Tienwei Island Treaty

Tienwei Island Treaty
Treaty of Peace between His Majesty The King of Gaullica and the Sougun of Hiaotung
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Peace in Tienwei, an 1870 painting depicting the signing of the treaty
Signed18 May 1857 (1857-05-18)
Effective1 January 1858 (1858-01-01)
ConditionExchange of ratifications
Parties
LanguagesGaullican and Xiaodongese

The Tienwei Island Treaty is the name of the peace treaty that ended the X War between the Empire of Gaullica and the Toki Sougunate of Xiaodong. It was the third of the four treaties signed by Xiaodong that forced it to concede trade outposts and cities to the four Euclean powers that participated in the war: Estmere, Etruria, Gaullica and Werania. The treaty was signed on May 18, 1857, and mainly outlined the transferral of Jindao to the Gaullican Empire. Officially, Jindao was not to change hands until ratification was exchanged, however Gaullica occupied the city until the treaty was ratified by both parties on January 1, 1858.

The treaty itself was signed onboard a Gaullican gunboat that had docked itself on Tienwei Island (now Dianwei Island), and featured a total of around 30 diplomats and negotiators from both parties. Due to Jindao's strategic location next to Senria and in the Bay of Bashurat, it is regarded as the most significant of the four treaties following the war, and became a direct precursor to the Baiqiao Revolution the next year.

Background

The treaty was drafted in Verlois in 1856 and proposed to Xiaodong the same year, however it was initially rejected as too unfavourable to Xiaodong. A new version of the treaty was drafted again at the beginning of 1857 that would see the city of Lunkeng ceded as a concession rather than Jindao. However, as the situation for the Euclean powers got better and the war was beginning to take a major toll on Xiaodong, the original draft of the treaty was once again proposed to Xiaodong, who agreed to sign it.

Terms

The terms of the Tienwei Island Treaty were similar in most regards to the three other treaties imposed on Xiaodong by the Euclean powers, however they mainly concerned foreign trade and concessions. It outlined Gaullican foreign trade policy in Xiaodong and lessened or removed taxation imposed by Xiaodong on Gaullican goods and services entering the region. It also oversaw the 80-year leases of the cities of Jindao, Shenkong and Liangzhi.

Aftermath

The Tienwei Island Treaty would directly influence the beginning of the Baiqiao Revolution in Xiaodong and the ascension of the Xiyong Emperor as well as the overthrowing of the Toki Sougunate. While Gaullica would lose all of its concessions after the Great War, the Tienwei Island Treaty would be the treaty that would remain the most relevant as it remained under Euclean ownership for the longest of the Tienwei Concessions.