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Freiheitskorps involved in a street fight during the Proletar uprising
Mascyllary Kingdom (1923)
Crowned Republic of Mascylla (1923–24)
|Commanders and leaders|
Otto von Liebknecht
The Mascyllary Revolution, Revolution of 1923, or May Revolution (Hesurian: Mairevolution) was a civil conflict in the Mascyllary Kingdom after previous two decades of political unrest and dissatisfaction that culminated in the replacement of the Mascyllary authoritarian feudal monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic under a constitutional monarchy that colloquially became known as the May Republic, and was officially named the Crowned Republic of Mascylla. The revolution lasted from 13 May 1923 until the declaration of the Crowned Republic on 26 January 1924.
The causes of the revolution were the extreme burdens endured by the population during the reign of King Emperor Lukas II and the devastation suffered after the Continental War, the strong impact of the war on the Mascyllary Kingdom, the call for democratization and the introduction of a constitutional monarchy similar to the proposals made by Hytekojuznik politician Fabian Katz, and the social tensions between the lower population and the ruling elite of aristocrats and bourgeoisie.
The roots of the revolution lay in the Mascyllary Kingdoms's poor policies used and the social tensions that came to ignite shortly thereafter. The first acts of revolution were triggered by the incompetent handling of post-war Mascylla by the Mascyllary Supreme Military Command and the government. Instead of obeying their orders to further secure and help rebuild the devastated areas, tired Mascyllary soldiers led a revolt in the army bases of Birchau on 12 May 1923, followed by the Wilhelmshagen mutiny in the first days of June. These events spread the fires of civil unrest across Mascylla and ultimately led to the proclamation of a republic on 23 May 1923. Shortly after, King Emperor Lukas II abdicated his throne and tried to flee the country, but was caught and publicly executed in Königsreh.
The revolutionaries, inspired by socialist ideals and values, did not adapt the Hytekojuznik system of a communist government, as the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla (SDP) opposed their structure. The SDP, in compliance with the Centre Party, favoured a national assembly as the basis for a parliamentary democracy instead. Fearing a fully escalated civil war in Mascylla between militant workers and reactionary conservatives, the newly founded SDP-Centre government did not plan to strip the old upper classes and monarchy completely of their powers and privileges. Instead, it opted to integrate them into a new social democratic system. Under this manner, SDP-Centre officials sought contact to the Mascyllary Supreme Military Command. This enabled the opportunity to use the army and nationalist militias such as the Freiheitskorps and the Bund der Maitruppen to quell the communist Proletar uprising, having established the Proletarian Republic of Mascylla, by force. This new alliance succeeded in suppressing further uprisings of the left and right in major parts of Mascylla, with the result that the entire country was brought under control by December 1923.
Subsequent elections for the Reichsrat were held on 21 January 1924. The revolution ended with the formal introduction of a government and the adoption of the Great Constitution of the Realm on 26 January 1924. The new monarchy was introduced with the coronation of Maximilian I on 5 March.