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República Popular de Moreira
Popular Republic of Moreira
Motto: Para a nossa República
"For our Republic"
Anthem: Pessoas Corajosas
|Moreira (dark green) in Asteria (light grey)).|
Moreira (dark green) in Asteria (light grey)).
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Floren|
|Recognised regional languages||Wayuu|
|Ethnic groups |
|96% Solarian Catholic|
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Lúcia Machado Cordeiro|
|Cláudio Roberto Siqueira|
|Legislature||Popular Assembly of Moreira|
• Independence from Florena/Lusitan
• Republic established
• Current constitution
|January 1 2009|
|548,756 km2 (211,876 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
• 2014 census
|52.28/km2 (135.4/sq mi)|
• Per capita
• Per capita
|Currency||Morerian cruzeiro (₢)|
The Popular Republic of Moreira (Lusitan: República Popular de Moreira), commonly known as Moreira, is a country in Asteria Superior. It is bordered by Marirana to the west, Duquesne to the northwest, the Federation of Asteria to the north and sharing maritime borders with Satucin to the south. It has a total population of 28,690,000 people with its capital and largest city being Concordia. Marirana's population is split between those of Euclean (primarily Floren) descent and Euclean-Asterian mixed, in 1999, the latter became the largest ethnic group.
History.... Colonial times and independence...
During the 19th century, Moreira suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional oligarchs based around the coca, rubber and coffee plantations. Their dominance of land and wealth resulted in near-perpetual unrest in the countryside. During the first half of the 20th century, the unrest in the countryside reached the cities through left-wing parties and a nascent trade union movement. Agitation over land-ownership culminated in the Selva Crisis, when landless workers seized plantations and demanded land reform, the army was deployed and crushed the workers. This led to intermittent military dictatorships. From 1954 however, Moreira saw the emergence of democratic governance. Economic shocks and corruption scandals in the 1960s and 1970s led to several political crises, including the deadly Década de Sangue (1971-1981). Moreira came under a civic-military dictatorship (1971-1986) that combated leftist guerilla movements and cartels in a spill over of the Mariranan insurgency. Democracy was restored in 1986, yet polarisation remained and maintained instability leading to two attempted coups in 1991 and 1993, and the assassination of President Elísio de Figueiredo in 1994. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1999 election of the United People's Socialist Party under retired army officer, Jair Passos de Albergaria in a minority government. The failure to pass a budget resulted in the return of centre-right government in 2001. Further scandals and rising income inequality would result in a second victory for Albergaria and his PSPU party with a majority in the legislature, however, João Aguiar's refusal to hand over power, citing irregularities in the countryside, led to the Second Revolution and his overthrow in 2009. Albergaria instituted the Revolution of Popular Renewal, rewriting the constitution, which officially renamed Moreira to the República Popular de Moreira (Popular Republic of Moreira). In 2012 he was shot dead by a right-wing soldier and was succeeded by his Vice President, Lúcia Machado Cordeiro.
Moreira is a unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic with a highly centralised and powerful state. Moreira is a newly industrialised country with its main economic sectors being industry, logging, mining (especially of copper, gold, bauxite), oil and gas, rubber and coffee. Moreira also extensively exploits its rainforest, despite opposition from environmental groups, it has also sought to enhance its tourist industry. Moreira is a member of the Community of Nations, the ADC, ITO and GIFA.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Foreign policy and armed forces
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
Independence and 19th century
Second Revolution 2009
In 2009, the Morerian government under President João Aguiar announced a snap election. Aguiar was eager to restore his authority following the embarrassing and damaging departure of Finance Minister Francisco Barros in wake of both a scandal involving an extra-marital affair and his embezzling of state pension funds. However, his Social People’s Party swiftly collapsed in the polls as general mistrust of the established parties, led to a rise of the United People’s Socialist Party (PSPU) under Jair Passos de Albergaria.
The PSPU campaigned on a leftist platform, promising dramatic reform to end corruption, distribute land and wealth, while raising living standards and expanding the economy. Albegaria’s charisma and popularity with the poor and working class, eventually drew the support of the disaffected middle class who quaked under stagnating wages.
On April 22, the PSPU won 43% of the popular vote, and 221 seats out of 360 in the Popular Assembly. Aguiar’s PSP won only 14% of the vote and 34 seats, with the remainder being taken by 8 other parties from across the political spectrum. Aguiar’s government rejected the results citing irregularities in rural constituencies, accusing the PSPU of ballot stuffing. He refused to accept the result and cede power to the PSPU, sparking mass protests in the countryside and within days the major cities. The mass protests eventually turned violent as Aguiar offered amnesty to police officers if they used force. Violence was primarily centered around Concordia, São Francisco and Porto Alexandre, while the PSPU pressured the Supreme Court to rule against Aguiar. In turn Aguiar strong-armed the National Electoral Council to begin a recount on May 1. The PSPU used May Day to mobilise an estimated 2 million workers and farmers in Concordia and Porto Alexandre to force Aguiar out of office.
He refused again in a televised address on May 3, urging the Morerian people to stand by him and denounced the PSPU as “leftist terrorists and agitators.” In response, Albergaria, a popular officer in the Morerian Army secured the backing of several generals and deployed forces to Concordia. In a televised speech of his own, Albergaria threatened to “burn Alguiar out of his Palace” in name of the popular will. Facing a popular-backed coup, Aguiar charted a private jet to Glytter and sought asylum on May 6.
On May 7, Albergaria was sworn in as president before an estimated 3 million people in Concordia. His first official act was to issue a decree banning the PSP and ejecting its Assembly Members. The PSPU won all 34 seats in the special by-elections, increasing the PSPU’s number to 245.
PSPU government 2009-present
Jair Albargaria 2009-2012
Upon becoming President, Albargaria began implementing several of his promised reforms. His first major policy move, just four days after entering office was to established a Constituent Commission to devise a new constitution. The right immediately criticised the Commission for being overwhelmingly drawn from the PSPU and other left-wing groups such as the Worker's Party, Socialist Fatherland and the League of Landless Workers. The new constitution was completed by August 2009 and presented to the people by referendum, it was adopted after a 71% yes vote. The new constitution officially renamed Moreira from the State of Moreira (Estado de Moreira) to the Popular Republic of Moreira (República Popular de Moreira), ended the restrictions on suffrage for the indigenous and Coia-Morerian minorities and introduced a set quota for female parliamentarians, to be enforced at the next election in 2013.
In September, Albargaria's promise to empower the workers came through with the establishment of the United Coalition of Industrial and Land Workers (CUTIT), a merger of all trade unions in Moreira with direct access to the government through its representation on the National Committee for Economic Development (CNDE); which was established as an advisory body to represent both employer and employee. However, critics accused Albargaria and the PSPU of nationalising the union movement and seizing control for political purposes, yet the move was widely praised by some economists and workers movements alike.
In January 2010, Albargaria instituted the mobilising of the armed forces to aid in the government's social policies. The first was the Ofensiva Anti-Analfabetismo (Anti-Illiteracy Offensive), in which soldiers were dispatched alongside volunteer teachers to rural towns and villages to combat high-levels of illiteracy among the adult population. While teachers through the CUTIT were paid to teach the illiterate in the country's flavelas. In 2011, Albargaria's government launched the Costruire Su - Crescere Velocemente (Build Up-Grow Fast) program which was a joint state-private venture using the military under expert management to build roads, rail, bridges and tunnels in order to remove the obstacles to economic growth. The CSCV program also included reforms to state finances, taxation and improving the country's auditing processes which greatly increased government revenues, ostensibly to pay off the government's external debt. The CSCV program saw great successes between 2011 and 2012, with the construction of 1,200km of road and 1,100km of railway to the mineral rich north. Reforms and the government's interventions had succeeded in raising growth from 2.2% in 2011 to 5.4% in 2012, in a speech celebrating the news, President Albargaria proclaimed "the path to socialism is clear, we shall advance together and build our socialist society." His comments caused uproar on the right of Morerian politics. Tensions within the military grew as the Right and corporate groups began to conspire against the PSPU government.
In June 2012, the government passed legislation greatly enhancing its power of appropriation in preparation for nationalising key industries. The right-wing Morerian Christian Union denounced the move as the per-cursor to tyranny and the confiscation of private property. Albargaria warned in a televised speech that any element in politics, the military, business or society at large, that conspired against him or the government would "face the true power of popular justice." On June 20 2012, during a visit to troops involved in the CSCV program, President Albargaria was shot dead by an overseeing army officer. He was declared deceased at the scene, while the officer was shot dead by his soldiers in revenge.
Lúcia Cordeiro 2012-present
Albargaria’s Vice President, Lúcia Machado Cordeiro succeeded him, being sworn in at her private residence in Porto Alexandre. She declared a week of national mourning and an immediate investigation into the armed forces, to seek out other right-wing officers and soldiers, who she deemed a “Federation-back fifth column.” At the end of the week, a state funeral was held for President Albargaria, with his body being held in state. His body was visited by over 3 million supporters and several regional left-wing politicians and foreign heads of state.
By early August, the investigation into the armed forces had purged over 2,200 soldiers and 300 officers. President Cordeiro signed into law the Commander Albargaria Act, which expanded the definitions of sedition and treason, which resulted in purged officers and soldiers being charged. Trials began and by October, 800 officers and soldiers had been found guilty of sedition and treason and sentenced to life imprisonment, under pressure from rights groups and the International Council for Democracy, President Cordeiro offered an amnesty for those who would re-take the oath of military service. She also replaced the senior unit commanders with those loyal to Albargaria, by December 2012, she had formally shut down the trials.
In her first major speech in December, she vowed to continue the “agenda of our commander and comrade.” However, she replaced Finance Minister Franco Alves with Eugênio Noronha, a leftist moderate. Noronha and Cordeiro worked to improve relations with business, while simultaneously working to increase state power over the economy.
In 2013, her government refused to renew the private contract for MinerMorer, the semi-state owned mining corporation, however, using increased revenues from Albargaria’s reforms compensated shareholders and invited Euclean business people to assist in reforming state-owned enterprises into more corporate structures. The compensation of investors allowed the Cordiero government to repeat the process with PetroMorer, CacarecosMorer and AçoMorer.
In February her government instituted the Cada Pessoa uma Casa (Each Person a House) program aimed at mass construction of modern social housing, renovation of existing units and the improvements and developments of the country’s favelas. The CPUC took on favela residents who were paid the minimum wage, while contracts were issued out to domestic and foreign corporations, who instead of direct payment received massively reduced tax rates.
On May 5 2013, Cordeiro and the PSPU were re-elected into government with 53.4% of the popular vote.
Moreira is located in the south of Asteria Superior; bordering Marirana and Duquesne to the west and Federation of Asteria to the north. To the south and east, it borders Alexandrian Gulf It has a total area of 548,756 km2 (211,875 sq mi) making Moreira the XXrd largest country in the world.
Shaped roughly like a triangle, the country has a 1,800 km (1,118 mi) coastline in the south and east, which includes numerous islands in the Gulf, the largest being Mar Virado,observers describe Moreira in terms of three fairly well-defined topographical regions: the Concordian lowlands in the south, the southern mountains extending in a broad east-west arc from the Mariranan border along the southern Gulf coast, the wide plains in central Moreira known as the Extensão, and the Caxias Highlands in the north and north-east.
The southern mountains are the geological escalations of Marirana's highlands dominating San Marco. Pico Olimpo, the nation's highest point at 2,765 m (9,072 ft), lies in this region. To the north, the dissected Caxias Highlands contain much of Moreira's tropical rainforest, as well as tepuis, large table-like mountains. The country's center is characterized by the extensão, which are extensive plains that stretch from the Mariranan border in the far west to the Gulf coast in the east. The Extensão is dissected and nourished by numerous rivers rich in alluvial soils.
Moreira's most significant natural resources are natural gas, timber, iron ore, gold, and other minerals. It also has large areas of arable land and water.
Government and politics
Moreira is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with a representative democracy. The President of Moreira (Presidente) is the head of state and government and depends for his or her tenure on the confidence of the Assembly. The government is comprised of senior ministers and junior ministers; the senior ministers comprise of the Council of State (Conselho Estadual). The unicameral legislature is the Popular Assembly (Assembléia Popular). Moreira uses a system of civil law with a four tier judiciary, with the Constitution of the Popular Republic serving as the supreme law in the country. Moreira is divided into ten Districts (Distrito), which have limited autonomy.
Moreira's current system of government was adopted in 2010 after the rise of United People's Socialist Party under Jair Passos de Albergaria following the Second Revolution and a successful referendum. Prior to 2010 Moreira had a presidential system with a bicameral legislature. The successful referendum in 2010 saw a new constitution adopted that created the current system, while also reforming the electoral law, being intended to represent the interests of minorities. The new constitution also lifted presidential terms, while also introducing the power of recall for the presidency, the assembly and local government. The constitution can be amended with a simple majority of the Assembly 181+ Members and a referendum approved by 50%+ of valid votes and a majority of districts.
The current president is Lúcia Machado Cordeiro, the third left-wing president in Morerian history after her patron and predecessor Jair Passos de Albergari and Artur Junqueras (1979-1983). The current vice president is Cláudio Roberto Siqueira.
Moreira's government is a parliamentary constitutional republic. As the president depends upon his or her tenure on the confidence of the Popular Assembly, after each parliamentary election, the Assembly elects one of its members as President; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. The candidate is often the leader of the largest party. The President appoints a Vice President and Ministers, who form the Council of State which consists of Departments and Ministries. The President and the cabinet may be removed by the Popular Assembly by a motion of no confidence, or a recall vote by the electorate.
The Council of State is comprised of fifteen ministers and six under-secretaries, who can only vote on matters related to their department or ministry. The President cannot act independently of the Council of State, requiring a majority vote on all matters before prosecuting a decision or legislation. The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can override these objections. The president may ask the Popular Assembly to pass an enabling act granting the ability to rule by decree in specified policy areas; this requires a two-thirds majority in the Assembly, this by extension applies to the Council of State; allowing ministers to introduce legislation with only the President's seal required. The President also approves legalisation (and reserves the right to veto it), is commander-in-chief. The President can nominate members to the Supreme Court, grant pardons, issue executive orders (with Cabinet approval) and ratify treaties personally, if agreed by Assembly vote.
The executive also includes several key committees and commissions that grant exceptional influence to numerous bodies, the most prominent is the National Committee for Economic Development (CNDE), which allows the United Coalition of Industrial and Land Workers (CUTIT), this has led to numerous bodies and groups to claim that the government is subordinate to the CUTIT, many decisions made not requiring parliamentary approval, has enabled the CUTIT to influence government with much parliamentary scrutiny.
United People's Socialist Party 245
Civic League 53
Moreiran Democrats 40
Radical Progressives 10
Indigenous Interest 5
Socialist Fatherland 5
People's Social Movement 2
The unicameral legislature of Moreira is known as the Popular Assembly. The Popular Assembly has 360 members who serve five year terms. The Assembly is the main legislative body and retains parliamentary supremacy on all matters. The Assembly has the right to dismiss the President and Council of State through a vote of no-confidence, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the Assembly. The cabinet and president reports to parliament. The Assembly may produce legislation independent of the government, veto any legislation presented by the government with a two-thirds majority.
All members of the Popular Assembly maybe recalled by their constituents, which sparks an immediate by-election. For a Recall Vote to take place, 45% of constituent voters to offer signatures.
Political parties and democracy
Moreira has a multi-party system with some legislative blocks on the formation of electoral alliances. Prior to 2009, Moreira was a two-party state, with the centrist Democratic Alliance and the centre-right Social People's Party governing interchangeably since the 1990s. However, repeated scandals, national inequality and growing authoritarianism under the SPS resulted in the landslide victory of the United People's Socialist Party in 2009.
The governing party since 2009 is the United People's Socialist Party (Partido Socialista do Povo Unido, PSPU) which supporters a wide range of socialist ideologies, but is predominately considered to operate under Popular Socialism, a left-wing-populist ideology created by the late UPSP leader, Jair Passos de Albergaria. The three other major left-wing parties are Indigenous Interest (Interesse Indígena, II) which supports indigenismo. Socialist Fatherland (Pátria Socialista, PS), which is Mohirist and the People's Social Movement (Movimento Social das Pessoas, MSP) which is eco-socialist. These three parties are highly supportive of the PSPU, leading many critics to claim the three have become satellite parties.
The main opposition parties are the Civic League (Liga Cívica, LC), which is a centre-right party, the Morerian Democrats (Democratas de Moreriano, DM), which is a social conservative right-wing party and finally the Radical Progressives (Progressistas Radicais, PR) which is a social liberal to radical centrist party. All three opposition parties vary in their level of partisanship toward the PSPU, with the Democrats including numerous evangelical groups and pro-Solarian Catholic bodies.
The support of the left-wing and the dominant majority the PSPU holds in the Popular Assembly and in the Districts (local level) has led many commentators and politicians to describe Moreira as a dominant party state.
Law and order
Foreign policy and armed forces
Morerian Armed Forces
The Morerian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Moreriano, FAM) are the overall unified military forces of Moreira. It includes over 350,250 men and women, in 5 branches of Ground, Sea and Air. The components of the Morerian Armed Forces are: the Morerian Army, the Morerian Navy, the Morerian Air Force, the Morerian Territorial Force, and the Morerian Special Response Force.
As of 2014, a further 300,000 soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve. The President of Moreria is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. The main roles of the armed forces are to defend the sovereign national territory of Moreria, airspace, and islands, fight against drug trafficking, to search and rescue and, in the case of a natural disaster, civil protection. All male citizens of Moreira have a constitutional duty to register for the military service at the age of 18, deferments and exemptions for students was revoked in 2015.
Following early conspiracies and rumours in 2010 and 2011, the FAM underwent politicisation and subordination to the government, with the left-wing government replacing suspected coup-plotters with supportive officers, this had led many opposition figures to accuse the government of undermining the political independence of the armed forces.
The population of Moreira, as recorded by the 2014 Census, was approximately 26,998,382 (XXX.ZZ inhabitants per square kilometre or XX.X/sq mi), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 63.75% of the population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated on the coast (18.5 million inhabitants) while the remaining territory, constituting the largest Districts, 75% of total land area, only contained 8.4 million inhabitants. As of 2017, the national population is estimated to stand at 28.69 million, an increase of 1.7 million.
The first census in Moreira was carried out in 1780 and recorded a population of 2,930,478. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Eucleans arrived. Moreira's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate, matched by an increase in the birthrate. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007. In 1930 the population was recorded 7,840,385 and in 1994 it was recorded as 16,333,530. The rate of population growth remains steady at 2.34%, with Moreira's population expected to reach 34 million 2025.
In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 31.48% and among the youth (ages 15–19) 9.74%. It was highest (29.30%) in the north, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (34.18%) among the rural population and lower (10.05%) among the urban population. In 2015, this had fallen to overall rate of 19.4%, while the north's rate had fallen to 17.43% in wake of government initiatives.
According to the National Office for Social Statistics (GNES) of 2014, 47.13% (about 12.7 million) as Pardo (brown), 33.73% of the population (about 9.1 million) described themselves as White; 10.08% (about 2.7 million) as Coia-Morerian (black); 10.00% (about 2.6 million) as Zapoyan; 3.32% (896 thousand) as Chamaian (officially with the Zapoyan people, called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.03% (about 9 thousand) did not declare their race and listed as "Other".
Since the arrival of the Lusitanans in 1500 and later the Florens, considerable miscegenation between indígena, Eucleans, and Coians has taken place in all regions of the country (with Euclean ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all GNES studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%).
Morerian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated, however, the disparity of economic growth and development has reduced the marked differences in racial incomes. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups. Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because a minority of pardos are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward. Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Coia-Morerians are evenly mixed and Euclean ancestry is dominant in Whites and pardos with a significant non-Euclean contribution, but the individual variation is great).
The brown population (officially called pardo in Lusitan, also colloquially Moreno) is a broad category that includes caboclos (assimilated indígena in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), mulatos (descendants of primarily Whites and Coia-Morerians) and Cafuzos (descendants of Coia-Morerians and indígena). People of considerable Indígena ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions, with major crossovers of familial ties with indígena communities in neighbouring Marirana. In 2006, the Pardo population exceeded the White as the largest ethnic group, this was re-confirmed officially through the 2014 GNES study.
In 2017, the National Barometer for Social Attitudes (Barómetro Nacional de Atitudes Sociais; BNAS) found that only 33% of the population thought "Moreira had a racism problem", a further 29% viewed other racial groups in the country negatively, the biggest group within the respondents were Whites, who held negative views of the Indígena primarily. The Indígena came second, viewing the Whites with equal negatively. Since 2009, the Morerian government has launched numerous initiatives aimed at confronting racism within Morerian society, the most successful (praised by the International Council for Democracy and the Community of Nations) is the Muitas Cores, uma Bandeira (Many Colours, One Flag).
The official languages of Moreira are Lusitan and Floren (Article 10 of the Constitution of the Popular Republic). Lusitan is almost spoken by the entire population and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes, however Floren can be found in special cases and usually inter-changed in general conversation.
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. An estimated 120 Indígena languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. Efforts by the government to protect indígena languages has been confronted with difficulty, especially over the provision of translated government documents and signage. The two major Indígena languages that are protected under the constitution are Nahuatl and Guarani.
Besides Floren, the other major Euclean languages spoken by immigrant communities include Etrurian, Werenian and Gaullican. An estimated 8.4 million speak Floren as a second language, while 1.1 million speak Etrurian, 1 million speak Werenian and over 800,000 speak Gaullican. However, only Floren is protected under the constitution, which remains a constant issue among the Euclean immigrant communities and their descendants.
Learning at least one second language (generally Floren or Etrurian) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). University level offers multiple minority languages including the two Indígena languages.
Largest cities or towns in Moreira
|1||Concordia (Moreira)||Baía Dourada||6,681,640||Porto Alexandre|