought their way up the coastline and their advance soon became a threat to the capital. The Gayls, led by Prince Vaughn, met the Norse outside Spálgleann where they would soon win the Battle of Spálgleann and in 937 the Varangians were once again expelled from Glytter.
The Varangians would continue to hold Holyhead until Ailbe II turned her attention to the island over two centuries after its conquest. Following the overall decline of Varangian power and influence at the start of the eleventh century, she took advantage of the weakness of the Norse and launched an invasion of Holyhead in 1014. Upon her arrival on the island's northern coast, the Gaylic population revolted and their Nordic overlords were promptly defeated. The last King of Sklesland, Vignar Haraldsson, was captured and executed by Ailbe II alongside much of the Norse aristocracy. During their time on the island, many of the Varangians married into the native Gaylic population, resulting in a mixed ethnic group known as Norse-Gayls. Holyhead quickly became a dominion of the crown and was administered directly by the royal court. Iona Abbey was rebuilt and soon Sotirian monks would return. Much of the monastery's Sotirian and cultural treasures had been smuggled out in 802 and hidden on the main island. These treasures would return to the abbey following its reconstruction.
Following the death of her father, Buddug II began her reign as Queen of the Gayls. During her short reign, which lasted just over seven years, the golden age that had begun under her father continued. The Kingdom of the Gayls underwent a massive revitalisation, with the establishment of new prominent population centers by a combination of royal decree and programs take by the chiefs of some of the nations more powerful clans. Most of Buddug II's reign was uneventful and came to an end just over seven years when it had begun. In 878 she died of what modern historians believe to have been a stroke. The succession crisis that ensued following her death is often considered to be her biggest contribution to Gaylic society.
Buddug II had named her eldest child and only son, Lughaidh II as her heir and successor. When she had first announced her decision by royal decree soon after her ascent to the throne, controversy was quick to ensue. Her son was not only a homosexual but in 836 he married his husband, Breasal. Breasal was a knight and a member of the powerful Ó Conchubhair clan who was childhood friends with Lughaidh. While her choice was controversial, it was only the more radical members of the Church who had vocally opposed both the marriage and the decision. However, the overall political climate would change after the death of his mother. A combination of homophobia and his inability to produce an heir from his union resulted in an open revolt against his rule by Crónán of Lyrone. This would come to be known as Crónán's Rebellion. Crónán was a member of the Ua Briain clan, which had slowly been consolidating its hold on the central regions of the main island through a series of marriages and alliances with neighboring clans. The revolt, which was supported by many of the kingdom's influential clerics, began in June of 878.
The first battle was fought in the modern county of Longford on 19 June. Breasal personally led the forces loyal to the king and was able to narrowly defeat the rebelling armies at the Battle of Simsak. For over a year the two factions would vie for the Gaylic crown until the combined armies of Lughaidh II and his husband would devastate the rebel forces at the Battle of Kileeny. Crónán was killed during the battle while the rest of his prominent supporters were subsequently captured. On 16 Octber 878 his supporters, a collection of chiefs and Sotirian clerics, were publicly executed in Ulstlyn, the seat of Clan Ua Briain.
While the revolt was a failure, it marked the end of the golden age that had begun under Lughaidh II's grandfather and namesake and would have a lasting effect on Gaylic society. The nation's first openly homosexual monarch would go on to reign for over three decades and is remembered for his extensive attempts to defend the islands from Varangian raiders. His victory would also result in his and his husband excommunication from the Church, along with one of their most loyal supporters, Bishop Barnabas of Spálgleann. The king chose to establish the bishop as an anti-pope, the first of several set up by Gaylic monarchs until the eventual split from the Church. Since the most powerful of the radical Sotirians within the country had been defeated in Crónán's Rebellion, unrest was minimal. Barnabas' status as anti-pope would last until his death in 918 and a second anti-pope was not named as Lughaidh himself died the following year. Lughaidh II's reign is often credited with helping maintain homosexuality as a norm within Gaylic society, something that would isolate the kingdom from much of Euclea.
The decades preceding the rule of Tomaisin II were fairly uneventful, while the Kingdom of the Gayls experienced a population increase. However, the situation soon changed following his rise to the throne. As the heir apparent, the Duke of Snarksburgh was known for his opulence. He lived a life of excessive luxury, and this was only amplified following the death of this father, Tomaisin I, in 987. The new king was quick to transform his court into one of luxury. He imported wine from the Continent and hosted extravagant parties for members of his court. Likewise, he would also use money from the royal treasury to finance dozens of prostitutes of both sexes, many of which temporarily resided in Dun Carraigard which was home to the monarch and his court. During his reign the royal treasury was nearly depleted as its funds were raided for Tomaisin's luxurious lifestyle or embezzled by corrupt members of the court.
Just as the wealth in the treasury had deteriorated, the nation had begun to do the same. As royal influence began to significantly decrease, largely in part to general mismanagement and the depletion of the royal treasury, the country's many clans began to vie for power and control over one another. During his reign, many of the most powerful clans began to war with one another, using militias made up of their own members of members of clans they were allied to. The Ó hEaghra of Cac soon became the leading faction on the main island, posing a direct threat to the rule of Tomaisin II. Chief Mánus of Clan Ó hEaghra had managed to consolidate his influence, making him the de facto leader of much of Glytter. In 993, some members of Tomaisin's court soon came to realise this and a plot to end his rule and place his only legitimate child, Princess Ailbe on the throne was soon developed. The king was assassinated while having sex with two of the male prostitutes he kept at the castle, who were also killed by the assassin.
Soon after her accession the young queen forged an alliance with Chief Mánus, naming him as the head of her armies. With the help of her advisers, Ailbe began to issue a series of economic reforms, among them was a tax increase on the nation's aristocracy. With the help of Ó hEaghra, a campaign to pacify the clans began. Following a series of compromises between the clans and the court over the next several years. One of the key agreements made between the two factions was the allocation of more land to the chiefs in exchange for money that would help rebuild the royal treasury.
Likewise, the chiefs would also provide incentives for clan members to become merchants and craftsmen with the hope of further stimulating the economy. Following the invasion of Holyhead and the fall of the Kingdom of Sklesland, the wealth of the Norse nobility was seized and their lands annexed directly by the monarch.
With the uptick in both the economy and the treasury and the successful campaign to retake Holyhead, Ailbe II moved to issue her largest reforms. On 20 May 1017, she declared the Kingdom of Glytter, with herself as the Queen of Glytter. Ailbe II also reorganised the aristocracy, creating a more traditionally feudal society on par with most of Euclea. Titles were granted to many of the nation's prominent chiefs, with the lowest rank issued being that of a Laird. The new kingdom was far more centralised than the Kingdom of the Gayls had been, with the monarch placed firmly at the top of the feudal system. The balance of power had shifted and the monarchy found itself with new authority it was never able to exercise previously.
The clans impacted most by the shift in power were those in the Highlands. With a much smaller populace and less wealth, many of the noble titles were granted to those in the Lowlands, giving them most of the power. As a result, many of the Highland clans began to feel isolated by Ailbe II. In 1021, the Highland chiefs formed an alliance and declared Faolán Mac Dùghall, the Earl of Hiort and Chief of Clan Mac Dùghall, as their king. Ailbe II, with the aide of her husband Prince Seosamh and her half-sister Úna Ní Ríain, Duchess of Diabhal, fought the pretender armies loyal to the Earl of Hiort at the Battle of Rannoch Moor. The Earl was killed in battle, ending his status as pretender, and his forces soon surrendered. Many of the rebel Highland chiefs were executed or disenfranchised and their wealth was seized by the court.
Arrival of the Verique
Following the death of Ailbe II in the middle of the eleventh century Glytter was marked by what modern historians consider to be a general lull in significant history. The late Queen's reforms remained steadfast, making the transition to the rule of her successor Morcan V seamless and insignificant. However, things would significantly change under Fiona I.
In 1061 Matilda of Embria, the sister of Verique King Richard I of Embria, arrived at the court of Fiona I on a diplomatic mission. She was sent along with her husband, Maurice Fitzgerald, by her brother in order to increase ties between the two kingdoms and potentially arrange a series of betrothals and potentially an alliance. The mission was a success, but Matilda did not return to Embria. The Queen, who was impressed by both the diplomatic nature of the Embrians as well as their culture, decided to create the Lairdship of Kilrowe, which was on the island of Holyhead, and grant it to the couple. The land was formerly held by the Crown, which was seized by Ailbe II from the Varangians. At the time a mix of Norse-Gayls had become the island's most prominent group, a relic of the Kingdom of Sklesland. Fiona silently hoped to remove what was the last bastion of Nordic influence from the Caldish Isles by offering the land to the Fitzgeralds. The island soon saw heavy migration from the Verique people living in Embria, which overtime mixed with the Norse-Gaylic population.
Matilda, now the Lady of Kilrowe, become a close ally of Queen Fiona, often supporting the Queen with both her influence and coffers. The Laird and Lady of Kilrowe had established their own dynasty, which slowly consolidated power on Holyhead. Over time the pair financed the development on the island, modeling it after the architecture and general style of their native Gaullica as well as that in Embria. They also introduced the first Papal Taxation register to Glytter, which the monarchs had previously resisted for centuries. The system soon spread throughout the islands and it resulted in the first Glytteronian census and list of properties.
Trouble would soon arise following the ascension of Coinneach I to the throne. Coinneach, who was a homosexual, saw his rule resisted by a faction formed by several leading nobles in order to depose him. In 1082 the group crowned their leader, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, King of Glytter at St. Brendan's Cathedral in Invertwinc. King Coinneach opted to hire mercenaries from Embria, famed for their recent conquests in the Estmerish Isles, in order to combat the sizable threat. The nephew of the Laird of Kilrowe, Stephen FitzGerald, was the commander of the regiment of Embrian mercenaries hired by the King. After a series of skirmishes in the lowlands and the capitulation of Invertwinc, the revolting nobles were concisely defeated at the Battle of Scillimona. For his service, Stephen was granted the Lairdship of Mencies which was created by the King out of Crown holdings on the island of Mannes. Land was also offered to his mercenaries as payment, which resulted in the decision by many of them to remain in Glytter and establish farms on the island. The Fitzgeralds of Kilrowe also fought to keep Coinneach on the throne, and they were granted the Earldom of Holyhead for their service.
Over time the Verique began to have an influence on Gaylic culture, most visible on the islands of Holyhead and Mannes. They introduced own language and customs to the Caldish Isles. Likewise, it became the trend for the Glytteronian monarchs to attempt to model their court after that of the Embrish kings. One major change the Verique introduced was that of towns. Coinneach I granted charters for dozens of burghs throughout his reign, modeling them after those found in Embria. These royal charters were issued to foster trade and to give extra rights to townspeople and were met with great success. The Verique also introduced the continental county system and their own Embrish shire system to Glytter, which would eventually be introduced to Glytter in the form of the contaetha in later reforms. Likewise, dozens of new castles and fortress were constructed by the monarchs throughout the Caldish Isles on the advice of the Verique. The arrival of the Verique also indirectly weakened the power of the Crown, which had given up the holdings of Holyhead and Mannes. However, since the Fitzgeralds tended to remain close allies of the monarchs the impact was not very significant. It is important to the Gayls had also influenced the culture of the Verique. While the Verique tended to be deeply devout, their traditional stances were challenged by the normalisation of homosexuality and the equal status of women found in Gaylic culture and law. Likewise, the Fitzgeralds also opted to remain neutral in the many disputes between Solaris and the Glytteronian monarchs, who would often set up their own anti-popes. King Coinneach I set up an anti-pope after the revolt had failed, using Cathal Crobhdearg of Spálgleann. as his anti-pope. He had previously been excommunicated by the Pope following his marriage to his husband, Teagan of Brocbach.
Weranic someone gets papal bull to invade Glytter and bring it in line with the Church. Raglan and Glytter defeat them.
Following the turmoil of the middle of the 12th century things in Glytter began to stabilise under the rule of Tomaisin III. The turmoil of the Weranic Crusade, which saw the deaths of two monarchs, had come to a close and King Tomaisin III had firmly established his grip over the islands. He closely allied himself with the Earl of Holyhead and the Earl of Benbaun, a powerful Highland noble. Through his alliances Tomaisin ensured the loyalty of the two of the largest militias in Glytter, which were used to supplement the weakened army of the King.
In an attempt to bring Glytter more in line with other Euclean states and exert more royal influence, something that had been severely damaged since the century's onset, Tomaisin III began to issue royal charters to the nation's leading settlements, such as Gayneva and Invertwinc. He followed in the footsteps of Coinneach I, who was the first monarch to issue charters to burghs. Tomaisin issued more specific royal charters and placed a cap on the number issued. Only the nation's ten most populous burghs received these charters, which effectively turned them into proper cities. Leading residents of the burghs, such as nobles and merchants, were granted the rights to form councils in order to govern their respective burghs, granting new powers and representation to the citizenry. He also used the charters to implement a more centralised tax system upon the burghs, funneling income from trade directly to the royal treasury. It was with this extra revenue that Tomaisin III began to rebuild his shattered army, modeling it after those found in Embria and financing advancements in weaponry and military technology.
The reign of Tomaisin III also saw the construction of cultural icons such as Clochnoc Fortress and St Cuchulain's Cathedral. It also saw the rise of Spálgleann's Medieval Quarter, which would become home to a significant portion of the growing city's population. The city walls were also constructed during this time, encompassing most of the Medieval Quarter. The walls were deemed essential to the defence of the city, which had seen heavy fighting during the siege by Weranic armies.
After Morcan IV took the throne, historians say Glytter entered officially entered a golden age, after dubbed as the Splendid Cetnralisation. Morcan IV was noted for her rather lax rule in comparison to Tomaisin III, who played a very active role in national d
evelopment. She was succeeded by her eldest child, Alastar, in 1219. Like his grandfather Tomaisian III, Alastar chose to play a proactive role in both governance and the economy. One of his first reforms was the issuing of the nation's first standard currency, the Crown. He also began to finance the development of growing coastal cities, such as Invertwinc and Bulfawst. This resulted in the establishment of larger ports in the two cities. As a result, the Royal Port of Bulfawst became Glytter's premier port for trade on the North Sea, overtaking Snarksburgh. Alastar also opted to strengthen ties with the Kingdom of Embria, and married Princess Natalie of Embria, securing a strong marital alliance with the Embrians. Under his rule, Glytter also saw expansive patronage of the arts, inspiring cultural works across the nation. Alastar also made plans to construct what would later become Spálgleann Palace, however this would be postponed follow his death and the instability which followed it. For his accomplishments, he was remembered soon after his death as Alastar the Great.
The Laird's Revolt
After the death of her father, Morcan VII ascended to the throne. Overall her reign was brief, as just over a year into her reign her brother, Prince Sionann, usurped power while she was abroad in Embria visiting her first cousin, Caroline I. Sionann collaborated with one of Glytter's leading nobles, the Earl of Cruckfada, and the Laird Marshall of the Realm, the head of the Crown's military forces.
His sister was forced into exile at Caroline's court, where she remained with her mother, Natalie of Embria, and her sister, Princess Fiona, until her death in 1233. It was at this point that Natalie, with the help of her niece, began to plan an invasion of Glytter. Discontent over the suffocating and tyrannical rule of the now King Sionann began to grow as he began to place high taxes on the nobility. Many of the disgruntled nobles, led by the Earl of Snarksburgh and the Earl of Holyhead, formed the Army of the Lord and Justice, aimed at curbing the influence of Sionann. Over time the group realised the only way to achieve their goal was to forcibly remove him from power, and word was sent to Embria to inform the exiled Queen Natalie of their decision.
The revolt officially began in September of 1233, triggered by the Battle of Cloghel. Initially, the Pro-Sionann forces were able to deal the revolting nobles with a series of defeats. However, this would change upon the arrival of Queen Natalie and the Embrian forces loyal to her. In November, Natalie landed in Snarksburgh, which along with Invertwinc acted as the main bases of support for her rule. Her forces, which she led alongside Caroline, slowly moved eastward across the main island, forcing the armies of her son to focus on two fronts. Over time Natalie's armies and the Army of the Lord and Justice began to corner Sionann, and he was forced to retreat inside Toragh Castle by early May of 1235. On the 21st of May, the revolting lairds laid siege to the fortress and utterly destroyed it. Sionann was killed during the siege and the war came to a close, with Natalie as the Queen of Glytter.
Natalie became the first monarch of Glytter who was not born in the country or a native Gayl. Over the course of her twelve year rule she slowly consolidated the influence the Crown had lost as a result of her son, reversing many of his oppressive reforms. She also pursued further ties with her native Embria, signing the Holy Alliance with her niece, Caroline I.
Inquisition and the Reign of Horror
After the end of the Alastarian monarchs, Glytter saw a rather quiet period in its history. While the nation's leading ports and the cities that surrounding them grew, Glytter remained a poor and economically backward country. Despite the existence of a national currency, the Crown, barter was the means of exchange. For instance, the farmers of County Aerach would transport their butter to the mining districts of Central Glytter and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad.
In the middle of the 14th century, Glytter was struck by the Black Death. The population of Glytter and most of Euclea was seriously affected. The national population did not reach the same numbers that existed before 1348 until the beginning of the 19th century. Nearly one third of the population died during 1349–1351. This greatly affected the morale of the Glytteronian people, and some began to believe the Black Death was sent by God to purge the nation of the ungodly. In regards to the Gaylic people, Pope Innocent II wrote "this nation is full of ungodly savages. They may worship the Sotiras, but they are by on means Sotirians. Men lay with men the same way they lay with women, violating the will of God". A group of hardliners, who modern historians identify as the Cult of Clyte, slowly began to emerge. The group was led by a priest by the name of Tomás Ó Fiaich and actively preached against the normalisation of homosexuality and the status of women in Gaylic society. Ó Fiaich emerged as a powerful ally of Solaris, actively speaking out against the monarchy and mainstream clergy.
When Morcan IX was named Princess of Gayls in 1374 by her father, Séamus I, she met with Ó Fiaich and several of his most prominent supporters. It was at this time that she became a member of the Cult of Clyte and allied herself with the priest. Tomás Ó Fiaich was appointed Archbishop of Spálgleann in 1381 by Pope Nicholas V and became the de facto head of the Church in Glytter. He slowly began to purge members of the mainstream clergy, Catholic priests who were inline with Gaylic culture, and replaced them with members of the Cult of Clyte. As result, the clergy which had previously been a staunch ally of the monarchy became a fierce opponent of it. Following the death of her father in August of 1395, Morcan IX became the Queen of Glytter. Soon after, she appointed Tomás Ó Fiaich as Laird Chancellor. Ó Fiaich, who had since become a Cardinal, was now the head of the Privy Council and the Royal Court.
Using Morcan IX as a proxy, he implemented heavily restrictive policies. Women were disenfranchised and no longer allowed to inherit property, tanistry was abolished and replaced with Salic law, homosexuality and sodomy were outlawed, and a formal inquisition was launched. Several hundred people died as a result of the subsequent inquisition that ensued during a period remembered as the Reign of Horror. Modern historians note the irony of Ó Fiaich's reforms, as he used a female monarch to pursue his misogynistic and fundamentalist agenda.
The policies implemented by Morcan IX and Cardinal Ó Fiaich were extremely unpopular with both the nobility and the peasantry. In fact, they were so unpopular that feudal lords and their serfs were essentially united opposition to the rule of Morcan IX. As a result her brother, Prince Séamus, became a symbol of resistance to her reforms. Séamus, who was himself a homosexual, often sparred with Morcan IX and the Laird Chancellor over the reforms, both privately and publicly. As he became more popular and there were talks of an uprising, Ó Fiaich convinced Morcan to issue a warrant for the arrest of her brother on 15 March 1396. Séamus was able to escape his arrest as many within the royal guard sympathized with his cause, and he fled to the city of Invertwinc. He found refuge in Invertwinc Castle, offered to him by his twin sister Fiona. Shortly after the news of the warrant for his arrest swept across the nation, riots began to break out in major cities. Séamus, with the help of Fiona and prominent nobles in and around Invertwinc, began to raise and organise an army.
Modern historians often state that the civil war that ensued as a result began on the 15th of March. This is largely due to the rioting that ensued following the attempted arrest of Prince Séamus. However, Séamus spent several weeks rallying his forces and actual combat did not begin until April, triggering the Siblings War. The Battle of Merdeen was the first major clash between the two factions, the Queen's Men (also known as the Whites) and the King's Men (also known as the Purples). Fighting would largely take place in the nation's central regions, with the armies vying for control over the city of Gayneva on several occasions. It was after the Third Battle of Gayneva that many within the ranks of Morcan IX's armies began to defect to her brother, allowing him to promptly sweep southward toward the capital, Spálgleann. By March of 1396, a series of quick victories forced the Queen and her supporters to hide behind the city's walls. The King's Men laid siege to the city and after many of its defenders defected or surrendered, Morcan IX surrendered. She was arrested, alongside Cardinal Ó Fiaich. The pair was tried and promptly executed at Clochnoc Fortress on the 23rd of March.
After his usurped the throne, Séamus II made quick work of appointing his allies to the Privy Council and promptly reversed all of his sister's reforms. He went even further and abolished serfdom, rewarding the peasantry for their loyalty throughout the conflict. He was excommunicated by Pope Nicholas V for the execution of two of the pope's strongest allies. As a result, the Crown placed heavy restrictions on the Church and Séamus II set up his own anti-pope. He revoked the pope's ability to appoint bishops, and instead allotted that power to the Crown. The Siblings War is seen as the major turning point in relations between Glytter and the Papacy. Following the war, Glytteronian monarchs largely discarded the opinions and actions of those in Solaris, and instead did as they pleased when it came to the Church and governance. It also signaled the onset of over a century of anti-popes established by each of his successors.
"an Coimhthíoch" - the Outsider
Potential rework: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62qzmrZRt6U - Glytter has a succession crisis, to avoid another civil war, since the Siblings War was so recent, leading nobles we ask Raglanese Emperor to mediate, he says fine but manages to choose the claimant who is stupid af and best suits Raglanese Imperial interests. Appointed King eventually abdicates and Glytter becomes a client state of the HNE in a weird unofficial personal union with the Raglanese Emperor as the Regent of Glytter. That doesn't go so well so the nobles are like f this and seek an alliance with Embria, who side with Glytter and force the Raglanese to end the client state status.
Lasts from the death of some lady in 1458 to Emperor Harald the Lodbrok's death in 89.
Rebellion 15 years in fails. Some dispute between Glyt nobles and Raglanese occurs in 1486, triggering the war and subsequent independence.
maciconnichs are back bb
Early Modern Glytter (1535-1810)
When Glytter did develop and entered the peak of its Ellenian era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.
The Emerald Conspiracy of 1548, in earlier centuries referred to as the Earls' Treason or Holyhead Plot, was a failed attempt to assassinate Queen Ellen I of Glytter by a group of Solarian Catholic nobles, led by Thomas Fitzgerald, 7th Duke of Holyhead.
John I and all that nonsense.
First War: He flees the capital for the highlands where he leads a revolting Catholic army. Is defeated and flees to Gaullica. 1926-28
Second War: Returns with the help of Gaullican forces to retake the islands. He lands in Holyhead but his invasion is repelled. Lands on the Eastern Isles, met with more success. Lands in the Highland and meets with forces loyal to him. Leads a campaign for Invertwinc but is defeated after the Estmerish arrive and help the armies of Rory I. Attempts to flee to Gaullica, but is captured and executed. 1631-32
Third War: 1652 . Younger brother of John I, recognized by Dejarlists as Louis I of Glytter, lands on the Eastern Isles and captures Benbaun. Lands without support of foreign troops, but receives material and economic backing from the HNE and Gaullica in an attempt to bait Estmere into conflict. He is killed in battle when trying to flee Glytter. Dejarlist claim goes to his eldest daughter, Marie. who is styled Mary II.
See lore docs.
Ailís Kinsella, Lady Thuaidh - Gaylic Admiral who later became a prominent merchant trader. Grandfather was an admiral in the MacIconic War, father was a merchant involved in colonial affairs.
Flight of the Lairds
Foundations of state education
Normalisation of Catholicism
19th and early 20th centuries (1810-1935)
The Silent Revolution
Industrialisation and economic growth
Industrial decline and oil
Na Blianta Dorcha
Na Blianta Dorcha spanned the mid-1960s to the late 1970s. Communist Party of Glytter resurfaces after strong industrial decline. Establishes the Socialist Revolutionary Front, a new paramilitary group akin to the United Glytteronian Front. Saw a series of bombings and targeted assassinations of political, business, and military leaders, such as Wallace P. Fitzgerald, Jr. and General Marie-Haley Mac Williams. Often compared and tied to the Thistle Insurrection, but considered separate due to strong ideological differences. Ended with the surrender of SRF leaders and their trial. Many former SRF supporters have ties to the Communist Party of Glytter