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The Western Monarchies is a geopolitical term in global politics that refer to a number of nations with monarchies, typically with executive powers and with relatively more conservative and religious societies, on the western fringe of the continents of Belisaria and Scipia, that often partner in international relations and are perceived to be a geopolitical bloc. Many of these nations have a "royalist" orientation towards world geopolitics, supporting the maintenance of monarchical systems of government in the face of perceived aggressive republicanism and anti-monarchy policies and ideologies of countries such as North Ottonia, the Messidor Union, Tsurushima, and others, although not all "western" monarchies possess this foreign policy stance.
The exact contours of the "Western Monarchies" are undefined, but generally thought to include Latium, Sydalon, Fabria, Yisrael, Ascalzar, South Ottonia, Sudmark, Arthurista, Lyncanestria, Gelonia, Talakh, and Garza. Given the directional center of gravity is the Periclean Sea, although not "western" in location, monarchies such as Lihnidos, Garima, and Vannois are typically assigned to the "western" camp given their cultural and political orientation to the other Western monarchies. Likewise, although across the Thalassan Ocean, Ghant and Belfras are similarly are western oriented and often lumped in with the Belisario-Scipian monarchies. Many scholars also include Onekawa-Nukanoa, owing to its similarities and generally pro-'western' alignment, despite its geographic outlier location in Malaio. A minority of scholars also list Keuland in the group, but other political scientists object to its inclusion, citing its northerly location and isolationist policy.
Religion and culture
The western monarchies are near-uniformly Abrahamic in religion and culture, with many being Fabrian Catholic (Fabria, Latium, Sydalon, Lihnidos, Vannois, Ascalzar, Garza, and others) and some being a form of Protestant Christianity (Sudmark, Lyncanestria, Arthurista, Gelonia, and Garima). Yisrael is the only Jewish nation-state in the group, and Talakh is the only Azdarin nation in the group.
The only exception to this rule is Ghant, which has both a Christian sector and a pagan sector. Due to its relatively remote location and strong native cultural traditions, Ghantish society has aspects of both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic thought, values, practices, and customs.
If Onekawa is included, it would be the only fully pagan, non-Abrahamic-cultured member of this bloc.
Politics and society
Although comprising at most a plurality, another phenomenon perceived as being a characteristic of the western monarchies is a tendency towards a more conservative and religious society and political climate. The most prominent examples include Sydalon, Yisrael, Ascalzar, Fabria, Lihnidos, Vannois, South Ottonia, and Onekawa-Nukanoa.
Importantly, this is highly disputed and some political scholars point out counterexamples, looking towards Arthurista, Lyncanestria, Garza, Gelonia, Talakh, and others as evidence that this is less a characteristic and more a tendency among some of the monarchist bloc. Nonetheless, many outside observers from the Messidor Union, Tsurushima, North Ottonia, and elsewhere often note the moderately-high correlations between religiosity, right-wing politics, and monarchism.
Monarchical System theory
The most inclusive definition is the basic definition of a state with a monarchy located in the west of the Periclean Sea basin. These include outright Latium, Sydalon, Yisrael, Ascalzar, Talakh, South Ottonia, Sudmark, Arthurista, Lyncanestria, Gelonia, and Garza. Ghant, being an nearby continent off Belisaria, is included given its historical and cultural ties to Latium, Ottonia, and other western Belisarian countries. Belfras is included due to being a Latinic post-colonial realm with a strong cultural connection to West Belisaria. Likewise, Lihnidos, Garima, Vannois, and Gran Aligonia (formerly) are linked to the western monarchies due to their cultural, ethnic, religious, and political ties.
Some academics list Uluujol as an "outpost" of the western monarchies in "the East," given the Uluujoli royal family's ties to the Latin Imperial Family. Likewise, those political scientists that include Onekawa-Nukanoa point out that it is a "second" outpost in the East, given it meets all but one of the major characteristics as well as its historical and current ties to Arthurista and to Yisrael.
Erishland, along with (by the majority of scholars) Keuland, Cynereth, Stromheim, Mutul, and Gristol-Serkonos are the only monarchies to the west or north of the Periclean Sea basin that are not considered part of the geopolitical bloc, due to religio-cultural differences, isolationism, and/or divergent political attitudes.
Latium and Ghant internal blocs
Within the western monarchy world, there is a fault-line between those that look towards Latium for leadership, and those that lean towards Ghant. Nations within the bloc that maintain pro-Latium dispositions include Lihnidos, Garza, Sydalon, Ascalzar, Vannois, and Talakh in some respects. There is large overlap of this faction in the Periclean Pact.
Lyncanestria is known as a "swing vote" power that oscillates between Latium and Ghant. Yisrael, since the Gran Aligonian crisis and Hezekian Reaction, is perceived to be entering a similar situation, moving away from being in the purely pro-Ghant camp as Latin-Yisraeli ties have strengthened quickly.
Royalist Foreign Policy theory
The last formulation of a "Western monarchies" bloc is derived from the number of these nations that maintain "royalist" foreign-policy stances. This theory is the most under-inclusive, as a number of western monarchies (Arthurista, Lyncanestria, Garima, and others) do not meet this characterization. Those primarily identified with this characterization include those that tend to be more religious, possess right-wing politics, and have monarchs with greater executive or even absolute control, such as Sydalon, Yisrael, Ascalzar, Fabria, Vannois, South Ottonia, Onekawa-Nukanoa, and Keuland.
Most contemporary scholars have askewed this as a formulation for the western monarchies, instead choosing the Monarchical System theory instead.
- Eastern Monarchies - a similar concept, but refers to the current and extant monarchies of Eastern Belisaria, Eastern Scipia, Malaio, and Ochran, though these monarchies do not form a distinct geopolitical bloc.
- Kiso Pact - an nongovernmental cooperative pact of like-minded republican and left-leaning states perceived to be in ideological and geopolitical opposition to the western monarchies.