Reichsrat

Mascyllary Reichsrat

Maskillischer Reichsrat
Logo
Leadership
Thomas Falkner, RU
since 14 September 2016
Walther Steintz, SDP
since 14 September 2016
Structure
Seats403
MaskReichstag.png
Political groups
Government (276)
  •      Centre (148)
    •      RU (126)
    •      ABP (22)
  •      SDP (128)

Opposition (127)

Elections
Mixed-member proportional representation (MMP)
Last election
15 June 2014
Next election
December 2019
Meeting place
Reichsrat.jpg
Reichsrat building, Königsreh, Mascylla

The Reichsrat (Alemannic pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪçsʁaːt], ‘Imperial Council’) is the federal parliament of Mascylla. The Reichsrat is a legislative body consisting of 403 members known as Members of the Reichsrat (Mitglieder des Reichsrates), which are decided through a general election every six years.

Since its foundation in 1793 it has met in the Reichsrat Building in Königsreh. It is represented by the office of the Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat (Oberster Sprecher des Reichsrates), currently occupied by Walther Steintz since 2016, of which its holder is directly voted from the Reichsrat itself. Members of the Reichsrat are usually elected every six years by participating adult Mascyllary citizens, though the method varies between constituency and list voting. The Reichsrat can operate with a minimum number of 370 seats, while with leveling and overhang seats there are 403 seats as of now. An unique occasion where an Election Day can be called earlier than two years after the last election arises when the Prime Minister loses a vote of confidence and asks the Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat to dissolve the parliament in order to allow new general elections afterwards.

During the War of the Five Kings, the Reichsrat was the unofficial assembly of the sovereigns of the Monarchies and the Free Cities which were part of the Elbau Confederation (1793–1798). When Mascylla was founded, it became the established legislative body of the new government.

History

Organisation

Tasks

Elective process

Reichsrat building
The Rider of the Republic is a national memorial to Mascyllary democracy; it stands in front of the Reichsrat building in Königsreh, the seat of the Reichsrat

The elected members of the Reichsrat serve a five-year term, with elections held every five years, or earlier in the very rare case of the Reichsrat being dissolved prematurely by the prime speaker. The Reichsrat can actually be dissolved by the prime speaker on the recommendation of the prime minister if the latter has lost a vote of confidence in the Reichsrat, only if the recommendation is made and accepted before the Reichsrat acts to elect a new Prime Speaker. This has happened only once in 1979 under Prime Minister Frank Gehlgen. The planned procedures for these situations are governed by Article 72 of the High Law of the Crowned Republic of Mascylla. The law, which regulates and coordinates the election procedure itself is the Election Law of the Realm (Reichswahlgesetz/RWG).

All candidates ready for the elective process must be at least eighteen years old; there are no national recognized term limits. The election process uses the mixed-member proportional representation (MMP for short) electoral system. In addition, the Reichsrat maintains a minimum limit for party to enter additional representation in the parliament of around 3% of the national party vote.

Electoral term

The Reichsrat members are elected for four years, and new elections must be held between around 45 months after the beginning of its electoral term, unless the Reichsrat is dissolved prematurely by the prime speaker. Its term ends when the next Reichsrat summits, which must legally occur within the 20 days of the election. Prior to 1965, there could be a period where one Reichsrat had just been dissolved and the next Reichsrat could not thereby meet; during this period, the function and tasks were transferred to the Reichssenat, which exercised them as usually the Reichsrat would do.

Distribution of seats after the election

Half of the Members of the Reichsrat are elected directly from 220 constituencies (first-past-the-post system), the other half are elected to establish proportional representation as best as possible in the Reichsrat. Accordingly, each voter has two votes available in the elections to the Reichsrat. The first vote, allowing voters to elect their local election area representatives to the Reichsrat, decides which candidates are sent to Parliament from the constituencies. The second vote is used for a party list, which determines the relative strengths of the parties represented in the Reichstag composition. At least 309 Members of the Reichsrat are elected this way.

Parties that may gain more than 3% of the second votes or win at least 3 direct mandates are allocated seats in the Reichsrat in proportion to the number of votes it has received (d'Hondt method method until the late 1970s, largest remainder methord until today).

Additionally to this, there are special circumstances in which some candidates win what are known as overhang seats when the seats are being distributed in parliament. If a party has gained more direct representatives in a state than it is entitled to, in accordance to the second vote's results, it does not forfeit these mandates because all directly elected candidates are legally guaranteed a seat in the Reichstag. The other parties are then compensated by getting additional seats as well, the balance seats, so political proportionality is preserved.

Current Reichsrat

The last general elections happened on Sunday, 15 June 2014, to elect the representatives of the Xth Reichsrat.

The election saw the RU/ABP win X% of the vote, a significant rise of more than 7% and the highest share of the vote since 1978, while the NDU achieved its worst result since the end of the Cold War with just 7.6% of the vote. The Mascyllary Democratic Party (MDP)—which was previously unrepresented in the Reichsrat for more than two decades—became the party with the third most acquired seats, with 9.7% of the vote. Only the RU and the SDP were able to win an outright majority in their states where they obtained majorities previously, such as in 2012 and 2008.

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Party Constituency Party list Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Rehunion (RU) 2,938,951 35.0 93 2,370,664 28.2 33 126 +29
Social Democratic Party (SDP) 2,098,451 29.6 67 1,734,440 24.9 61 128 +13
Mascyllary Democratic Party (MDP) 1,395,284 11.5 21 996,043 9.7 23 44 +44
National Democratic Union (NDU) 826,119 10.2 17 677,262 7.6 20 37 –14
Adwhinische Bürgerpartei (ABP) 553,928 5.9 9 500,516 7.1 13 22 –1
Maskillischnationale Volkspartei (MNVP) 418,200 4.8 1 396,283 3.5 17 18 +2
Communist Party (KPM) 272,938 3.3 3 250,034 2.0 9 12 –5
People's Party (VP) 201,991 2.9 6 169,333 1.6 5 11 +1
[[]] ()
Others 20,102 0.3 0 0
Independents 597 0.0 0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 104,347 138,439
Total 18,375,910 100 220 18,375,910 100 183 403 +69
Registered voters/turnout 19,010,395 79.1 19,010,395 79.1
Source: Reichswahlorganisation

List of Reichsrate by composition

Seat distribution in the Mascyllary Reichsrat (at the beginning of each formation)
Session Election Seats RU/ABP SDP MDP NDU MNVP VP KPM Others
Sonstige
1st 1944 292 139 131 52 –   – 17 63 -
2nd 1953 487 243 151 48 –   – 15 30 -
3rd 1957 497 270 169 41 17 -
4th 1961 499 242 190 67 -
5th 1965 496 245 202 49 -
6th 1969 496 242 224 30 -
7th 1972 496 225 230 41 -
8th 1976 496 243 214 39 -
9th 1980 497 226 218 53 -
10th 1983 498 244 193 34 27 -
11th 1987 497 223 186 46 42 -
12th 1990 662 319 239 79 8 17 -
13th 1994 672 294 252 47 49 30 -
14th 1998 669 245 298 43 47 36 -
15th 2002 603 248 251 47 55 2 -
16th 2005 614 226 222 61 51 54 -
17th 2009 622 239 146 93 68 76 -
18th 2013 630 311 192 63 64 -
Xth 2014 403 148 128 44 37 18 11 12 12
  Parties in the ruling coalition

List of presidents since 1793