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|Mixed-member proportional representation (MMP)|
|15 June 2015|
|Reichsrat building, Königsreh, Mascylla|
The Reichsrat (Hesurian pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪçsʁaːt], ‘Imperial Council’) is the federal parliament and lower house of the legislature of Mascylla. The Reichsrat is a legislative body consisting of 403 members known as Members of the Reichsrat (Mitglieder des Reichsrates), which are decided through a general election every six years.
Since its foundation in 1793 it has met in the Reichsrat Building in Königsreh. It is represented by the office of the Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat (Oberster Sprecher des Reichsrates), currently occupied by Walther Steintz since 2016, of which its holder is directly voted from the Reichsrat itself. Members of the Reichsrat are usually elected every five years by participating adult Mascyllary citizens, though the method varies between constituency and list voting. The Reichsrat can operate with a minimum number of 370 seats, while with leveling and overhang seats there are 403 seats as of now. An unique occasion where an Election Day can be called earlier than two years after the last election arises when the Prime Minister loses a vote of confidence and asks the Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat to dissolve the parliament in order to allow new general elections afterwards.
During the War of the Five Kings, the Reichsrat was the unofficial assembly of the sovereigns of the Monarchies and the Free Cities which were part of the Elbgau Confederation (1793–1798). When Mascylla was founded, it became the established legislative body of the new government.
The elected members of the Reichsrat serve a five-year term, with elections held every five years, or earlier in the very rare case of the Reichsrat being dissolved prematurely by the prime speaker. The Reichsrat can actually be dissolved by the prime speaker on the recommendation of the prime minister if the latter has lost a vote of confidence in the Reichsrat, only if the recommendation is made and accepted before the Reichsrat acts to elect a new Prime Speaker. This has happened only once in 1979 under Prime Minister Frank Gehlgen. The planned procedures for these situations are governed by Article 72 of the High Law of the Crowned Republic of Mascylla. The law, which regulates and coordinates the election procedure itself is the Election Law of the Realm (Reichswahlgesetz/RWG).
All candidates ready for the elective process must be at least eighteen years old; there are no national recognized term limits. The election process uses the mixed-member proportional representation (MMP for short) electoral system. In addition, the Reichsrat maintains a minimum limit for party to enter additional representation in the parliament of around 3% of the national party vote.
The Reichsrat members are elected for four years, and new elections must be held between around 45 months after the beginning of its electoral term, unless the Reichsrat is dissolved prematurely by the prime speaker. Its term ends when the next Reichsrat summits, which must legally occur within the 20 days of the election. Prior to 1965, there could be a period where one Reichsrat had just been dissolved and the next Reichsrat could not thereby meet; during this period, the function and tasks were transferred to the Reichssenat, which exercised them as usually the Reichsrat would do.
Distribution of seats after the election
Half of the Members of the Reichsrat are elected directly from 220 constituencies (first-past-the-post system), the other half are elected to establish proportional representation as best as possible in the Reichsrat. Accordingly, each voter has two votes available in the elections to the Reichsrat. The first vote, allowing voters to elect their local election area representatives to the Reichsrat, decides which candidates are sent to Parliament from the constituencies. The second vote is used for a party list, which determines the relative strengths of the parties represented in the Reichstag composition. At least 309 Members of the Reichsrat are elected this way.
Parties that may gain more than 3% of the second votes or win at least 3 direct mandates are allocated seats in the Reichsrat in proportion to the number of votes it has received (d'Hondt method method until the late 1970s, largest remainder methord until today).
Additionally to this, there are special circumstances in which some candidates win what are known as overhang seats when the seats are being distributed in parliament. If a party has gained more direct representatives in a state than it is entitled to, in accordance to the second vote's results, it does not forfeit these mandates because all directly elected candidates are legally guaranteed a seat in the Reichstag. The other parties are then compensated by getting additional seats as well, the balance seats, so political proportionality is preserved.
The last general elections happened on Sunday, 15 June 2015, to elect the representatives of the Xth Reichsrat.
The election saw the RU/ABP win X% of the vote, a significant rise of more than 7% and the highest share of the vote since 1978, while the NDU achieved its worst result since the end of the Cold War with just 7.6% of the vote. The Mascyllary Liberal Party (MLP)—which was previously unrepresented in the Reichsrat for more than two decades—became the party with the third most acquired seats, with 9.7% of the vote. Only the RU and the SDP were able to win an outright majority in their states where they obtained majorities previously, such as in 2012 and 2008.
|Social Democratic Party (SDP)||2,098,451||29.6||67||1,734,440||24.9||61||128||+13|
|Mascyllary Liberal Party (MLP)||1,395,284||11.5||21||996,043||9.7||23||44||+44|
|National Democratic Union (NDU)||826,119||10.2||17||677,262||7.6||20||37||–14|
|Adwhinische Bürgerpartei (ABP)||553,928||5.9||9||500,516||7.1||13||22||–1|
|Maskillischnationale Volkspartei (MNVP)||418,200||4.8||1||396,283||3.5||17||18||+2|
|Communist Party (KPM)||272,938||3.3||3||250,034||2.0||9||12||–5|
|People's Party (VP)||201,991||2.9||6||169,333||1.6||5||11||+1|
List of Reichsrate by composition
|Seat distribution in the Mascyllary Reichsrat (at the beginning of each formation)|