Tusania

Republic of Tusania

Flag of Tusania
Flag
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Coat of arms
Motto: 
“Caddaalad iyo Nabadu Dhammaan” (Toosani)
“Justice and Peace unto All”
Anthem: 
Mahad waxaa leh Dalkeena Hooyo (Toosani)
Praise be to Our Homeland
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Tusania (dark blue) located within Coius (light blue).
Tusania (dark blue) located within Coius (light blue).
Tusania Map.png
Capital
and largest city
Gulaayo
Official languagesToosani
Badawiyan
Gaullican
Weranian
Recognised regional languagesIlaahow
Ethnic groups
(2011)
84% Toosani
10% tooBantu
5% Badawi
1% Other
Religion
(2011)
90% Irfan
5% Solarian Catholicism
5% Other
Demonym(s)Toosani (ethnic)
Tusani (citizen)
GovernmentFederal multi-party semi-presidential parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Siyaad Geyre
Kulane Xirsi
Jamiila Cagmadhige
Muxumed Tarabi
LegislatureNational Assembly
Assembly of Jurors
Assembly of Experts
Independence from ??????
• Sultanate
19XX
1967
• Golaha
1968
1997-2009
2009
2010
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 17,839,329
• 2011 census
15,627,372
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $55.75 billion
• Per capita
Increase $3,125.50
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $19.80 billion
• Per capita
Increase $1,110.00
Gini (2019)Negative increase 59.8
high
HDI (2018)Steady 0.542
low
CurrencyTusani pound (TSp)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy CE
Driving sideright
Calling code+50
ISO 3166 codeTSN
Internet TLD.tsn

Tusania (/tjuːsɑːnjiɑː/, known formally as the Republic of Tusania (Toosani: Jamhuuriyadda Toosiyanka; Badawiyan: جمهوريه توسانيه tl. Jumhuriat Tusaniyah; Gaullican: République Tusanienne; Weranian: Republik Tusanisch) is a sovereign nation located along the Coast of Bahia on the mainland of the continent of Coius. It borders Habasha to the south, NULL to the north, the Coast of Bahia to the east, NULL to the west, and Tabora to the southeast across the Bay of XXXX. It also maintains jurisdiction over the island of Kisgomane, which lies within the Vehemens Ocean itself. Tusania has an estimated population of 17,839,329 as of 2019, ranking it as the XXth most populous nation in Coius and the XXth most populous in the world. It has a total land area of XXXkm2 (XXXsqmi), making it the XXth largest in Coius and the XXth largest in the world. Its capital is the city of Gulaayo, which is also its largest city.

Tusania has long been under the control of a series of clans for thousands of years, many of whom have either formed independent polities of their own or have paid fealty to more powerful rulers from the Bahian interior. The clans of the region would finally unify under the Sultanate of Damaxato in the 15th-century. The sultanate would remain stable and prosperous until the mid-XXth century, when it was systematically dismembered by both Weranian and Gaullican forces and incorporated into each nation's colonial holdings as part of the colonies of Adésine, Dacie, and Weranian Bahia. The rise of national functionalism in Gaullica would see the Toosani people in Adésine and Dacie undergo significant hardship under their colonial masters due to their anti-Bahian and anti-Irfanic policies, and the Great War would have the region see much fighting between Weranian and Gaullican forces throughout the conflict. Following the conclusion of the war the region was designated a Community of Nations Trust Territory of Tusania under XXXX Administration until 19XX, when it became independent as the Sultanate of Tusania.

Tensions between the population and the ruling clans, as well as the introduction of the ideals of Bahian socialism, pan-Bahianism, as well as Irfanic socialism and political Irfan resulted in riots, strikes, protests, and general unrest which culminated in the Tusani Revolution by socialist revolutionaries in the Revolutionary Socialist Union Party in 1967. The revolutionaries, known as the Golaha, would found the Tusani Socialist Republic that same year. Though initially ruling benevolently, economic stagnation and increasing political unrest led to the Golaha to become increasingly repressive and manipulative in their attempts to maintain control, using coercion between the clans in order to secure loyalties. Protests calling for reforms and a subsequent crackdown sparked a mass civil uprising that would eventually morph into a multi-sided civil war, which would see much of the country fragment along clan and religious lines. The civil war would largely end in 2009 with the signing of the XXXX Accords, though some groups, particularly Irfanic terror groups, refused to demobilize and have since vowed an insurgency against the government. Since then the country has become a relatively stable semi-presidential parliamentary republic, albeit one which struggles to maintain democracy within its institutions, which has been overseen by President Siyaad Geyre and Prime Minister Kulane Xirsi and the Union for National Development since the end of the civil war.

Tusania is a member of the Community of Nations, the International Trade Organisation, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the Congress of Bahian States, and is an observer within the SOMEBADAWIYANORGANIZATION.

Etymology

The word "Tusania" is believed to be a Eucleanisation of the Toosani word for "upright," or "toosan". The phrase was adopted as an endonym by the tribes and clans of the region to describe themselves following the unification of the region under the Sultanate of Damaxato as a statement of their independence and self-reliance. The modern interpretation of which, that being “Tusan” + the suffix “-ia,” translates as “land of the Tusan.” Following the colonization of the region by Gaullica and Werania use of the name was discontinued, with the region being folded into colonial holdings as part of the Gaullican colonies of Dacie, Adésine, and parts of Bahia-Centrale and Weranian Bahia.

An additional theory by some linguists is that it is used to describe a former clan of the region, called the “Toosane.” Historical evidence and documentation points to their existence, though it is believed that the clan was subsumed into one of, or perhaps several of, the larger clans sometime in the 17th or 18th-centuries.

Use of the word, now to describe the region as a whole, began to be introduced once again following the Great War, with the region being designated by the Community of Nations as the Trust Territory of Tusania under Weranian Administration until 1955. That year the signing of the Lawgeisa Agreement saw the independence of the region under the Sultanate of Tusania and the first official use of the word to describe the region as an independent state as well as within constitutional and legal documentation. Generally accepted by this time, usage continued with the founding of the Tusani Socialist Republic, was maintained through the transitional period following the Tusani Civil War, and has been in continued use with the current government.

History

Pre-History

Cave art of the Jowdi Berwaa complex, the earliest example of cave paintings in the region.

Early History

Early Colonial Rule

Sultanic forces during the Damaxato War.

As time went on, and Weranian control over the region became more and more vital to their economic interests within Weranian Bahia, the wealthy mercantile associations located largely within the port cities of Gulaayo, Doye, Mergare, and Beymasa began exacting greater and greater concessions and privileges from the Sultan. This came in the form of demands for the official recognition and codification of the extraterritoriality of Weranian merchants and citizens, concessions of important port cities to Weranian administrative authorities, and the conferring of special status to Sotirians within the region. Though the Sultan was forced to accede to the terms, the conditions quickly caused tensions between the local population, many of whom had already been progressively relegated to a subservient class, and the growing aristocratic merchants.

Great War and Later Colonial Rule

Riflemen with the Forces de la Légion bahianaise rest during the Battle of Adaraf.

Independence and Revolution

Members of the Öffenliche Gewalt on patrol for pro-independence rebels during the bush conflict.

Following the Toosani National Brotherhood's seizure of Mogasaso, the largest city within the interior of the country and major trading hub within the country with easy access to the populated coast and capital city, it became apparent to Weranian officials within the Trust Council as well as the larger neocolonial administration that their situation in the Tushani Bush conflict had become increasingly untenable. Fearing the creation of a socialist, pan-Bahianist government, members of the Trust Council secretly met with conservatives and moderates of the Warfaa and Timir clans within the TNB to negotiate a brokered deal for the country's independence. The result of this was the Haraqoray Agreement, which would see the country become fully independent on the 1 December of that year.

In order to appease the region's Irfanic clergy the agreement assented to the restoration of the sultanate, with Sultan Khaliid Samaan as head of state, and the enshrinement of Irfan as the national religion. In exchange, however, the Sultanate was required to be strictly anti-communist and anti-socialist. In addition, Dietsmen were to keep their land and private enterprises, as well as special status as both whites and Sotirians within the country. This was agreed to, and the Sultanate of Tusania was established that December.

Despite the agreement and the promises of special status many Dietsmen within the country viewed the situation as not being in their favor, leaving the country and removing much of the economic and intellectual assets that they maintained. This created both an issue of capital flight and brain drain, as most of the wealthy and educated Dietsmanic population either moved to other Weranian colonial holdings or returned to Werania.

Though the agreement appeased many of the moderates within the TNB, who merely wanted to see the country govern its own affairs, radicals within the organization viewed the signing of the agreement as a "betrayal to the country and the Toosani people." Chief among the groups in opposition to the agreement was the Revolutionary Socialist Union, an amalgamation of socialist, social democratic, syndicalist, and communist organizers who sought to create a communist, pan-Bahia state. They began to agitate against the central government, declaring that the Sultan was a puppet of Werania and Gaullica, and undermining government authority wherever possible. This culminated in the group being banned, along with many other left-wing political organizations, in 1957. The ban was enforced through political violence, almost entirely at the hands of the Timir and Warfaa clans, which alienated significant parts of the country.

1960 saw the beginning of regular strikes, protests, and riots against the central government, who resorted to harsher and harsher tactics in order to maintain a grip over the country. The population viewed the Sultan's prioritization of the Warfaa and Timir clans, of which he himself was a Warfaa, highly negatively. This prioritization was rife within the military, and many soldiers saw rapid promotions of Warfaali and Timiri officers to positions of high status, as well as the government, where most high-level administrative posts not occupied by Dietsmen were given to Warfaali or Timiri administrators regardless of education or knowledge of the position.

Protests continued into the late-1960s, as the RSU gained an increasingly large fifth column within the government, military, and society. In response to the escalating unrest the Sultan attempted to arrest suspected leaders of the RSU in 1967, imprisoning 35 and executing 14 others for "sedition." This crackdown also included a purge of the armed forces, with over 10,000 soldiers being questioned, imprisoned, or expelled from the military. Fearing that the Sultan's purge would eradicate the party, members of the RSU called a general strike on 7 November, 1967. The general strike saw wide support from the public and military who, when ordered by the Sultan to suppress the protests, instead joined them in what would come to be known as the Tusani Revolution. On the 23 November, 1967, members of the RSU within the Sultan's Royal Guard assassinated him while he was attempting to flee the country. Other members arrested high-ranking officials of the government, while members of the Sultan's family were captured and executed.

Having taken control of the capital, as well as several major cities throughout the country, the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Revolutionary Socialist Union declared themselves in control of the country, suspended the constitution, dissolved the weak legislature, and declared the creation of the Tusanian Socialist Republic as a one-party socialist republic with the RSU as the official vanguard party of the revolution.

Socialist Rule and Civil War

Toosani rebels of the TDL ride a technical in central Gulaayo, 2001.

Following the creation of the Tusani Socialist Republic, the upper echelons of the Revolutionary Socialist Union quickly set about establishing legitimacy and good will within the public by beginning large-scale public works projects, literacy campaigns, and land and agrarian reform. They also began to establish improved relations with the Congress of Bahian States, as well as various Irfanic international organizations in an attempt to burnish their Irfanic and pan-Bahianist credentials. At the same time, the RSU, their paramilitary forces, and the secret police began arresting and imprisoning members of the Sultanic government, namely members of the Warfaa and Timir clans. Due to the fact that most high ranking members of the RSU and TSR government were of the Caynaanshe and Xukun clans created some tension between them.

In 1972, members of the Warfaa, Timir, and Cirguje clans attempted an uprising in the city of Belexo in order to overthrow the socialist government. It failed, and in retaliation the RSU began enacting harsh penalties against them, excluding them from government and evicting them from their historical lands.

The economy began to slow in the mid-1970s and 80s, with unemployment and inflation both beginning to rise sharply. As the economy began to deteriorate there was an increase in the overall opposition to the RSU from all across the country. Some members of the public formed the Democratic People's Party in opposition to the RSU, which prompted wide-scale crackdowns and a ban of the party and its activities.

Rising authoritarianism, which frequently saw the RSU utilize units of the armed forces and secret police made primarily of the Caynaanshe and Xukun clans due to their loyalties to the central government, began to see rising discontent within the country. A state of emergency was declared over the country following the 1995 assassination of a high-ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Revolutionary Socialist Union by political dissidents, which saw increased crackdowns on civil liberties and rights within the country.

These rising tensions culminated in a series of unprecedented protests against government authoritarianism, corruption, and the rising costs of living within the country. These protests continued for three months before the RSU declared upgraded the preexisting state of emergency to a full declaration of martial law over the country. Subsequently, government forces began Operation Nadiifi, a full-scale military crackdown on dissent within the country. This saw military forces fire into crowds of protestors in the cities of Gulaayo, Mogasaso, Bardedaay, and Jiibwa, as well as massacre civilians in numerous villages throughout the country over the course of two weeks.

In response, civilians began seizing control of government armories while many units in the military began to openly declare their defection from the armed forces. Later that year, opposition leaders founded the Toosani Democratic League and began engaging in armed conflict with the government. Facing mass uprisings throughout the country and the mass defections of at least a third of the armed forces, government forces and officials quickly began to desert, defect, or flee the country altogether. This culminated in the fall of Gulaayo and the complete collapse of the Tusani Socialist Republic that same year. Rebel forces subsequently declared a transitional government the following year, but ideological, political, personal, ethnic, and clan conflicts saw the loose alliance splinter by 2002. The region had no official government following the collapse of the TDL.

Regions quickly began to revert back to pre-colonial tribal, ethnic, and clan-based boundaries following the collapse of the government and the interim authorities in Gulaayo, with each region essentially acting autonomously of one another. This also led to conflicts between the regions themselves over land, resources, and historical ties to a given area. In addition, Irfanic terror groups also began to find success in filling the power vacuum left by the TDL, at one point holding or contesting between one-third and one-half of the country and founding the Islamic Emirate of Tusania.

In 2006, following terrorist offensives as well as a famine caused by a drought and subsequent poor harvest, the Community of Nations intervened on the side of the Tusani Liberation Army, the Irfanic Union, the Tusani Youth League, all of whom had agreed to a cessation of hostilities between themselves in order to form a new transitional government. These groups, backed by Community of Nations peacekeepers, began driving out Emirati forces, retaking the capital in 2007. By late-2007 the TLA-IU-TYL alliance held control over seventy-five percent of the country, and ninety percent of the population.

In late-2008 the nation of XXXX held official peace talks in the city of XXXX, which would culminate in the XXXX Accords later the next year, as well as a constitutional convention to begin drafting a new constitution for the country.

Transitional Period and Contemporary Era

Rebel fighters disarming under Transitional and international supervision.

The signing of the 2009 peace accords on 3rd August, 2009 between the forces of the Tusani Liberation Army, the Irfanic Union, the Tusani Youth League, and their subordinate paramilitary organizations, brought a technical end to the twelve year civil war. Rebel forces began to disarm, under the supervision of the Community of Nations peacekeepers under the CNOMT, later that same year. Concurrently, the Community of Nations authorized the creation of the Tusani Transitional Authority (Toosani: Maamulka ku meel gaarka ah ee Toosiyanka; Gaullican: Autorité transitoire de Tusanienne; Weranian: Tusanisch Übergangsbehörde; Badawiyan: سلطة توساني الانتقالية tl. Sultat Tusani al-Aintiqalia) as a transitional government body which would see the country's constitutional transition into peace.

Siyaad Geyre, a Toosani Zeilaayo politician and technocrat, was selected as the Chairman of the Executive Council of the Tusani Transitional Authority and would hold the position for the duration of the transition. Chairman Geyre quickly set about establishing agreements with regional and international nations and bodies, such as Gaullica, Zorasan, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, and the International Trade Organisation, in order to secure funding to finance the national reconstruction process. In addition, he also began signing multiple trade deals in order to re-establish local Tusani industries, infrastructure, and economic capacity.

In addition, Geyre set about re-establishing and re-constituting the Tusani armed forces, which had largely fragmented and splintered over the course of the civil war. This was largely due to a burgeoning insurgency by Irfanic terror groups such as the Ehellada Ilaahay, the Dhaqdhaqaaq ee Daacadnimo Dhallinyar, and the Iftiimiyay, who were carrying out a ruthless shootings, car bombings, and other suicide attacks. This was done largely with the assistance of Gaullica and other international powers.

On 1 May, 2010, inaugural elections were held, with Siyaad Geyre being elected as the first President of the country under the new constitution, who then selected Muxumed Hareeri as his first Prime Minister. Within the newly established National Assembly the election saw Geyre's party, the Union for National Development, create a majority government in both chambers alongside the Transformation Coalition. The government would become official with the dissolution of the TTA on 31 December, 2011.

Elections in 2014 would see the UND-TC coalition gain further control over the legislature. That year a series of terror attacks would rock the nation and see the death of over 250 people, as well as an additional 12 CNOMT personnel, prompting the deployment of additional troops in the region and a ramping up of military training within the TDF.

In 2016 Prime Minister Hareeri declined to accept the President's nomination, paving the way for current Prime Minister Kulane Xirsi to serve the office.

Geography

Overview of the Galingale mountains from the peak of Mount Jarimakoile.

Tusania is a large country on the northeastern coast of the Bahian subcontinent, along the nautilogeographic region known as the Coast of Bahia, which is itself on the larger continent of Coius. The nation borders the Bay of XXXX to the southeast as well as the Vehemens Ocean via the Coast of Bahia. Due to its ownership of the island of Kisgomane it also maintains its own channel between the island and the mainland, known as the Udhagaya Channel.

The country is split largely into there primary geographic regions, the coastal region known as the fortress coast (Toosani:qalcad xeebeed) or the fortress, wherein most of the country's population resides and modern economic activity occurs, the interior savanna known as the grazing land (Toosani: dhul daaqsimeedka), which is rural and produces much of the national agriculture, and the mountainous region known as the Heights (Toosani: Dhaadheer), which is dominated by the Galingale mountains. The fortress coast makes up the entirety of the coastline of the country, stretching into the interior where it meets the grazing land. The mountainous Heights makes up almost the entirety of the western portion of the country, and also makes up much of the hinterlands making up the border.

Climate & Environment

A savanna of the Haadeey National Wildlife Reserve in central Tusania.

The environment of the region is fairly homogenous, once split between the fortress coast, the grazing land, and the heights. The climate of the fortress coast ranges from Mediterranean to steppe, with occasional monsoon rains. The grazing land is largely humid subtropical to tropical savanna with distinct wet and dry seasons.

The country is home to a myriad of minerals, metals, and other valuable resources. These include uranium, gypsum, iron ore, tin, copper, bauxite, yttrium, and salt. Additionally, the country contains large amounts of sandstone and calcrete. It is also believed that the country contains an unknown amount of untapped oil and natural gas, but due to the deterioration of infrastructure and refined resource gathering capacity it is unknown specifically how much of each resource the country contains.

Politics and Government

Tusania is a federal multi-party semi-presidential parliamentary constitutional republic. The current constitution was promulgated on the 1 January 2010 as a result of the XXXX Accords that brought the Tusani Civil War to an end. The constitution largely split executive government authority from the President and imparted much of it to the Prime Minister and the National Assembly. The President is directly elected using a single transferrable vote system for up an unlimited number of six-year terms. The current President is Siyaad Geyre of the Union for National Development, who has served in the office since the conclusion of the civil war in 2010. Previously he oversaw the transitional government that implemented the XXXX Accords. The President has the Vice President and Prime Minister, each of whom are nominated via the National Assembly and are approved by the President. Each can serve an unlimited number of two-year terms. The current Prime Minister is Kulane Xirsi, also of the Union for National Development, who has likewise served since 2010. The current Vice President is Abshir Buule, also of the Union of National Development.

The legislature of the country is the bicameral National Assembly, which is split between the upper Assembly of Jurors and the lower Assembly of Experts. Members of the Assembly are elected for an unlimited number of four-year terms, and have the power to impeach the President as well as remove the Prime Minister through a vote of no confidence.

Though Tusania is a multi-party democracy, the nation has been largely dominated by between two primary political parties; the Union for National Development and the National Justice Movement. Secondary parties include the Socialist League, the People's Community Party, and the Transformation Coalition.

Military

Members of the Tusanian Ground Defence Force on patrol, 2012.

Tusania maintains a relatively large military for its size, owing largely to the ongoing Tusanian insurgency and sporadic civil unrest within the country. Known as the Tusanian Defence Forces, the nation's armed forces are believed to number somewhere between 650,000 and 900,000, though the government does not produce official figures for national security reasons. If estimates are correct, though, it would be the XXXth largest in the world. Consisting of the Tusanian Ground Defence Force, the Tusanian Air and Air Defence Force, the Tusanian Naval Defence Force, and the Tusanian Special Republican Guard, the TDF is primarily tasked with maintaining internal and border security within the country. The country also maintains a paramilitary gendarme force known as the National Civil Protection Service, though, much like the military, few specifics are known.

In addition to armed soldiers, the country also maintains a military intelligence service branch as part of the TDF, known as the National Intelligence Service. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and all branches of the military report to him or her directly.

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