Qazhshavan language

Qazhshavan
Mezhian-Qazhshavan
Марша Гԙл, Маршашла
Marşa Gyel, Marşaşla
Pronunciation [ˈmar.ʃa ɣjæ̝l] link=http:http://ipa-reader.xyz/?text=%CB%88mar.%CA%83a%20%C9%A3j%C3%A6%CC%9Dl&voice=Ewa
[ˈmar.ʃa.ʃla̽] Speaker Icon.svg
Native toQazhshava
RegionSouthern Thuadia
Native speakers
85 million (2018)
Mokhavic
  • Khokhta
    • Qazhshavan
      Mezhian-Qazhshavan
Early form
Middle Qazhshavan
Standard forms
Mezhian (Qazhshava)
Nashean/Riamese (Riamo)
Dialects
  • Meadow
  • Hill
  • Karakach
  • Nashean/Riamese
Official status
Official language in
 Qazhshava
Regulated byQazhshavan Council of Languages
Language codes
ISO 639-1qz
ISO 639-2qzs
ISO 639-3qzs
Glottologqazh1331[1]
Qazhshavan-dia-map.png
Distribution of the language
     Absolute majority
     >35% native speakers
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Qazhshavan (Qazhshavan: Марша Гԙл, Marşa Gyel [ˈmar.ʃa ɣjæ̝l] ; Маршашла, Marşaşla [ˈmar.ʃa.ʃla̽] ) is a unique langauge spoken in Southern Thuadia, primarily in the Qazhshavan Federation and adjacent areas. It is the only major language in the Mokhavic language family, and the most spoken. It serves as a lingua franca in Qazhshava and among all Mokhavic peoples.

Qazhshavan is also the main language of some areas of Western Thrismari, being notable the case of Nashe, a former colony of Qazhshava and current federal subject of Riamo where the language constitutes a major part of local culture. It is also an important factor that has contributed towards the pro-independentist movement in the region.

Basic information

Qazhshavan is a Pro-Drop agglutinative SVO/SOV language with a moderately complex syllable structure, it puts adjectives before nouns and has postpositions. It has a high number of cases (16) compared to its neighbors and shares some grammatical features with them, mainly trough influnence. The language is neutorious with having long verbs, which isnt always true.

Writing system

Qazhshavan has 3 official writing systems, of which the Govoric one dominates, it also has an unnoficial verion of it's Latin alphabet which is used mainly by people outside of qazhshava or ones who aren't able to type the special characters. The Traditional Qazhshavan script is used mainly in official documents, not so much in the daily life, but it is kept allive.

Govoric alphabet:

А а Ӑ ӑ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ӗ ӗ Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ О о
П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў Ф ф Х х X̆ x̆
Ц ц Дз дз Ч ч Дж.дж Ш ш Щ щ Ь ь Ы ы Ю ю
Я я Ԙ ԙ


Latin alphabet:

A a Ä ä B b C c Ç ç D d Dz dz E e Ë ë
F f G g H h Hh hh I i J j K k L l M m
N n N̈ n̈ O o P p Q q R r S s Ş ş T t
Ts ts U u V v W w X x Y y Ÿ ÿ Z z Ӡ ӡ
Govoric version Latin version Names IPA Symbol Notes
Offical Unofficial
А а A a
/a~ɑ/
Ӑ ӑ Ä ä
/ɤ~ɯ/ In unstressed syllables it can be reduced to a soft /ɐ~a/ soundɵ
Б б B b
/b/
В в V v
/v/
Г г G g
/ɣ~ʕ/ It can get pronounced as /g/ in foreing word and/or when its doubled or in a stressed syllable
Д д D d
/d/
Е е E e
/ɛ/
Ӗ ӗ Ë ë Oe oe
/ø̞/ In unstressed syllables it can be reduced to a soft /ɵ/ sound
Ж ж Ӡ ӡ Zh zh
/ʒ/
З з Z z
/z/
И и I i
/i/ Before a vowel it gets pronounced as /ij/ and after a vowel as /ji/.
Й й Y y
/j/ Used after vowels and as first letter. J j is used as /j/ in forein words.
К к K k
/k/
Л л L l
/l/
М м M m
/m/
Н н N n
/n/
Ҥ ҥ N̈ n̈ Ng ng
/ŋ/
О о O o
/ɔ/
П п P p
/p/
Кв кв Q q
/k͡f/
Р р R r
/ɾ/
С с S s
/s/
Т т T t
/t/
У у U u
/u~ʊ/ It gets pronounsed as /w/ when a final vowel.
Ў ў W w
/w/
Ф ф F f
/f/
Х х H h
/x/
X̆ x̆ Hh hh
/ħ/
Ц ц Ts ts
/t͡s/
Дз дз Dz dz
/d͡z/
Ч ч Ç ç Ch ch
/t͡ʃ/
Дж дж C c
/d͡ʒ/
Дж дж J j
/d͡ʒ/ Used in some foreing words
Ш ш Ş ş Sh sh
/ʃ/
Щ щ Şt şt Sht sht
/ʃt/
Ь ь Y y
/◌ʲ/ Used only after consonants.
Ы ы Ÿ ÿ
/ɤ~ɯ/ Used in foreign names and words.
Ю ю Yu yu
/ju/
Я я Ya ya
/ja/
Ԙ ԙ Ye ye
/jɛ~jæ̝/ Pronounciation varies thourghout dialects
Кс кс X x
Ks ks

/k͡s/ The latin 'X x' is used only in foreign words

Phonology

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Epiglottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d (ɡ)
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x ħ
voiced v z ʒ ɣ ~ ʕ
Aproximant voiced w l j
Tap & Trill ɾ
Front Central Back
Close i u~ʊ
ɤ~ɯ
Mid ø̞
Open-Mid ɛ
(æ̝)
ɔ
Open a~ɑ

Pronouns

Qazhshavan has basic pronouns that one would find in Common, but has 2 forms of "we" (inclusive and exclusive) as well as the 12 cases:

Translation to Common Person and number Nom. Acc. Dat. Com. Comp. Gen. Ine. Ade. Supe. Sube. Ill. Ela. Ben. Voc.
I, Me First Singular Ԙм
Yem
Ԙми
Yemi
Ԙти
Yeti
Ԙмех
Yemeh
Мег
Meg
Мей
Mey
Ԙмне
Yemne
Мӑԙ
Mäye
Ԙмеми
Yememi
Ԙмемөш
Yememöş
Ԙмдже
Yemce
Ԙмеж
Yemeӡ
Ԙмек
Yemek
You, Your Second Шин
Şin
Шини
Şini
Шити
Şiti
Шемех
Şemeh
Шег
Şeg
Ший
Şiy
Шинне
Şinne
Шӑԙ
Şäye
Шинеми
Şinemi
Шинемөш
Şinemöş
Шиндже
Şince
Шинеж
Şineӡ
Шинек
Şinek
Ши'!
Şi'!
He, him Third Ой
Oy
Ойӑ
Oyä
Оти
Oti
Оймeх
Oymeh
Оймуг
Oymug
Ойин
Oyin
Ойни
Oyni
Ойо
Oyo
Ойеми
Oyemi
Ойемөш
Oyemöş
Ойдже
Oyce
Ойеж
Oyeӡ
Ойек
Oyek
She, her Ай
Ay
Айӑ
Ayä
Ати
Ati
Аймех
Aymeh
Аймӑг
Aymäg
Айин
Ayin
Айни
Ayni
Ая
Aya
Аями
Ayami
Аямөш
Ayamöş
Айджа
Ayca
Аяж
Ayaӡ
Аяк
Ayak
It Лӑ
Ойӑ
Oyä
Оти
Oti
Оймех
Oymeh
Оймуг
Oymug
Ойин
Oyin
Ойни
Oyni
Ойо
Oyo
Ойеми
Oyemi
Ойемөш
Oyemöş
Ойдже
Oyce
Ойеж
Oyeӡ
Ойек
Oyek
Myself First Ԙмлӑ
Yemlä
Ԙмлӑи
Yemläi
Ԙлити
Yeliti
Ԙмех
Yemeh
Меԙг
Meyeg
Мейлӑ
Meylä
Ԙмлӑне
Yemläne
Мӑлӑԙ
Mäläye
Ԙмлӑеми
Yemläemi
Ԙмлӑемӗш
Yemläemëş
Ԙмлӑдже
Yemläce
Ԙмлӑлеж
Yemläleӡ
Ԙмлӑек
Yemläek
Yourselves Second Шинлӑ
Şinlä
Шинлӑи
Şinläi
Шилӑти
Şiläti
Шинлех
Şinleh
Шиԙг
Şiyeg
Шийлӑ
Şiylä
Шинлӑне
Şinläne
Шӑлӑԙ
Şäläye
Шинлӑеми
Şinläemi
Шинлӑемөш
Şinläemëş
Шинлӑдже
Şinläce
Шинлӑлеж
Şinläleӡ
Шинлӑек
Şinläek
Himself Thirds Ойлӑ
Oylä
Ойлӑлӑ
Oylälä
Олӑлти
Olälti
Оймех
Oymeh
Ойлиг
Oylig
Ойлӑин
Oyläin
Ойлӑни
Oyläni
Ойлӑо
Oyläo
Ойлӑеми
Oyläemi
Ойлӑемөш
Oyläemëş
Ойлӑдже
Oyläce
Ойлӑлеж
Oyläleӡ
Ойлӑек
Oyläek
Herself Thirds Айлӑ
Aylä
Айлӑлӑ
Aylälä
Алӑлти
Alälti
Алмех
Almeh
Айлӑг
Ayläg
Айлӑин
Ayläin
Айлӑни
Ayläni
Айлӑа
Ayläa
Айлӑами
Ayläami
Айлӑамөш
Ayläamëş
Айлӑджа
Ayläca
Айлӑлаж
Aylälaӡ
Айлӑак
Ayläak
Itself Thirds Лылыл
Läläl
Ойлӑлы
Oylälä
Олӑлти
Olälti
Oлмех
Olmeh
Ойлмег
Oylmeg
Ойлӑин
Oyläin
Ойлӑни
Oyläni
Ойлӑо
Oyläo
Ойлӑеми
Oyläemi
Ойлӑемӗш
Oyläemëş
Ойлӑдже
Oyläce
Ойлӑлеж
Oyläleӡ
Ойлӑек
Oyläek
We, us
(Exclusive)
First Plural
(Formal)
Меԙ
Meye
Мейи
Meyi
Мити
Miti
Митих
Mitih
Мершег
Merşeg
Мерши
Merşi
Мейне
Meyne
Най
Nay
Меԙми
Meyemi
Меԙмӗш
Meyemëş
Мейдже
Meyce
Меԙж
Meyeӡ
Меԙк
Meyek
We, us
(Inclusive)
Мейше
Meyşe
Мейши
Meyşi
Мшити
Mşiti
Мшитих
Miştih
Мешег
Meşeg
Мешерши
Meşerşi
Мейшне
Meyşne
Найш
Nayş
Мейшеми
Meyşemi
Мейшемӗш
Meyşemëş
Мейшдже
Meyşce
Мейшеж
Meyşeӡ
Мейшек
Meyşek
You (plr.) Second Шеԙ
Şeye
Шейи
Şeyi
Шйити
Şyiti
Шйитих
Şyitih
Шершиг
Şerşig
Шерши
Şerşi
Шейне
Şeyne
Шай
Şay
Шеԙми
Şeyemi
Шеԙмӗш
Şeyemëş
Шейдже
Şeyce
Шеԙж
Şeyeӡ
Шеԙк
Şeyek
Шеԙ!
Şeye!
They, them Third Але
Ale
Али
Ali
Алти
Alti
Алмӑх
Almäh
Алершег
Alerşeg
Алерше
Alerşe
Алени
Aleni
Алай
Alay
Алеми
Alemi
Алемӗш
Alemëş
Алдже
Alce
Алеж
Aleӡ
Алек
Alek
Ourselves
(exclusive)
First Меԙлӑ
Meyelä
Мейлӑи
Meyläi
Млӑити
Mläiti
Меԙх
Meyeh
Мелӑршӑг
Melärşäg
Мелӑрши
Melärşi
Мейлӑне
Meyläne
Найлӑ
Naylä
Мейлӑеми
Meyläemi
Мейлӑемӗш
Meyläemëş
Мейлӑдже
Meyläce
Мейлӑлеж
Meyläleӡ
Мейлӑек
Meyläek
Ourselves
(inclusive)
First Мейшелӑ
Meyşelä
Мейшлӑи
Meyşläi
Мшӑлӑити
Mşäläiti
Мейшех
Meyşeh
Мешлӑершег
Meşläerşeg
Мешлӑерши
Meşläerşi
Мейшлӑне
Meyşläne
Найшлӑ
Nayşlä
Мейшлӑеми
Meyşläemi
Мейшлӑемӗш
Meyşläemëş
Мейшлӑдже
Meyşläce
Мейшлӑлеж
Meyşläleӡ
Мейшлӑек
Meyşläek
Yourselves Second Шеԙлӑ
Şeyelä
Шейлӑи
Şeyläi
Шлӑити
Şläiti
Шейлех
Şeyleh
Шелӑршӑх
Şelärşäh
Шелӑрши
Şelärşi
Шейлӑне
Şeyläne
Шайлӑ
Şaylä
Шейлӑеми
Şeyläemi
Шейлӑемӗш
Şeyläemëş
Шейлӑдже
Şeyläce
Шейлӑлеж
Şeyläleӡ
Шейлӑек
Şeyläek
Themselves Thirds Алелӑ
Alelä
Аллӑи
Alläi
Аллӑити
Alläiti
Аллӑх
Alläh
Алелӑршӑh
Alelärşäh
Алелӑрше
Alelärşe
Алелӑни
Aleläni
Алалӑй
Alaläy
Алелӑми
Alelämi
Алелӑмӗш
Alelämëş
Аллӑдже
Alläce
Аллӑлеж
Alläleӡ
Аллӑек
Alläek

Nouns

Vowel harmony

Words with the last vowel being part of the 'thin' vowels (⟨a⟩ ⟨ӑ/ä⟩ ⟨ы/ÿ⟩ ⟨я/ya⟩) get the vowel -a-
Words with the last vowel being part of the 'medial' vowels (⟨и/i⟩ ⟨e⟩ ⟨ԙ/ye⟩) get the vowel -e-
Words with the last vowel being part of the 'thick' vowels (⟨o⟩ ⟨ӗ/ë⟩ ⟨y/u⟩ ⟨ю/yu⟩) get the vowel -у-

Grammatical Number

Qazhshavan has 3 grammatical numbers:

  • Singular: used for when there is exaclty 1 of the object
  • Plural: used for 2 or more of the object

Defenite article

Qazhshavan has two types of definite articles (singular and plural) and no indefinite.

Both definite articles are prefixes:
Definite singular: ан’- / an’-
Definite plural: x̆е’- / hhe’-

Grammatical Cases

Qazhshavan has 16 grammatical cases.

Case Suffix Quastion
words
Example
Thick Harmony Thin Harmony
Nominative - -(v)л
-(v)l
кьем, тьем
kyem, tyem
(who, what)
кьел, тьел
kyel, tyel
(who, what - plr)
Тафa
Tafa
(Bow; subject)
Куч
Kuç
(Dog; subject)
Accusative -(v)ч
-(v)ç
-(v)л(v)ч
-(v)l(v)ç
кьемeч, тьемeч
kyemeç, tyemeç
(who/m, what)
кьелeч, тьелeч
kyeleç, tyeleç
(who/m, what - plr)
Тафач
Tafaç
(Bow; Object)
Кучуч
Kuçuç
(Dog; Object)
Genitive -(v)н
-(v)л(v)н
-(v)n
-(v)l(v)n
кьен, тьен
kyen, tyen
(whose, what's)
кьелен, тьелен
kyelen, tyelen
(whose, whay's - plr)
Тафан
Tafan
(a bow's)
Кучен
Kuçen
(a dog's)
Dative -(v)ти
-(v)ti
-(v)лти
-(v)lti
кьемти, тьемти
kyemti, tyemti
(to whom, to what)
кьелти, тьелти
kyelti, tyelti
(to whom, to what - plr)
Тафaти
Tafati
(to a bow)
Кучти
Kuçti
(to a dog)
Comitative -(v2)м(v)х
-(v2)m(v)h
-(v)лм(v)
-(v)lm(v)h
кьемех, тьемех
kyemeh, tyemeh
(with whom, with what)
кьелмех, тьелмех
kyelmeh, tyelmeh
(with whom, with what - plr)
Тафaти
Tafati
(to a bow)
Кучти
Kuçti
(to a dog)
Comparative -(v)г
-(v)g
-(v)г(v)л
-(v)g(v)l
кьемег, тьемег
kyemeg, tyemeg
(than whom, than what)
кьелмег, тьелмег
kyelmeg, tyelmeg
(than whom, than what - plr)
Тафaти
Tafati
(to a bow)
Кучти
Kuçti
(to a dog)
Inessive -д(v)
-d(v)
-д(v)л
-d(v)l
кьеде, кьедел, тьеде
kyede, kyedel, tyede
(on who(sin/plr), where)
Тафащ
Tafaşt
(in/inside a bow)
Кучещ
Kuçeşt
(in/inside a dog)
Adessive -(v)щ
-(v)şt
-(v)щ(v)л
-(v)şt(v)l
кьей, тьей
kyey, tyey
(next to who,/what)
кьей, тьей
kyey, tyey
(next to who,/what - plr)
Тафай
Tafay
(neer a bow)
Кучей
Kuçey
(neer a dog)
Superessive -(v2)ми
-(v2)mi
-(v)лми
-(v)lmi
кьеми, тьеми
kyemi, tyemi
(on top of who,/what)
кьеми, тьеми
kyemi, tyemi
(on top of who,/what -plr)
Тафaми
Tafami
(on top of/above a bow)
Кучми
Kuçmi
(on top of/above a dog)
Subessive -(v2)мӗ
-(v2)më
-(v)лмӗ
-(v)lmë
кьемӗ, тьемӗ
kyemë, tyemë
(under who,/what)
кьемӗ, тьемӗ
kyemë, tyemë
(under who,/what -plr)
Тафaмӗ
Tafamë
(under a bow)
Кучмӗ
Kuçmë
(under a dog)
Illative -(v)ж
-(v)ӡ
-(v)ж(v)л
-(v)ӡ(v)l
кьеж, тьеж
kyeӡ, tyeӡ
(towards who,/what)
кьележ, тьележ
kyeleӡ, tyeleӡ
(towards who, what - plr)
Тафаж
Tafaӡ
(towards/going into a bow)
Кучеж
Kuçeӡ
(towards/going into a dog)
Elative -(v)ш(v)
-(v)ş(v)
-(v)ш(v)л
-(v)ş(v)l
кьеджe, тьеджe
kyece, tyece
(out of/away from who,/what)
кьелджe, тьелджe
kyelce, tyelce
(out of/away from who,/what - plr)
Тафаджа
Tafaca
(away from/going out of a bow)
Кучедже
Kuçece
(away from/going out of a dog)
Benefactial -(v)к
-(v)k
-(v)к(v)л
-(v)k(v)l
кьем, тьем
kyem, tyem
(for who,/what)
кьел, тьел
kyel, tyel
(for who,/what - plr)
Тафак
Tafak
(for a bow)
Кучек
Kuçek
(for a dog)
Vocative -(c)e -(any voweol)/o
-(и/i)/е
Тафo
Tafo
(calling a bow)
Куче
Kuçe
(calling a dog)
Adjective -(v)в
-(v)v
-(v)в(v)л
-(v)v(v)l
Тафaв
Tafav
(bow; adjective)
Кучeв
Kuçev
(dog; adjective)
Adverbial -(v)т(v)й
-(v)t(v)y
-(v)т(v)йл
-(v)t(v)yl
Тафaд
Tafad
(bow; adverb)
Кучeд
Kuçed
(dog; adverb)

(V) - vowel depending on the vowel harmony
(V2) - Vowel only after nasal sounds


Qazhshavan uses Comparison forms of Adjectives and Adverbs:

  • Positive - Bassic form of the word- happy - шасив / şasiv
  • Negative - Negation of the word - unhappy - нӗшасив / şasiv
  • Comparitive - Form for comparison relative to something - happier - ю-шасив / yu-şasiv
  • Superlative - Form showing absolute relative to a group - happiest - я-шасив / ya-şasiv
  • Augmentative - Form showing absolute position without a relative - ultimately happy - я-я-шасив / ya-ya-şasiv

Possesive suffixes

Qazhshavan has a number of Possessive suffixes that show to whom an object belongs too, though one can use the genitive form of a pronoun instead, and by doing so bringing more emphesis on the owner.

The Possesive suffixes can be pared with the other grammatical cases, while doing so, the case suffix comes after the possessive suffix.

Person & number Suffix Examples
Пал/Pal - oven Енеш/Eneş - Shirt X̆оx̆/Hhohh - throat
Thin harmony Medial harmony Thick harmony
1st Singular -(v)м/m Палӑм
Paläm
Енешим
Eneşim
X̆оx̆ум
Hhohhum
2nd -(v)ш/ş Палӑш
Paläş
Енешиш
Eneş
X̆оx̆уш
Hhohh
3d M -(v)йо/yo Палӑйо
Paläyo
Енешийо
Eneşiyo
X̆оx̆уйо
Hhohhuyo
3d F -(v)йо/yo Палӑя
Paläya
Енешия
Eneşiya
X̆оx̆уя
Hhohhuya
3d N -(v)йо/yo Палӑйо
Paläyo
Енешийо
Eneşiyo
X̆оx̆уйо
Hhohhuyo
1st Plural -(v)меԙ/meye Палӑмар
Palämar
Енешимер
Eneşimer
X̆оx̆умер
Hhohhumer
2nd -(v)шеԙ/şeye Палӑшар
Paläşar
Енешишер
Eneşişer
X̆оx̆ушер
Hhohhşer
3d -(v)ле/le Палӑлар
Palälar
Енешилер
Eneşiler
X̆оx̆улер
Hhohhuler

Verbs

Tense-Aspect-Mood

Qazhshavan has 4 tenses and each has 2 aspects, and 2 moods:

Mood Person Number Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Continious Perfect Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular Таидӑм
Tai·m
Таидӑм’аҥ
Tai·m’an̈
Таим
Taim
Таим’eҥ
Taim’en̈
Таичeм
Taiçem
Таичeм’eҥ
Taiçem’en̈
Таичeшӑм
Taiçeşäm
Таичeшӑм’аҥ
Taiçeşäm’an̈
Plural
exclusive
Таидӑме
Taidäme
Таидӑме’eҥ
Taidäme’en̈
Таиме
Taime
Таиме’eҥ
Taime’en̈
Таичeме
Taiçeme
Таичeме’eҥ
Taiçeme’en̈
Таичeшӑме
Taiçeşäme
Таичeшӑме’eҥ
Taiçeşäme’en̈
Plural
inclusive
Таидӑмше
Taidämşe
Таидӑмше’eҥ
Taidämşe’en̈
Таимше
Taimşe
Таимше’eҥ
Taimşe’en̈
Таичeмше
Taiçemşe
Таичeмше’eҥ
Taiçemşe’en̈
Таичeшӑмше
Taiçeşämşe
Таичeшӑмше’eҥ
Taiçeşämşe’en̈
2nd Singular Таидӑш
Taidäş
Таидӑш’аҥ
Taidäş’an̈
Таиш
Taiş
Таиш’аҥ
Taiş’an̈
Таичeш
Taiçeş
Таичeш’аҥ
Taiçeş’an̈
Таичeшӑш
Taiçeşäş
Таичeшӑш’аҥ
Taiçeşäş’an̈
Plural Таидӑше
Taidäşe
Таидӑше’eҥ
Taidäşe’en̈
Таише
Taişe
Таише’eҥ
Taişe’en̈
Таичeше
Taiçeşe
Таичeше’eҥ
Taiçeşe’en̈
Таичeшӑше
Taiçeşäşe
Таичeшӑше’eҥ
Taiçeşäşe’en̈
3d Singular Таидӑй
Taidäy
Таидӑй’аҥ
Taidäy’an̈
Таийи
Taiyi
Таийи’аҥ
Taiyi’an̈
Таичeй
Taiçey
Таичeй’eҥ
Taiçey’en̈
Таичeшӑй
Taiçeşäy
Таичeшӑй’аҥ
Taiçeşäy’an̈
Plural Таидӑԙ
Taidäye
Таидӑԙ’eҥ
Taidäye’en̈
Таиԙ
Taiy
Таиԙ’eҥ
Taiye’en̈
Таичeԙ
Taiçeye
Таичeԙ’eҥ
Taiçeye’en̈
Таичeшӑԙ
Taiçeşäye
Таичeшӑԙ’eҥ
Taiçeşäye’en̈
Imperative All Singular Таидзe
Taidze
Таидзe’eҥ
Taidze’en̈
Таидзeтe
Taidzete
Plural Таидзeл
Taidzel
Таидзeл’eҥ
Taidzel’en̈
Таидзeлтe
Taidzelte
-Self Singular The suffix ’лa/е/’la/e is added at the end, or before the ’a/eҥ/’a/en̈, to mark the act is towards the self.
Plural The suffix ’лa/ей/’la/ey is added at the end, or before the ’a/eҥ/’a/en̈, to mark the act is towards the self.

Note: Vowels that follow vowel harmony are highlighted in a dark blue color

Verb form "to -verb-" is marked with the -dа/ed suffix:
"таидед/taided" - "to run" , "таийидед/taiyided" - (they) to run
"дуурдед/duurded" - "to fill" , "дуурйидед/duuryided" - (they) to fill

Pronouns+Be

Qazhshavan has the feature of pronounse mixed with the verb "be":

Person Number Past Present Future Future
in the past
+was +NEG-was +be +NEG-be +will-be +will-NEG-be +was-going.to +was-NEG-going.to
1st Singular Ямдӑ
Yamdä
Нӑямдӑ
Näyamdä
Яме
Yame
Нӑяме
Näyame
Ямече
Yameçe
Нӑямече
Näyameçe
Ямечешe
Yameçeşe
Нӑямечешe
Näyameçeşe
Plural
exclusive
Мейдӑ
Meydä
Нӑмейдӑ
Nämeydä
Меирече
Meireçe
Нимеирече
Nimeireçe
Меирече
Meireçe
Нимеирече
Nimeireçeş
Меиречеше
Meireçeşe
Нимеиречеше
Nimeireçeşe
Plural
inclusive
Мешдӑ
Meşdä
Нӑмешдӑ
Nämeşdä
Мешир
Meşir
Нимешир
Nimeşir
Меширече
Meşireçe
Нимеширече
Nimeşireçeş
Меширечеше
Meşireçeşe
Нимеширечеше
Nimeşireçeşe
2nd
Singular Ширдӑ
Şirdä
Ниширдӑ
Nişirdä
Шир
Şir
Нишир
Nişir
Ширече
Şireçe
Ниширече
Nişireçe
Ширечеше
Şireçeşe
Ниширечешеbr
Nişireçeşe
Plural Шеирдӑ
Şeirdä
Нишеирдӑ
Nişeirdä
Шеир
Şeir
Нишеир
Nişeir
Шеирече
Şeireçeş
Нишеирече
Nişeireçe
Шеиречеше
Şeireçeşe
Нишеиречеше
Nişeireçeşe
3d
Singular
Masculine
& Neuter
Ойирдӑ
Oyirdä
Нуйирдӑ
Nuyirdä
Ойир
Oyir
Нуйир
Nuyir
Ойирече
Oyireçe
Нуйирече
Nuyireçe
Ойиречеше
Oyireçeşe
Нуйиречеше
Nuyireçeşe
Singular
Feminine
Айирдӑ
Ayirdä
Нӑйирдӑ
Näyirdä
Айир
Ayir
Нӑйир
Näyir
Айирече
Ayireçe
Нӑйирече
Näyireçe
Айиречеше
Ayireçeşe
Нӑйиречеше
Näyireçeşe
Plural Алердӑ
Alerdä
Нӑлердӑ
Nälerdä
Алер
Aler
Нӑлер
Näler
Алерече
Alereçe
Нӑлерече
Nälereçe
Алеречеше
Alereçeşe
Нӑлеречеше
Nälereçeşe

Negation

The present and Past tenses get the simpler negation prefix, and the Future tense get the more complex one.

Past & Present Future &
Future in the past
Нӗ-<word>
Në-<word>
Нал-<word>
Nal-<word>
Examples
Нӗтаим
taim
Налтаиечем
Naltaieçem
I'm not running
i don't run
I'm not going to run
Нӗтаиедӑш
taiadäş
Налтаиечешӑш
Naltaieçeşäş
You didn't run You weren't going to run
Нӗтаиедзе
taiedze
Налтаиедзете
Naltaiedzete
Don't run Don't run later

Note: the past/present negation form is also used for adjectives and adverbs.

Affix order

The order of how words are formed with affixes:

Noun affix order
Definite- Word -Plurality -Possessive -Case/Adjective -Question
Verb affix order
Negation- Word -Tense -Person~Number -Perfective -Question

Numbers

Qazhshavan is a Decimal language, meaning it has a base 10 number system.

Literally translated "12" is "1 on (top of) 12", and 21 is "1 on (top of) 2-10" and so on.

Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
Number
Number term
(Qazhshavan)
1 Атӑл
Atäl
11 Атӑлнеми
Atälnemi
10 Ен
En
101 Атӑл-шехеми
Atäl-şehemi
100 Шех
Şeh
1000 Огил
Ogil
2 Кайӑ
Kayä
12 Кайӑнеми
Kayänemi
20 Кайӑен
Kayäen
21 Атӑл-кайӑенми
Atäl-kayäenemi
200 Кайӑшех
Kayäşeh
2000 Кайӑогил
Kayäogil
3 Балӑ
Balä
13 Балӑнеми
Balänemi
30 Балӑен
Baläen
31 Атӑл-балӑенеми
Atäl-baläenemi
300 Балӑшех
Baläşeh
3000 Балӑогил
Baläogil
4 Кулун
Kulun
14 Кулуннеми
Kulunnemi
40 Кулунен
Kulunen
41 Атӑл-кулунеми
Atäl-kulunemi
400 Кулуншех
Kulunşeh
4000 Кулуногил
Kulunogil
5 Боўгӑ
Bowgä
15 Боўгӑнеми
Bowgänemi
50 Боўгӑeн
Bowgäen
51 Атӑл-боўгӑенеми
Atäl-bowgäenemi
500 Боўгӑшех
Bowgäşeh
5000 Боўгӑогил
Bowgäogil
6 Алшӑ
Alşä
16 Алшӑнеми
Alşänemi
60 Алшӑен
Alşä-En
61 Атӑл-алшӑенеми
Atäl-alşäenemi
600 Алшӑшех
Alşäşeh
6000 Алшӑогил
Alşäogil
7 Сувун
Suvun
17 Сувуннеми
Suvunnemi
70 Сувунен
Suvunen
71 Атӑл-сувуненеми
Atäl-Suvunenemmi
700 Сувуншех
Suvunşeh
7000 Сувуногил
Suvunogil
8 Ненте
Nente
18 Нентенеми
Nentenemi
80 Нентеен
Nenteen
81 Атӑл-нентенеми
Atäl-nentenemi
800 Нентешех
Nenteşeh
8000 Нентеогил
Nenteogil
9 Талӑ
Talä
19 Талӑнеми
Talänemi
90 Талӑен
Taläen
91 Атӑл-талӑенеми
Atäl-taläenemi
900 Талӑшех
Taläşeh
9000 Талӑогил
Taläogil

Questions

Yes-No type

Qazhshavan forms Yes and No questions with a quesiton suffix:

Queastion affix
Thin
Harmony
Medial
Harmony
Thick
Harmony
<word>-кӑ
<word>-
<word>-ки
<word>-ki
<word>-ку
<word>-ku
Examples
Гаяшкӑ
Gayaş
Таишки
Taişki
Цохушку
Tsohuşku
Are you Fishing? Are you Running? Are you cutting?
Aн’ягенкӑ?
An’yagen?
Aн’кучeйки?
An’kuçeyki?
Ан’чохукку?
An’çohukku?
Inside the House? Neer the dogs? For the boy?
Таиш ан’ягaжкӑ?
Taiş аn’yagaӡ?
Ԙчешки aйӑ?
Yeçeşki ayä?
Ан’улужку?
An’uluӡku?
You're running from/out of the house? Are you going to see her? Into the country?

Wh- type

"Wh- type" questions are pretty straight forward, as they just add another word to the mix.

Dialects

Qazhshavan is generally split into 3 dialect groups that form a continuem, from Karakach to the mountain passes to the west.

Nashean

Nashean Qazhshavan, commonly just Nashean, is a dialect spoken in and around the region of Nashe, Riamo, it is a resault of settlers left over from colonial times, it's has Phonetic influence from the Riamese langauge spoken there and many loanwords.

Lnaguage examples

Common words and sentances
Qazhshavan
Govoric
Qazhshavan
Latin
Common Gloss
Literal meaning
IPA
Хялдза / Хял. Hyaldzа / Hyal. Hello / Hi
(singular)
health-2S-IMP
health
/ˈxʲal.d͡za/ /xʲal/
Хялдзал / Хял. Hyaldzаl / Hyal. Hello / Hi
(plr. & pauc.)
health-2P-IMP
health
/xʲalˈd͡zal/ /xʲal/
Нԙл шагю. Nyelev şagyu. Good morning. good.adj morning /ɲæ̝.lav ˈʃaɣju/
Нԙл ичин. Nyelev için. Good afternoon/day good.adj day /ɲæ̝.lav it͡ʃin/
Нԙл хачи. Nyelev haçi. Good evening good.adj night /ɲæ̝l.lav ˈxa.t͡ʃi/
Ииш хачи. Iişev haçi. Good night Soft.adj night /i.jiʃ.lav ˈxa.t͡ʃi/
Сиджа ԙй / Сам Sica yey / Sam Goodbye / Bye next see-ADE
bye
/ˈsa.d͡ʒa jæ̝j/ /sam/
Лан руш шинлы? Lan ruş şinlÿ? What's your name? how say-2S yourself /lan ɾuˈʃ‿in.lɤ/
Рум ԙмлы ___ Rum yemlÿ ___ My name is ___ say-1S myself ___ /ɾum ˈjæ̝m.lɤ ___/
Шир аладжa? Şir alaca? Where are you from? 2S.be where-ELA /ʃiɾ ˈa.la.d͡ʒa/
Яме ___(-е/а)дж(-е/а) Yamе ___(-е/а)c(-е/а) I'm from ___ 1S.be ___-ELA /ja.mɛ ___-ɛ/a.d͡ʒɛ/a/
Лан шир? Lan şir? How are you? how 2S.be /lan ʃiɾ/
Яме нԙл Yame nyelev I'm good/alright/okay 1S.be good-adj /ja.mɛ ˈɲæ̝.lav/
Яме нӗнԙл Yame nyelev I'm not good/okay/alright 1S.be NEG-good-adj /ja.mɛ nø̞ˈɲæ̝.lav/

Sample text

World Peace Manifesto

World Peace Manifesto is the founding agreement, that formed the Anterian World Assembly. When the document was being translated into Qazhshavan, it was treanslated quite literaly, like for example the "reach global peace" was literaly translated, there have been later versions made, but the original one stays official.

Common:
We, the nations of Anteria, hereby stand together, working together, united and willing to cooperate to reach global peace. We have seen enough deaths, enough suffering, enough pain and enough ruined lives. We came together with a hope and an ideal, that there are things that should be done, there are ways better than war, there is a better way to work with the world.
-
Qazhshavan (Govoric):
Меԙ, Антериян улул, чаме суз, скеме суз, башитевел не меирече годавал сазиммедед па уҥечeме глобалав тен. Ԙдӑме’eҥ унешев ўе меў, унешев ўе джах, унешев ўе чах не унешев ўе тарйив жейшчинал. Баидӑме суз апшамах не идяламах, шӑ ха ашал кана инеб ювԙ’ле’еҥ, ха иншол ю-нԙлел рамаг. Ха ю-нԙл иншо скейидед ямамах.
-
Qazhshavan (Latin):
Meye, Anteriyan ulul, çame suz, skeme suz, başitevel ne meireçe godaval sazimmeded pa un̈eçeme globalav ten. Yedäme’en̈ uneşev we mew, uneşev we cah, uneşev we çah ne uneşev we taryiv ӡeyşçinal. Baidäme suz apşamah ne idyalamah, şä ha aşal kana ineb yuvye’le’en̈, ha inşol yu-nyelel ramag. Ha yu-nyel nişo skeyided yamamah.

Other

Text of the popular folk song "Yana-na":

Qazhshavan (Govoric) Qazhshavan (Latin) Common translation
"Яна-на" "Yana-na" "Yana-na"

Ай'дза ԙти лао мах ярӑш, вихе мах пальав пре (x2)
Мах тьем айамдад шити, фев тефре? (x2)

Яна-на, Яна-не, Яна-на о’ ԙти инебе' (x2)
 
Мах лабав ярӑш, вихе мах пальав пре (x2)
Ярӑм раджийи ешкев, фев тефре (x2)

Яна-на, Яна-не, Яна-на о’ ԙти инебе' (x2)

Тьем ювйи ярӑш ешкев, вихе мах пальав пре (x2)
Ан’ченье кьеме ԙти айадӑш’аҥ, фев тефре (x2)

Яна-на, Яна-не, Яна-на о’ ԙти инебе' (x4)

Ay'dza yeti lao mah yaräş, vihe mah palyav pre (x2)
Mah tyem ayamdad şiti, fev tefre? (x2)

Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na o’ yeti inebe' (x2)

Mah labav yaräş, vihe mah palyav pre (x2)
Yaräm raciyi eşkev, fev tefre (x2)

Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na o’ yeti inebe' (x2)

Tyem yuvyi yaräş eşkev, vihe mah palyav pre (x2)
An’çenye kyeme yeti ayadaş’an̈, fev tefre (x2)

Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na o’ yeti inebe' (x4)

give me water with you hands, girl with cut bangs (x2)
with what do I give you, scented rose? (x2)
 
Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na oh how i need you (x2)
 
With your own hand, girl with cut bangs (x2)
my hand happens to be busy, scented rose (x2)
 
Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na oh how i need you (x2)
 
what's making your hand busy, girl with cut bangs (x2)
the ring you gave me, scented rose (x2)
 
Yana-na, Yana-ne, Yana-na oh how i need you (x4)


The 15th century poem about the Qal-Hhana river transalted into modern Qazhshavan:

"The Qal-Hhana river"
"Ан’мош Кал-X̆ана" - "Аn’moş Kal-Hhana"
-
in Qazhshavan (Govoric): - in Qazhshavan (Latin): - in Common:
Ан’Кал-X̆анав лаол саяхачая кундед,
аледе саяхачая x̆е’кайал бундед,
саяхачая гаял не деел рундед,
не лудалал дуурeчeԙ’аҥ.
- An’Kal-Hhanav laol sayahaçaya kunded,
alede sayahaçaya hhe’layal bunded,
sayahaçaya gayal ne deel runded,
ne ludalal duureçeye’an̈.
- The waters of the Qal-Hhan will continue to flow,
they'll continue to hit the rocks,
there will continue to be lots of fish and frogs,
and the floods will also be filled.
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Qazhshavan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.