The Pereramonic Wars (1711–1729) were a series of major conflicts fought in Euclea between the Floren Empire and its Pereramonic System led by Nèstor I against a range of Euclean powers. The wars followed the brisk unification of Florena under Pereramon and stemmed from the resultant concern of other Euclean powers, Floren imperial ambitions and Nèstor's own hubris. There are generally considered to be seven periods in the series, containing three 'interludes' (1713–1717, 1719–1720, 1723–1724), two 'campaigns' (1711–1713, 1717–1719), and two 'containment wars' (1720–1723, 1724–1729).
Prior to 1691, Florena had been a number of distinct polities, feuding in a series of localised but bloody conflicts. By 1707, however, Nèstor had united the peninsula into the Floren Empire: a powerful, wealthy nation that was capable of rivaling the traditional Euclean powers. In 1711, a league of Vespasian city-states led by the Exalted Republic of Poveglia mounted an expedition into Transmuntanya. Nèstor's campaign of reprisal would culminate in a Floren victory at Oclava in 1713, and the submission of Vespasia, Novalia, Carinthia and Aquila. Lluc Casafont secured the surrender of Montecara soon after, enabling a future campaign in Coius. Etruria's defeat drew the ire of the Euclean powers, but diplomatic efforts from 1713 to 1717 prevented Floren isolation and saw the rise of the Pereramonic System.
Ongoing instability in the Transnovalian region gave Nèstor justification to pacify the region from 1717 to 1719, though the resultant territorial expansion and foundation of the client-state comprised Confederation of the Nine served to stoke up fear among the Great Powers of a Floren domination of the continent. The first Anti-Pereramonic Pact formed in March 1720, and by May they had initiated the First War of Containment. A Floren opening victory at Bragasna severely weakened the powers, and subsequent victories in 1723 at Constanrad and Želierok forced the Pact to accept the Treaty of Demora, which saw essential Floren dominance over Euclea. The death of Louis V in April 1723 heralded the breakdown of Floren-Gaullican non-aggression, however, and the Second War of Containment began in 1724. Despite an early Floren victory at Charroux, a series of significant setbacks later in the war would lead to the death of Nèstor and the eventual demise of the Floren Empire.
The subsequent Treaty of Savona overturned Nèstor's alterations and again redrew the borders of Euclea. Nèstor's son Enric I was named King of the Florens, the Kingdom of Florena was founded and the former client states were dismantled. The wars profoundly influenced the course of history across Kylaris: they led to the War of the Amathian Succession and subsequently the Springtime of Nations, the Empire of Gaullica cemented its position as the world's foremost power, the concept of Savonian sovereignty was established, nationalism emerged across the Euclean world, and Florena began its decline into new feudalism.
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 Background
- 3 Prelude
- 4 Etrurian Campaign, 1711–1713
- 5 First interlude, 1713–1717
- 6 Transnovalian Campaign, 1717–1719
- 7 Second interlude, 1719–1720
- 8 First War of Containment, 1720–1723
- 9 Pereramon triumphant, 1723–1724
- 10 Second War of Containment, 1724–1729
- 11 Political effects
- 12 Military legacy
- 13 Military and civilian leaders
As a global series of conflicts, the wars have a number of differing names. They are generally referred to as the Pereramonic Wars, in reference to Nèstor Pereramon and his dynasty, the primary Floren leaders during the conflict. The conflicts are also known as the Containment Wars and the Floren Wars, in reference to the names of the two major conflicts, and the relevance of Florena to all of the conflicts.
In many nations, there are other, unique names for the conflict;
- In Marolevia, the war is known as the Fourth Solarian War (Четвёртая Соляриская война, Chetvyortaya Solyariskaya Voyna, in Marolevian), as the Marolevians saw the Floren Empire as a resurgent Solaria.
- In Norday the conflict is known as the Continental War (ᛅᛚᚠᚢᛋᛏᚱᛁᚦ, Álfustríð, in Varangian), as it engulfed the majority of the Euclean continent.
For close to seventy years, the mercantile powers in Northern Euclea had been engaged in a number of costly conflicts over regional and global trade. The Nordane trading states and Estmere, along with their respective allies, had feuded over the position of dominant trading power. Gaullica had also been involved in the conflict; seizing the Estmerish colonies in the Asterias, and dealing a heavy blow to the Estmerish home front. As a result, Estmerish-Gaullican enmity had emerged; further, the perceived betrayal of Norday by Gaullica in the uneven peace terms had led to a rise in Nordane-Gaullican enmity. Further, both nations had developed a far greater interest in Euclea following the wars, while Gaullica had become far more interested in events in the Asterias which pertained to their expansive system of New World colonies.
As a result of this, Norday became a willing Floren ally - seeking to regain lost glory - while Estmere had a vested interest in seeing Gaullica defeated in Euclea. Additionally, the destruction wrought by the wars significantly reduced the strength of the northern powers; and in the long-term, led to reduced trade with Southern Euclea, and a weakening of the independent Floren states, allowing Nèstor to ultimately defeat them.
Floren Unification Wars
Since the withdrawal of the Waratha Caliphate in 886, Florena had not been a unified state; but was instead a collection of conflicting polities. In 1687, Nèstor Pereramon - the second son of Teodor Pereramon - would inherit his father's throne, becoming Compte of Bonivida. Educated in Gaullica, and introduced to the many secret societies that aimed for Floren unification, Nèstor took a direct interest in the unification of Florena upon his ascension to the throne of Bonivida. He would begin the Floren Unification Wars in 1691, winning the Battle of Ovienta against the long-term rivaling Comtat of Ovienta.
Following the 1694 Siege of Panorma, Nèstor relocated his court to the city, and was crowned Duc of Oscana. Securing the support of the border-princes of Transmuntanya in the Transmuntanyan Campaign, by 1707 Nèstor would defeat the remaining independent Floren powers at the Battle of Berén, and would be crowned Emperor of the Florens by the Archbishop of Demora soon after, promising to rule as a fabled Philosopher-King. Nèstor's subsequent unorthodox and centralised rule drew the ire of the nobility and the burghers, but his popular policy won him the support of the peasantry and common freemen. In general, his commitment to the Catholic faith also gained him the support of the Floren clergy. The rebellious nobility sought to undermine Nèstor at every turn; leading to the banishment of Gregori of Affera in 1710. Gregori fled to the Exalted Republic of Poveglia, where he convinced the local ruling classes to launch an invasion of the Transmuntanya. This drew Nèstor's attention to Etruria, and began the 1711 Etrurian Campaign.
Etrurian joint military action in Transmuntanya was a direct violation of the Floren Empire's territorial integrity, and was a direct challenge to Nèstor Pereramon on a personal level, as he was lauded as the Saviour of Transmuntanya upon his coronation four years prior. The attack was one against his legitimacy. Nèstor was also concerned that the Poveglian-led coalition would reassert long-standing Vespasian claims to the region, and wrestle Transmuntanya from his control. Additionally, the border-princes who ruled over the region were among Nèstor's most steadfast allies within Florena, and among his most loyal vassals. On all accounts, the Poveglian-led attack into the Transmuntanyan region was an act of aggression which Nèstor could not abide.
The actions and influence of Gregori of Affera are disputed. Traditional accounts from both Floren and Etrurian historians assert that Gregori was responsible for pushing Poveglia and it's league of Etrurian powers into direct confrontation with Florena, though recent academic research disputes this; instead placing blame on the slow-burning rivalry between Florena and Etruria, and nascent Vespasian national consciousness and nationalism pushing the two groups to war.
The hastily assembled and multinational army led by Poveglian generals which had launched the attack into Transmuntanya was easily routed by Nèstor and his professional and loyal Gran Nou Exèrcit. The Floren forces had a potent home-field advantage, the support of local border-princes and a superior commander; all of which led to a Floren victory, and the withdrawal of Vespasian forces from Transmuntanya. Having seen the ease with which the Etrurian forces had been defeated - and eager to seek retribution for the attack against his new Empire - Nèstor went against the advice of many in his court and began a punitive offensive campaign in Etruria proper; launching the Etrurian Campaign, the first of the wars.
Lluís Pau de Garros-Padrosa, famed diplomat and staunch ally of Nèstor, worked diligently to prevent any Euclean powers from coming to the aid of the Etrurian states. He emphasized that, by all accounts this was a defensive war; the Poveglian coalition had attacked Florena, not vice versa. Further, he worked to galvinise resentment in the powers that bordered the Etrurian states; drawing on decades of ill will towards them. Through this, he prevented the Etrurian Campaign from spiraling into a war of coalition.
Etrurian Campaign, 1711–1713
First interlude, 1713–1717
Transnovalian Campaign, 1717–1719
Second interlude, 1719–1720
First War of Containment, 1720–1723
Pereramon triumphant, 1723–1724
Second War of Containment, 1724–1729
Military and civilian leaders
Lluc Casafont, Captain-General of the Second Army, First Hand of the Emperor
Llorenç Malapeir, Captain-General of the Third Army, Second Hand of the Emperor
Lydia Victorovna, Commander of the Trevelian Legions, Dame of Trevelia
Andreu Darios Mercader-Pereramon, Commander of the Imperial Guard, Devil of the Dardé
Òscar Pereramon, Lieutenant General of the Army of the Nine
Vícenç Pereramon, Lieutenant General of the Army of the North