Crowned Republic of Mascylla
Gekrönte Republik Maskillien
Motto: "Hier stehen Wir"
"Here We Stand"
Anthem: Des Landes Klänge
"The Sounds of the Realm"
|Location of Mascylla (dark green) – on Aeia (light grey, light green and grey) – in Asura (grey) – in Alemannia (light green)|
|Official languages||Standard Alemannic|
|Recognised regional languages||Low Alemannic, High Alemannic, Kammewitsch, Wattisch, Falian, Taino, Panjibi|
|Ethnic groups||83.1% Mascyllary/Alemannians
12.5% Native Taino
2.1% Biladians/Saldures2.0% Other
|Religion||Alydianism, Aheir paganism, Tainoa paganism, Panjibi paganism|
|Council of the Crown|
• Ratification of Constitution
|23nd May 1796|
• Assasination of Ludwig II
|5th June 1950|
• Declaration of the Mascyllary Republic
|16th June 1950|
• Reestablishment of the Mascyllary monarchy
|1st December 1951|
|338,424 km2 (130,666 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2017 census
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Time zone||Middleeastern Asuran Time (UTC+2)|
Mascylla (Standard Alemannic: Maskillien [maːˈskiːli̯ən]), officially the Crowned Republic of Mascylla (Standard Alemannic: Gekrönte Republik Maskillien [ɡəˈkʁ̥øːntə ʁepuˈbliːk maːˈskiːli̯ən]), rarely referred to as Mascillia (Standard Alemannic: Maskillea [maːˈskiːlle:a]), is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy in eastern Asura. Mascylla is located on the western coast of the White Sea, which divides Mascylla and Vynozhia and establishes the main southern coast to the Leiden Channel, which separates the country from the Leiden island group. The country is bordered to the east by Dosceriche and Tudonia, to the north by primarily Leiden, to the south by Kavalerilant and Vynozhia, and with maritime borders by Vynozhia aswell in the east. At 338,000 square kilometers and nearly 29 million inhabitants, Mascylla incorporates a sizable territory and population, making it one of the largest nations by size and by population in eastern Asura. The island group of Tainoa, the first established colony of the country, is situated in the Colombian Sea, extending geographical reach to Vestrim. In midst of the Opal Ocean, the Dureme island chain is partly controlled by Mascylla with Dureme as its colony, while on Arabekh, it maintains the southern part of the city of Asfârum; both colonies are bordered by Biladia. Furthermore, the islands of Theresa and Phemlia represent Mascylla off the coast of eastern Rennekka.
The country has a moderate and warm climate, unusual for its geographical location, and experiences heavy snowfall in winter and wet warm summer days, while Tainoa and Dureme receive a wet equatorial climate, with heavy rainfalls in winter, and hot days in summer. Asfarien lies within a hotter asur climate, while Theresa and Phemlia are situated in hot waters and a general warmer climate, where often hurricanes hit the islands. The mountainous and foresty geography, divided by river basins and lakes, exclusively dominate the country's nature and is home to a variety of wildlife species. Mascylla is a constitutional monarchy, assisted by a democratic legislative system, with the government residing in Königsreh, the nation's capital, second largest city and main cultural centre of the country. Mascylla today enjoys a high level of living standard and peaceful diplomatic relations with a number of foreign nations, and remains as a stable and modern nation.
Alemannic peoples have inhabited Mascylla since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Terunders (Mascyllan Terunder) and Mascyllary (Maskillier) and constituting the sea peoples known as the Lowman. Over time, they established themselfs into duchies and kingdoms, all spread over the original territory of Mascylla. Administrated by the Alemannic Empire for over centuries, cultural and linguistic ties grew within the countries. After the collapse of the Empire, all Mascyllary nation freed themselfs, establishing a large community of political bodies. During the War of the Five Kings, a lage portion of those countries emerged unting into a single state, today's nation, while some western nation left the political struggle to form their own country, Dosceriche. An independent Mascyllary state finally assembled in the late 18th century. After the War of the Five Kings killed about a fifth of the Mascyllary population, Vynozhian nations attempted various attacks on the near coast at the White Sea, which failed due to unpassable terrain in the Weißhauptgebirge ranges near the eastern coast. This conflict drove the last remaining duchies to join the Kingdom in the last step to unify the North Alemmanic basin, in 1793. Smaller skirmishes between Vynozhia, Leiden, and Mascylla such as attacks on coastal cities, followed in the next years, eventually stopped due to the risk of an armed conflict rising. When Mascylla became involved with Asuran politics, it started a mass campaign on cartographing and exploring distant land masses and oceans; it eventually founded a colonial empire spanning the globe, with posessions in the Columbian, the Opal Sea, and Yidao. Slavery was very common in the first years of the empire's existance. Following the Inguiu War however, further colonisation of Rennekka and slavery was largely prohibited. Furthermore, it concentrated its resources on shaping the political landscape within Asura, such as supporting democratic factions in Tudonia in 1848 and various wars in the following decades. Mascylla joined militarily during the first Great War and in the Second Great War, manifesting Mascylla as an Asuran power. Since then, it established a policy of neutrality, while still remaining its defensive military force, tightly cooperating with Asuran nations during the Cold War which made Mascylla a formidable military and scientific power.
After the end of the Cold War, Mascylla demilitarised heavily and further established ties with other Alemannic nations, and began to thrive culturally, economically, and socially. It deployed its space agency as one of the best-equiped and most advanced in Aeia which gave Mascylla an important status as one of the few to do so. In its activity, Mascylla also joined the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and the Aeian Community as an observer state, actions to tie Mascylla even closer to Asuran and global politics. Furthermore, it enjoys membership in a row of educational, scientific, health, and cultural organisations, which further solidify its presence on the global stage. Mascylla maintains a unique social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's twelve-highest per capita income and ranks highly in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality, prosperity and human development.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Antiquity
- 2.3 Early Middle Ages
- 2.4 Shard Era (1283-1793)
- 2.5 Mascyllary unification
- 2.6 Founding Years
- 2.7 Early contemporary Mascylla and the Great Wars (1895-1935)
- 2.8 Cold War (1935-1981)
- 2.9 Post-Cold War (1981-present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
Main article: Name of Mascylla
The name Mascylla was loaned from the Mascyllary in the 17th century to refer to Mascylla, especially the central river basin. Mascylla, an anglication of the word Maskillien can actually be derived back to "The Land of the Maskills", on which Maskills are referred to forest wildlife in general. Before the creation of an unitary Mascyllary state, Early Modern Newreyan used Whitewoodland.
Variations of the name Mascylla are used in most languages, with the exception of High and Mid Alemannic Maskillien, Low Alemannic Maaskillen, Midrasian Mascyllaria, and the more notable exception of some other local languages where Rähland (Kammewitsch) and Hocvielant (Wattisch) are used, names commonly considered as referred to the people from the mountainous areas of Roßlagen, Kolingen, who were known as the Roß', and through them etymologically related to the Mascyllary Low Alemmanic name for Vynozhia, Vihnernland.
The etymology of Mascyllary, and thus Mascylla, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Alemannic Maschikoltz meaning "one's own", referring to the rather autonomous and isolated Mascyllary tribes before the later establishing of the Alemannic Empire.
The oldest traces of human life in what is now Mascylla date from approximately 1.8 million years ago. Humans were then confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. The oldest discovered complete set of tools, majorly hunting weapons, were discovered dating back around 22,000 BCE, indicating the presence of intelligent hunters that early. Mascylla has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved in Alemannia, the caves near the city of Laskauen (approximately 18,000 BCE). Most of interior Mascylla was until that time defined by the presence of an enourmous freshwater lake, the Lendyra Sea. However, the Lendyra holocene impact event destroyed the lake and devastated large areas in central Mascylla, leading to a temporary halt in human development in the region until around 1,000 years after.
At the end of the last glacial period (9,000 BCE), the climate became milder; from approximately 5,000 BCE, this part of Eastern Asura entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. Evidence suggests the first real city was built near the coast of the White Sea in today Warnowen, with the discovery of fire places, rough architectial outlines, and even an early version of a sewer system put in place.
After strong demographic, cultural and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, forming bigger societies and ethnicities, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 2rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, and later iron. Musical instruments and depictions of animals and humans as figures were also found made at that time. Mascylla has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptionally dense Tholstein stones site (approximately 3,300 BCE). At the same tile, first astrological tools, like the famous Alterst sky disk made as an artifact out of granite and gold, were likely created.
In 600 BCE, Terunder people, originating from the southern lands of today Tudonia, founded the colony of Kolceylla (present-day Koltburg), on the edge of the Weißhauptgebirge range, which they passed on an adventurous expedition. This makes it Mascylla's oldest, still inhabited city. At the same time, some Vynozhian tribes penetrated parts of the current territory of Mascylla, either by landbased expeditions or over the White Sea and this occupation spread to the rest of Mascylla between the 5th and 3rd century BCE. The concept of Alemannia emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of ethnic Alemannic settlement ranging between the Blaugold, the Leiden Channel, the Weißhauptgebirge and the White Sea. The borders of modern Mascylla are roughly the same as those of the spread of ancient Alemannic tribes, which was inhabited by said peoples. Today Mascylla was then a for agricultural purposes a prosperous land, of which the central and eastern part was heavily subject to various indigenous and recently created cultural and economic influences. The enriched soil and dense forests established various cultures, as most where cut off from one another by geographical subjects.
Around 125 BCE, the south of Mascylla was largely brought under the control of the Adwhin, who largely separated this area from the rest of the river basin, creating an exodus, on which tribes began attacking eachother and distantly evolving over time, the sole foundation of the division of Mascylla for hundreds of years later. The regions led by one part of the tribe of the Adwhin which over time evolved into the name Hochalden due to its elevation. Other areas, mostly in the north created another lifestyle, built on the concept of trust, due to the sparse resources available in times of winter. This culture would later on take major political importance in various wars. Mascylla was then finally divided by chiefs of their tribes in the first diplomatic meeting of this sort, the Council of the First, into political provinces. Many cities were founded during this period, including Folksche (present-day Falkenhall), which is considered the largest city of the area of Mascylla at that time. These cities were built in traditional Alemannic style, with a central marketplace, a wedding house, a holy church, a house for the chief and small cooking places, all made out of timber, animal skin or grass. The Alemannics mixed with other distinct settlers and eventually adopted their own culture and their own variated speech (High Alemannic, from which the Mascyllary language evolved). The unique polytheism merged with the Alemannic paganism into the same syncretism.
From the 250s to the 280s CE, Mascyllary, now duchies and kingdoms, suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians, mostly inhabiting the rough islands off the shore of the Laurenz Bay, today Burhurdt. Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for the Mascyllary Alemannic people. In 312, King Wolfgang the Big of Fahnicht, a very old tribe at the northern coast of the realm, converted to a version of Mascyllary paganism, making this an appearance for centuries. Subsequently, Paganists, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire basin. But, from the beginning of the 5th century, the Barbarian Invasions resumed, and Leidense tribes, such as the Bunschechts, Tranwheil and Alans crossed the channel and settled in today Bunschoten and other parts of the most northern shorelines.
Until then, contact from most of the world was very limited, until Emperor Friedrich I., along a well-trained and -equiped army marched over the Weißhauptgebirge range, declaring war on all countried with Mascylla. In years of conquest, he was able to control more and more of the river basins, while incorporating them into the new foundation of an unitary, Alemannic state, the Alemannic Empire with its central roots in Tyronova and Tudonia. Due to their relations with the Alemannic language and culture, they were able to avoid assimilation and full devastation of their religion and political systems. Most of the duchies and kingdoms preexisting before the now called War of the Bloody Eagle were granted some level of autonomy and cultural freedoms within the Empire, and granting them the same titles under the new supranational government. The rule over Mascylla would last over more than 600 other years.
Early Middle Ages
At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Mascylla under the Alemannic Empire was divided into several dozens of smaller Alemannic kingdoms and duchies, decentralising and deviding cultural groups, which would hinder the creation of Mascylla as a unitary state for centuries later. Simultaneously, Sclavic people, fleeing the babaric settlements of today Vynozhia, settled the western part of Skeilla for its agricultural value. As a result, the Skeilla peninsula was renamed Warnowen, Sclavic culture was mostly revived and numerous independent petty duchies arose in this region, a trend for all of Mascylla prolonging cultural distanciation. The pagan Mascyllary, from whom the ancient name of "Maskillie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Mascylla, but under Loudwigh I spread its cultural and liguistic, standardised versions of the already most prominent Alemannic cultures, into most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Mascylla. In 498, Loudwigh I was the first Alemannic, so said, "King", as he was able to represent most of Mascylla in front of the Alemannic Emperor after the fall of the early Realm. He was then forced to convert to Alydianism; thus Mascylla was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" (Alemannic: Die älteste Tochter der Kirche) by the Emperor, and Mascyllary kings and dukes would be called "the Most Alydian Kings of Mascylla" (Rex Alydianismus). Paganism was strictly forbidden, wiping out most of practices and beliefs.
The Mascyllary mostly embraced the Alydian Alemannic culture and ancient Mascylla was eventually partly replaced with more diverse cultural identities. The Mascyllary Alemannic people adopted standardized Low Alemannic, except in northern Mascylla where Low Alemannic settlements were less dense and where Higher languages emerged. Friedrich made Germania his capital and established the Salian dynasty, but his kingdoms in Mascylla were out of reach, due to the mountain ranges deviding them. The Empire was then partly decentralised, in order to govern the eastern territories without much of a civil revolt. The Mascyllary treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so around two-hundred principalities emerged, all in small skirmishes with one another.
The next Salian kings lost prestige over time, which led to a growing hate towards the ever-growing oppression and taxation of the lowest social grade, in order to finance the vast empire's military. At one time, furious workers and farmers gathered at the palace in Germania itself, defeated by guards and the military only shortly after. After the sudden death of King Ludwig II, his son Ludwig III reparated the victims of the riot and revaluated the governance system in Mascylla, making him quite popular and earning him respect and power within the Mascyllary kingdoms. His actions mostly eased tensions, keeping Mascylla under control, and repopulating the Salian dynasty. Now in mostly peace again, the region of Mascylla quickly rose in terms of population, establishing various new cities and agricultural regions.
Proclaimed Alemannic Emperor Friedrich III announced then a new policy on which he united the governments of state and church, and thus establishing in earnest the Mascyllary Government's longtime historical association with the Alydian Church. He tried to revive the control Salians has over the Empire, especially in Mascylla and its still existing cultural division with the rest of the nation unnerved him. His son, Leonhard I, kept the empire unitary; however, this led again to enourmous unpopularity among the Mascyllary and now associated other nations, while his son's empire would not survive his death. In 1283, under the circumstances of the assasination of last king Wilhelm Uller I, the empire was finally disestablished into its kingdoms and duchies. The collapse of a higher government resulted in chaos and anarchy, with Mascylla now reorganizing itself into countless smaller countries. Until years later, a first map and final order of the new realm was established. Those duchies and kingdoms, most primarily, biggest, and both politically and militarily strongest being Adwhin, Fahnicht, Cheldwingen, Burhurdt, Hohner, and the Terunder, would make up later the foundation to modern Mascylla.
Shard Era (1283-1793)
The Shard Era, as usually referred to, is the time inbetween the collapse of the Alemannic Empire and the unification of Mascylla. The existence of hundreds of small states and countries resemble the shards after breaking a mirror, hence it nickname. The time was plagued by war, reformations, and mistrust among its witnesses.
In the 14th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as indulgences in the Alydian Church, caused by the administration of the collapsed Alemannic Empire, and a general desire for reform. In 1317 the Reformation began with the publication of Nicklas Rohen's Ten Theses; he posted them in the town square and gave copies of them to Mascyllary nobles, but it is debated whether he nailed them to the church door in Sterneburg as is commonly said. The list detailed 10 assertions Rohen believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Alydian Church, and the redirection to traditional paganism.
One often cited example, though perhaps not Rohen's chief concern, is a condemnation of the selling of indulgences; another prominent point within the 10 Theses is Rohen's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the Pontiff, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the Pontiff. This sparked riots all over Mascylla, sincerely demanding its return to paganism, which divided Alydian and Paganian people, ending in harrasments, riots, and civil wars among many small states.
From 1321 to 1346 the Faith's War raged in Mascylla. Its causes were the conflicts between Alydians and Paganists, the efforts by the various states within to increase their power, and the Alydian Church's attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Realm. The immediate occasion for the war was the uprising of the Paganist nobility of Ragernia against the current duke, but the conflict was widened into a Mascyllary war by the intervention of King Christian II of Benshmark (1297-1355), Gustaf Thelm of Burhurdt (1292–1344). Central Mascylla became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between Reischern and the Kolburgs for predominance in Mascylla. The fighting often was out of control, with marauding bands of hundreds or thousands of starving soldiers spreading plague, plunder, and murder. The armies that were under control moved back and forth across the countryside year after year, levying heavy taxes on cities, and seizing the animals and food stocks of the peasants without payment. The enormous social disruption over two decades caused a dramatic decline in population because of killings, disease, crop failures, declining birth rates and random destruction, and the out-migration of terrified people. One estimate shows a 38% drop from 6 million people in 1321 to 3.7 million by 1350, while another shows "only" a 20% drop from 7 million to 5.6 million. The Altmark and Würthemberg regions were especially hard hit. It took generations for Mascylla to fully recover. The war ended in 1346 with the Peace of Westmarke. Kalnese was permanently lost to Benshmark, Perania was temporarily lost to Burhurdt, and the Serunge officially left the politcal affairs of Mascylla. Much of the power of the countries declined further as the states' military, population, and economical strength were decreased.
From 1400 onward, Adwhin had started to rise under the "Great Regnant," Friedrich Wilhelm. The Peace of Westmarke in 1346 strengthened it even further, through the acquisition of East Pholroyne. From 1413 to 1450, King Friedrich Wilhelm I, also known as the "Soldier King", established a highly centralized, militarized state with a heavily rural population of about two million (compared to the other eight million in the rest of Mascylla). In terms of the boundaries of 1793, Mascylla in 1500 had a population of 10 million, increasing slightly to 12 million by 1600, and growing more rapidly to 15 million by 1800. Wars continued, but they were no longer so devastating to the civilian population; famines and major epidemics did not occur, but increased agricultural productivity led to a higher birth rate, and a lower death rate. Ludwig II of Welsbach conquered parts of Elsatz and Lorauen (1578–1581), and had invaded and devastated the Electorate of the Kalaphay (1588–1597) in the War of Kalaphay Succession. Ludwig II benefited from Adwhin's problems with the Sclavics, which were menacing Adwhin. Ludwig II ultimately annexed the Electorate of the Kalaphay howver, which led to Adwhin joining the war. Afterwards Gehstroh was reconquered from the Vynozhian Sclavics; Adwhin, developed into a great power, quickly reconquered the annexed land held by the Welsbacher, and even gained the capital of Herzogau, turning the war on Adwhin's side. As Welsbach was not prepared for a sudden retaliation, they were quickly overturned, and eventually surrendered a few weeks later. The ever-growing strength of the Adwhin-Hohner alliance disturbed international politics and rendered fear in a large portion of southern Mascylla.
Friedrich II "the Great" is best known for his military genius, his reorganization of Adwhinish armies, his battlefield successes, his enlightened rule, and especially his making Adwhin one of the great powers, as well as escaping from almost certain national disaster at the last minute. He was especially a role model for an aggressively expanding Mascylla down to 1793, and even today retains his heroic image in Mascylla. In the War of Terunder Succession (1640–1648) Maria Theresa fought successfully for recognition of her succession to the throne. But in the Solehnan Wars and in the Sept War she had to cede a big portion of Solehna to Friedrich the Great. After the Peace of Hubertsburg in 1663 between Terunder, Adwhin and Lansrau, Adwhin won recognition as a great power, thus launching a century-long rivalry with Terunder and other countries, all in soured relations to Adwhin, abput the leadership of the Mascyllary peoples.
From 1663, against resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an "enlightened absolutism" was established in all Great Powers, according to which the ruler governed according to the best precepts of the philosophers. The economies developed and legal reforms were undertaken, including the abolition of torture and the improvement in the status of Alydians. Emancipation of the peasants slowly began. Compulsory education was instituted. In 1672 Adwhin took the lead in the politcal partitions of Dorathea, with Hohner and Spacktern splitting the rest. This action devastated relations with the other powers even more, shifting politcal climate to the coldest. Adwhin occupied the eastern territories of the former Dhoringian Union that surrounded existing Adwhinish holdings. Dorathea again became independent in 1790.
Completely overshadowed by Adwhin and the Great Powers, the smaller Mascyllary states were generally characterized by political lethargy and administrative inefficiency, often compounded by rulers who were more concerned with their mistresses and their hunting dogs than with the affairs of state. Benshen was especially unfortunate in this regard; it was a rural land with very heavy debts and few growth centers. Phalya was in economically good shape, although its government was seriously mismanaged, and numerous wars had taken their toll. During the time when Adwhin rose rapidly within Mascylla, Phalya was distracted by foreign affairs. The house of Wettinger concentrated on acquiring and then holding on to the Aleian throne which was ultimately unsuccessful. In Rothenau the duke lavished funds on palaces, mistresses, great celebration, and hunting expeditions. Many of the city-states of Mascylla were run by bishops, who in reality were from powerful noble families and showed scant interest in religion. None developed a significant reputation for good government. Most governments also signed pacts and agreements with one of the Great Powers, as they were mostly not able to represent their own statute, largely splitting Mascylla into factions over time, even more heating up tension.
Main article: War of the Five Kings
The birth of the Kingdom of Mascylla was the result of efforts by Mascyllary nationalists and monarchists loyal to the Houses in the north to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Mascyllary Peninsula. Following the Congress of Rehnern in 1715, the political and social Mascyllary unification movement, or Gemeinsamer Bund, emerged to unite Mascyllary consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Rudolph Meiner, member of the secret revolutionary society Eichenbaum and founder of the influential political movement Junges Maskillien in the early 1730s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. The most famous member of Junges Maskillien was the revolutionary and general Franz Kolnher, renowned for his extremely loyal followers, who led the Mascyllary republican drive for unification in Adwhin. However, the Northern monarchies in the north, of the Houses of Fahnicht, Cheld, Terunder, and Burhurdt, also intended to establish means to form a united alliance, whose governments was led by King Lukas, King of Cheld, also had ambitions of establishing a united Mascyllary state. In the context of the 1748 liberal revolutions that swept through Asura, an unsuccessful first war of unification was declared on Adwin. The Kingdom of Terunder again attacked the Kingdom of Adwhin in the Second Mascyllary War of Unification of 1759, with the aid of Terunder, resulting in liberating Welsbach. For now, ideas of a unitary Mascylla got quieter, even fully devastated, as new political tension resulting from those wars, also did to weaken eachother, led to a tense situation in Mascylla.
In 1783, the heir to the House of Phalya, Robert Leopold, suddenly passed away minutes before his coronation, which sparked suspicion at first. Those ideas mainly thought of Adwhin murdering him in order to install a friendly government right next to the northern political sphere. Those soured relations even more, and with the attack on the duchy of Rehnert by Adwhinish forced sparked the fire, triggering agreements and pacts, while it spread the effect acrosd the entire Realm. Finally, the Kingdom of Fahnern declared war on Adwhin, engulfing Mascylla into its last war, the War of the Five Kings. Meanwhile Kolnher led the drive for unification in Adwhin and Hohnern (the Expedition of the Thousand), while the Houses of the north, bound together in the newly formed "Bound" occupied the central territories of the Mascyllary peninsula, except Aldia and part of the Kreshitian States. Lehpold was the site of the famous meeting of 26 October 1787 between Franz Kolnhern and King Lukas I, in which Kolnher shook Lukas' hand and hailed him as King of Mascylla; thus, Kolnher sacrificed republican hopes for the sake of Mascyllary unity under a monarchy. Lukas agreed to include Kolnher's Southern Mascylla allowing it to join the union with the Bound in 1789.
Meanwhile, Leiden, attracted by the possibility, attacked Brunshoten, and eventually overtook it, completely annexing it and ripping it from the Realm. The most western countries of the realm, due to their high rural population and economic incompetence, stayed quiet during the war and then fully dissolved the agreements with any other Mascyllary state. They merged together into one state, today known as Dosceriche. Various battles and the slow disintigration of its monarchial power, Adwhin slowly lost its grip and lost territory, until a famine in 1792 led to the collapse of all fronts. Pressured by its enemies, it finally collapsed into its duchies, after nationalists assasinated King Theodor. This allowed the governments to declare a united Mascyllary kingdom on 23 May 1793. Lukas I and Linda I then became the first king and queen of a united Mascylla, and the capital was moved to the new founded city of Königsreh.
In 1800, Lukas I allied with the remaining states within the Realm during the Shore War, waging against Vynozhian raiders along the coast of Warnowen and the nation of Burhurdt which allowed Mascylla to annex the rest of Warnowen and the left states. Finally, in 1800, as Vynozhia abandoned its garrisons in Mascylla during the disastrous Vyno-Mascyllary War to keep the large Mascyllary Army at bay, the Mascyllary rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the rest of the realm. Mascyllary unification was completed and shortly afterward the new nation's capital was moved to newly built Königsreh. After the unification, Lukas I, Linda I, Kolnher and Stenreck have been referred to as Mascylla's Parents.
In the earliest years after its unification, Mascylla largely concentrated its resources and attention on improving living standards and general infrastructure in the more rural north and west, while first beginnings of the Industrial Revolution took place in Asura. Areas were tried to be given a proper road and rail network, as it would unlock yet untouched natural resources in the vast moutain ranges of the southern west. Quickly new cities and administrative regions were edtablished, witnessing a wake of national migration across the new country, with most finding new luck in the mountains, while farmers of the central and east enveloped cities, growing city population between 1811 and 1815 as fast as in the previous hundred years. Economic reformation saw a fluctuation of first small manufacturers, and with the introduction to the steam engine, factory businesses. In the mindset of many Mascyllary, the epoch is intrinsically linked with King Lukas I and Chancellor Stenreck, but it did not end with them (in 1839) but continued well into the reign of King Lukas II. It was a Golden Age for Mascylla in which the disasters of the War of the Five Kings and the previous internal wars were remedied, and the country competed internationally on a continent-class level in the domains of science, technology, industry and commerce. This was the time when particularly the Mascyllary middle class rapidly increased their standard of living, buying modern furniture, kitchen fittings and household machines.
The social effects of Industrialization were the same as in other Asuran nations: Increased agricultural efficiency and introduction of new agricultural machines led to a polarized distribution of income in the countryside. The landowners won out to the disadvantage of the agrarian unpropertied workforce. Emigration, most of all to Vestrim, and urbanization were a consequence. An unexpected population explosion boosted the nation's population from around 10 million in 1790 to 14 million in 1820, most notably experienced in major cities such as Langquaid, Flussmund, Ankstedt and foremost Königsreh, where construction of new living quartiers couldn't manage the huge number of its citizens.
In the rapidly growing industrial cities, new workers' dwellings were erected, lacking in comfort by today's standards but also criticized as unhealthy by physicians of the time: "without light, air and sun", quite contrary to the then prevailing ideas on town planning. The dark, cramped flats took a large part of the blame for the marked increase in tuberculosis, which spread also to wealthier neighborhoods.
Nevertheless, the working class also saw improvements of living standards and other conditions, such as social security through laws on workers' health insurance and accident insurance introduced by Stenreck in 1827, and in the long run also through the foundation of a Social Democracy that would remain the model for the Asuran sister parties. Even today the model of social care developed by Stenreck in 1827 (Reichsversicherungsordnung) remains the contractual basis for health insurance in Mascylla. During that time, citizens increasingly influenced cultural development, such as beginning of the classical liberal epoch, even when the political demands of the time were only partially met. The Industrialisation also posed aesthetic and artistic challenges, above all in the field of architecture and craftmanship, through developing of existing forms, rather than innovation as such. Art was heavily influenced by this time, mainly due to the rather grim daily life of the worker class and the pollution, which seemingly engulfed the cities. Paintings were given a more darker colour shading, and were more realistic in every aspect, from shadowing to proportions of bodies and faces.
The rise of Mascyllary imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the scramble for Vestrim, Rennekka, and Majula during which enterprising Mascyllary individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other already established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs. With the Mascyllary joining the race for the last uncharted territories in the continents and the Columbian that had not yet been carved up, competition for colonies thus involved major Asuran nations, and several lesser powers. The Mascyllary effort included the first commercial enterprises in the 1820s and 1830s in West Rennekka, West Majula, the Taino Islands and the unexplored north-west of Renekka with adjacent islands. Mascyllary traders and merchants began to establish themselves in the Rennekkan Inguiu delta and the mainland coast across from Tainoa. At those islands and the settlements Goldbucht, Westhafen and the islands Itchela and Neu-Halstein, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. Large Rennekkan inland acquisitions followed — mostly to the detriment of native inhabitants. In northern Rennekka however one tribe or likely an alliance of tribes resisted the colonisation. Known as the Irunguya Tribe, they attacked ships and small settlements, before it escalated into full war after massacres committed by both sites.
Now known as the "Inguiu War", this conflift would go on for two another years, before the last settlement, Sankt Augustin was burned down by the tribes and retrieved soldiers left Renekka. This ended colonisation attempts in Renekka, quickly devastating dreams of a colonial empire.
In that time, two smaller islands were settled off the shores of today Vidoria, Theresa and Phemlia, named after influential figures of Mascyllary history, which served as trading outposts, tourist destinations, and naval bases. In the midst of the Opal Ocean, the Dureme island chain was bought in diplomatic discussions from the Asfârum Republic and colonised. Furthermore, the city of Asfârum itself and its surrounding coast was invaded and annexed by Mascylla and reconfigured as a colonial protectorate and would remain under colonial rule up to 1944, when Sematiya following the end of the Second Crown Civil War annexed a huge portion of the colony, leaving its western coastline to Mascylla. In the same treaty the colony of Dureme was reduced to its southern island, Saldure Island, and southern peninsula of Dureme Island. In addition, Mascylla also aquired a colonial posession in today Ashihara, where it would remain under control until bloody revolts and a civil war in Ashihara would lead to the release of the colony in 1968.
The imperialist and “man-of-action” Karl Peters accumulated vast tracts of land for his colonization group, "emerging from the bush with X-marks [affixed by unlettered tribal chiefs] on documents ... for some 60 thousand square miles of the Native Vestric mainland property" Such exploratory missions required security measures that could be solved with small private, armed contingents recruited mainly in Mascylla and usually led by adventurous former military personnel of lower rank.
Brutality, hanging and flogging were strictly forbidden during these expeditions, as those could spark rebellions on Mascylla's one posession, as well as others as no-one "held a monopoly in the mistreatment of Natives", especially after the mistakes taken in Inguien.
As Stenreck was converted to the colonial idea by 1834, he favored "chartered company" land management rather than establishment of colonial government due to financial considerations. Although temperate zone cultivation flourished, the demise and often failure of tropical low-land enterprises contributed to changing Stenreck’s view. He reluctantly acquiesced to please for help to deal with revolts and armed hostilities by often powerful rulers whose lucrative trading activities seemed at risk. Mascyllary natives initially engaged in dozens of cultural expeditions to sustain the layes put culture of the islands, sucessfully avoiding revolts rising, at times with Leidense assistance. The author Charles Miller offers the theory that the Mascyllary had the handicap of trying to colonize Vestric areas inhabited by passive tribes, whereas their colonial neighbours had more aggressive peoples to contend with. At that time, the Mascyllary penchant for giving patience priority over muscle contributed to continued peace. Several of the Vestric, Rennekkan and Majulan colonies remained reliable autonomous parts of the country throughout this phase and beyond. The transition to official acceptance of federalism and to a local government thus occurred during the last quarter of Stenreck’s tenure of office. Other Prime Ministers followed this policy, which allowed indigenous people to run for political offices, leading to a major shift in Asuran politics. Other countries would follow this model, entering a by many described, new liberal era for Aeia.
The island group of Tainoa was the first established colony of Mascylla after its unification in 1793, although attempts of Adwhin reaching the Columbian remained blocked by other colonising participants earlier. The three main islands and clusters of other were inhabited by indigenous Columbian peoples, known to them as the Taino. First contact happened in the most populous city of the islands, Abacey, on the name-giving island, where Admiral Wilhelm Koch, leading his three ships, encountered fishing men and sailors of the Taino in 1826. As such encounters with indigenous people of their territories had already happened with other nations, it was previously passed by law in Königsreh in 1811, that no mistreatment or harm should influence relations between colonisers and the inhabitants. As such, the first meeting went peacefully, with enriched presents given to the Mascyllary sailors and first diplomatic discussions made. However, vocal contact was largely inpossible, until a Taino, Pihe, was able to learn Alemannic and served as translator for both sides.
In the coming weeks, more ships and people would arrive, in which first conflicts emerged between the Taino and the Mascyllary. This tension led to the signing of the Treaty of Abaqey in 1839, in which land disputes were solved, the Taino culture and language acknowledged as "civilised" and accepted in Mascylla, political affairs handled, and health protection introduced, which helped to protect Taino from diseases brought to Tainoa. The treaty was signed by the highest ranking chief on Tainoa, Alyacuype, and Prime Minister Stenreck on April 23rd. Since, the treaty remained the supreme document on Taino affairs, which was also implemented in the Mascyllary and Taino constitution after being drafted, and still maintains a unique status as one of the few documents with the same judicial impact as the Constitution.
Nevertheless, the country heavily urbanised and prospered with the introduction of roads, better living conditions, electricity and improved health. A new political system, voted by the populous to be a tribal constitutional monarchy, was created to govern Tainoa in 1850 as a native colonial government under the superstition of the Mascyllary. In the following decades, its culture flourished again, which attracted many artists and musicians to flock and let them be inspired by their strong cultural sense, knowledge, and lifestyle. Even though protests disturbed peace on Tainoa after the Inguiu War, it still never came to an attempt of declaring independence. With the turn of the century, many Taino imigrated to mainland Mascylla, which made them a large minority in the mainland country, with first Taino able to attend in politics following that tide. The first Taino politican elected was Moahey Telceua in 1881, which served as Prime Minster and also the first woman in that office. This development was praised by liberalists and philosophers across Asura. She was also the first person of indigenous origin holding the office of the head of government in Asura ever.
Dureme and Asfarien
Dureme, an island arc in the midst of the Opal Ocean, was occupied by the Asfârum Republic for around two centuries prior. Its original indigenous inhabitants, the Saldures, had until then been largely assimilated by their rulers, though some of it survived until today. However, following the rather successful colonisation of Tainoa, the government in Königsreh tried to project their colonial ambitions elsewhere. Quickly, Dureme was chosen as a main objective, due to its rich natural resources, its strategically important location, and already rather well established infrastructure. In 1837, Mascylla sent first diplomats to Asfârum to deal with potentially buying the islands, which narrowly failed. In a second attempt, they still denied, leaving Mascylla to take Dureme by force. In autumn first attacks by the Mascyllary navy began, and only couple of months later, Asfârum surrendered being overturned by the colonial army. The entire republic was divided into Mascyllary colonial posessions, cutting off the other Sematiyan nations from their coastlines.
Dureme and Asfârum were slowly refit into Asuran cities with electrical, hydrological, and transport infrastructure. Slavery was common in the colonies until the end of the Inguiu War in 1848, leading to changing the main economical focus of the region to the spice and jewelry trade. Pepper, salt, sugar, nutmeg, gold, diamonds, and copper were all selled and traded in the Arabekh colonies, which added to the region's enourmous wealth. By 1870, the colonies achieved a major importance in Mascylla's colonial empire. Dureme became the first Mascyllary colony to receive an airport, and many new projects followed soon after.
Asfârum however stood at the dilemma of cultural splitting. With an ever-increasing portion of its population being foreigners, the building of Western entertainment locations, and the spreading of Western culture, many native Aphrowians felt in disadvantage to the colonial population and rioted. Strikes of Sematiyan workers in 1885 led to a general blackout of trade activity in the region, which led to a huge economical breakdown. Those riots were taken down by police forces and the colonial army, which with its brutality and cruelty was critised across Asura and contributed to the strengthening discomfort with Mascyllary rule. Although these problems threatened the stability of the colonies, the rule of Ludwig I would see a dramatic change in Asfârum. Many suddenly enjoyed their colonial rule, after the new monarch established new political, economical, and especially cultural liberties for Mascyllary Arabekh. Dureme saw great improvement in terms of its industrial complex and ecosystem protection, which was critically demanded by scientists and the indigenous Salduran tribes. Following the evening of the Great War, the colonies remained one of the most improved in terms of living standards and economical strength. Like Tainoa, it received first significant political representation in Königsreh in the early 1890s.
Early contemporary Mascylla and the Great Wars (1895-1935)
Intervention in the First Great War (1895-1899)
Main article: First Great War
Mascylla remained neutral from the outbreak of the first Great War, in 1895, until late 1896 when it joined the war as a "supporting power", alongisde the Great Alliance. Previously, the Mascyllary military served to support the armies of the Grand Alliance with materials, machinery, assisting men, and other resources, until its formal declaration of war with the Concordat in November 1896 when first troops and heavy machinery was used in the war. At its height, Mascylla deployed up to 80,000 troops outside of its country in frontlines across the war. Mascyllary generals participated in the planning and coordination of vital battles arcross the continent, while soldiers were engaged in battles particularly in Beslaeros-Latkujvia and on the sea near Lhedwin. Its close proximity to member states of the Grand Alliance, Vynozhia and Tyronova, gave Mascylla the opportunity to support them with further added goods on roads, railways, and via ships. The high fatalities of trench warfare caused the loss of much of a generation of men, with lasting social effects in the nation and a notable disruption in the social order. During the Lotrič Peace Conference in 1900 following the conclusion of the war, Prime Minister Eidfisch strongly participated and contributed in Mascylla receiving reputations, which resulted in Mascylla being granted additional rights of passing the Lhedwinic Channel via naval crafts and further rights in trading fishing around and at Vestrim and Rennekka.
Interwar period (1900-1928)
Mascylla saw a radical transformation of its society resulting from the Great War, often associated with the introduction to a more equilatarian social structure. Energised self-consciousness among workers quickly built up higher participation in political affairs, like the creation of the People's Party, the Free Citizen's Party, and a higher voting population. Furthermore, the consequences of the war led to an acceleration of social reform and state control of the economy. Individual moral behavior improved, and many historians argue, that the Mascyllary society became less traditional and more evenly distributed. The Ministry of Health introduced the Haus- und Stadtplannungsakt (Housing and Town Planning Act), which reduced urban slums and built houses. The low rents were also implemented to make the act more attractive to parliament and less costly, which succeeded in the passing in 1909. Up to 88,000 houses were built in 1910, which further reduced the number of homeless people and improved living conditions. The Arbeitslosenversicherungsakt (Unemplyment Insurance Act) passed at a time of very little unemployment. It set up a system that provided 39 weeks of unemployment benefits to practically the entire civilan working population except domestic service, fam workers, and civil servants. Funded in part by weekly contributions from both employers and employed, it provided weekly payments of 15s for unemployed men and 12s for unemployed women. Historian Charles Klee calls these two laws "Socialism by the back door", and notes how surprised politicians were when the costs to the Ministry of Finances soared during the high unemployment of 1916.
Taxes rose sharply during the war and never returned to their old levels. A rich man paid 8% of his income in taxes before the war, and about a third afterwards. Much of the money went for the weekly unemployment benefits. About 5% of the national income every year was transferred from the rich to the poor. Many experts argue most people "were enjoying a richer life than any previously known in the history of the world: longer holidays, shorter hours, higher real wages." The Mascyllary economy was lackluster in the 1910s, with sharp declines and high unemployment in heavy industry and coal, especially in Weißern and Warnowen. Exports of coal and steel fell in half by 1928 and the business community was slow to adopt the new labour and management principles coming from Midrasia, such as consumer credit, eliminating surplus capacity, designing a more structured management, and using greater economies of scale. For over a century the shipping industry had dominated world trade, but it remained in the doldrums despite various stimulus efforts by the government. With the very sharp decline in world trade after 1920, its condition became critical. Minister of Finances Niklas Bulgau put Mascylla back on the gold standard in 1917, which many economists blame for the mediocre performance of the economy.
Others point to a variety of factors, including the inflationary effects of the Great War and supply-side shocks caused by reduced working hours after the war. By the late 1910s, economic performance had stabilised, but the overall situation was disappointing, for Mascylla had fallen behind Tyronova as leading Alemannic industrial power. There also remained a strong economic divide between the east and west of Mascylla during this period, with the east of Mascylla fairly prosperous by the 1920s, while parts of south Weißern and the industrial west of Mascylla became known as "distressed areas" due to particularly high rates of unemployment and poverty. Despite this, the standard of living continued to improve as local councils built new houses to let to families rehoused from outdated slums, with up to date facilities including indoor toilets, bathrooms and electric lighting now being included in the new properties. The private sector enjoyed a housebuilding boom during the 1920s.
Coal was a sick industry; the best seams were being exhausted, raising the cost. Demand fell as oil began replacing coal for fuel. The 1918 general strike was a nine-day nationwide walkout of 800 thousand railwaymen, transport workers, printers, dockers, iron workers and steelworkers supporting the 500 thousand coal miners who had been locked out by the owners. The miners had rejected the owners' demands for longer hours and reduced pay in the face of falling prices. The conservative government had provided a nine-month subsidy in 1919 but that was not enough to turn around a sick industry. To support the miners the Trades Union Congress (TUC), an umbrella organization of all trades unions, called out certain critical unions. The hope was the government would intervene to reorganize and rationalize the industry, and raise the subsidy. The conservative government had stockpiled supplies and essential services continued with middle class volunteers. All three major parties opposed the strike. The People's Party leaders did not approve and feared it would tar the party with the image of radicalism, for the communist government in Rhyzevskygrad had sent instructions for Communists to aggressively promote the strike. The general strike itself was largely non-violent, but the miners' lockout continued and there was violence in Nagern.
It was the only general strike in Mascyllary history, for TUC leaders such as Ernst Benig considered it a mistake. Most historians treat it as a singular event with few long-term consequences, but Martin Puck says it accelerated the movement of working-class voters to the People's Party which led to future gains and the declaration of the Mascyllary People's Republic.
The Handelsunion- und Handelsumgangsakt (Trade Union and Trade Treatment Act) made general strikes illegal and ended the automatic payment of union members to the People's Party. That act was largely repealed in 1945. The coal industry, used up the more accessible coal as costs rose output fell from 567 million tons in 1924 to 83 million in 1945. The socialdemocratic government nationalised the mines in 1947.
Mascylla also suffered from growing paranoia towards communist and fascist organisations. After the Great War, many monarchies in Asura, following economic or political fragemntation and instability, collpased, resulting in various civil wars and revolutions, which was feared to potentially happen to the Mascyllary monarchy too. Current monarch Ludwig II began promoting the Social Democrats in political affairs, which was condemned by parliament and later on sparked the "Constitutional Crisis of 1935", in which the monarch was accused of interferring in legislatory politics too heavily. Nevertheless, the Social Democrats resisted the ever-growing popularity of the People's Party and the National Alliance with propaganda and evoking paranoia. Many people saw discomfort with the political atmosphere, which weakened all political parties, as they could have been in secret alliance to communist or fascist contacts. A revolution on behalf of ending Mascylla's monarchy was viewed as the most dangerous scenario, and with it, hundreds of members of suspected parties were inprisoned, a shock for a majority of the population. Ludwig II intervened with police forces in mass meetings, party elections, removed fascist and communist symboles, and even tried to ban political parties not in coherence to his political vision, which was however declared unconstitutional by the High Court.
However, the Aeian Socialist Union tried to intervene in Mascylla's troubled politics, which was prohibited by military activity at the borderline. Military operations in the White Sea increased and confrontations between both factions further escalated. At that time, discussions began with Midrasia and fellow Asuran nations, which were plagued by riots too, on a potential cooperation in the dealing of fascist and communist ideals threatening national sovereignity. However, political distrust, economic recession, and the wild acting of Ludwig II would just spark the First Crown Civil War as an exposion of all factors coming together.
Intervention in the Second Great War (1928-1934)
Great Depression of 1935
The Great Depression originated in western Asura in late 1935 after the end of the second Great War and quickly spread to the world. Mascylla had never experienced the boom that had characterized Midrasia, Aquidneck, tir Lheraidd and Cuirpthe in the 1920s, so its bust appeared less severe. Mascylla's world trade fell in half (1935–39), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors. At the depth in summer 1938, registered unemployed numbered 1.1 million, and many more had only part-time employment. Experts tried to remain optimistic. Johann Maigherd, who had not predicted the slump, said, "'There will be no serious direct consequences in Königsreh. We find the look ahead decidedly encouraging." Doomsayers on the left such as Sidneck and Beatrice Netz, J. A. Hobsohn, and G. D. H. Colgge repeated the dire warnings they had been making for years about the imminent death of capitalism, only now far more people paid attention. Starting in 1940 the Left Book Club provided a new warning every month, and built up the credibility of Vynozhian-style socialism as an alternative. Particularly hardest hit by economic problems were the west of Mascylla, Weißern, Hochalden and Nagern; unemployment reached 70% in some areas at the start of 1938 (with more than 3 million out of work nationally) and many families depended entirely on payments from local government. In 1940, by which time unemployment was lower, 200 unemployed men made a highly publicized march from Augusthal to Königsreh in a bid to show the plight of the industrial poor. Although much romanticized by the Left, the Augusthal Crusade marked a deep split in the People's Party and resulted in no government action. Unemployment remained high until the Cold War absorbed all the job seekers.
Cold War (1935-1981)
Crown Civil Wars and Enst Mascylla (1942-1944)
Main article: Mascyllary People's Republic
The fascist agitations that followed the recession of the Great Depression in 1935 inspired by the weakening of democratic and monarchial states, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Mascylla. The liberal establishment, fearing a Fascist-style revolution, started to endorse the small People's Party, led by Philipp Enst. In October 1942 the Redshirts of the People's Party attempted a coup (the "March on Königsreh") which failed but at the last minute, the military refused to accept orders made by the current king, which led to the assasination of Ludwig II in his summer residence. Enst, with his pragmatic and enthusiastic skills as speaker, was appointed as prime minister. Over the next year, Enst banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These actions attracted international attention and eventually led to a diplomatic crisis.
In 1943, Enst invaded northern Rennekka and founded the Mascyllary Rennekka, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Mascylla's withdrawal from any democratic organisation; Mascylla allied with the Asuran Socialist Union, as it was strongly supported by the neigbouring country. Meanwhile, the loyalist army, the surviving members of the royal family, and any civilians who managed to flee the country, were evacuated to Tainoa, other dependencies or the neighbouring country of Tudonia. Known as the "Orphan's Flew", they managed to capture a sizable portion of the existing fleet, and regrouped in Abaquey as a provisional government. After its establishment, the government built an exceptional network of contacts in democratic government around the globe, in which they mostly agreed to support Mascylla via materials and support forces. Enst Mascylla also tried to mainly withstand the desire of the colonies to declare their independences. The kingdom in Sematiya then, in co-operation with the monarchistic Mascylla on Taino, declared war on Mascylla as not recognising it as the legitimate successor state and finally being able to gain Mascylla's colonies in Asfârum and Dureme. The war would eventually halt and both factions were able to sign a peace deal, which defined today's borders in the island group and the mainland colony. Sematiya would reamin reistant in the final peace negotiations in Sigairen, keeping its aquisitions on disadvantage of the Mascyllary monarchy.
An Allied invasion of Fahnicht began in July 1944, leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Enst on 25 July. Enst was deposed and arrested by order of not-yet Queen Theresa I in co-operation with members of the Grand Council of Fascism, who lost faith in him for having led Mascylla to ruin by allying with the ASU. On 8 September, Mascylla signed the Armistice of Pfebst, ending its war with the Allies. The ASU helped by the Mascyllary communists shortly succeeded in taking control of southern and far eastern Mascylla. The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, as the Allies were slowly moving up from the north. In the south, the ASU set up the Mascyllary Social Republic (MSI), a communist puppet state with Enst installed as leader after he was rescued by ASU paratroopers. The post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-communist resistance movement, the Widerstand. In late September 1944, with total defeat looming, Enst attempted to escape south, but was captured and summarly executed in Königsreh by furious civilians and partisans. His body was then taken to the Reichsrat, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise. Hostilities ended on 29 September 1944, when the ASU forces in Mascylla surrendered. Nearly a million Mascyllary (including civilians) died in the conflict, much of its original colonial territoriy lost, and the Mascyllary economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.
The post-war years were a time of hardship, shortages and social instability. This was followed by large-scale public works programmes, economic recovery, Asuran integration and the gradual re-introduction of a welfare state. In the decisive naval landing at Seebronn, the surviving members of the Royal Family, led by Princess Theresa, finally returned to Mascylla after two years in-exile. Their recovery as rulers of Mascylla was finally archieved, when the last troops defended Königsreh, but where starved out by the loyalist forces. Theresa was crowned Queen Empress in the roughly restored Cathedral, naming it the "Coronation in the Ruin". She recovered the royal houses and re-established the constitution, government departments, and household. Her actions and efforts gave her the nickname and title of "the only true man in the Mascyllary government".
Immediately after the war, rationing was imposed on many goods, including: cigarettes, textiles, washing powder and coffee. Even traditional wooden shoes were rationed. There was severe housing shortages in Mascylla as a result of the war. In the later 1940s, there was mass emigration, especially to Tudonia, Tainoa and Leiden. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some 500,000 Mascyllary people to leave the urban areas or the country after the war. Post-war politics saw shifting coalition governments. The 1945 Parliamentary elections saw the Social Democratic Party (SDP) emerge as the largest party, just ahead of the Free Citizen's Bound (BfB). The National Democrats experienced a devastating low participation, as nationalistic beliefs were seen as "poisonous" after the ultra-nationalistic government was experienced. Mahey Quiqecya formed a new coalition cabinet. The west Asuran states began providing economic assistance as part of the Quiqecya Plan in 1946 that injected valuable funds into the economy, fostered modernisation of business, and encouraged economic cooperation. The 1943 elections on Tainoa led to a new coalition led by Social Democrats' Mahey Quiqecya. He led four successive cabinets Quiqecya I, Quiqecya II, Quiqecya III and Quiqecya IV until 1960. His tenure in office of the Prime Minister saw four major political developments: the traumas of decolonisation, economic reconstruction, the re-establishment of the Mascyllary welfare state, and international integration and co-operation, especially against the Aeian Socialist Union.
Economic reconstruction and development
Despite the socio-economic problems, this was a period of optimism for many. A baby boom followed the war, as young Mascyllary couples started the families they couldn't previously due to the war. They had lived through the hardships of the Great Depression and the hell of war. They wanted to start afresh and live better lives without the poverty, starvation, terror, and extreme frugality they knew so well. They had little taste for a strictly imposed rule-oriented traditional system with its rigid hierarchies, sharp pillarised boundaries and strictly orthodox religious doctrines. The translation of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), by Newreyan pediatrician Benjamin Spock was a best-seller. His vision of family life as companionate, permissive, enjoyable and even as being fun took hold, and seemed the best way to achieve family happiness in a dawning age of freedom and prosperity.
Wages were kept low and the recovery of consumption to pre-war levels was delayed to permit rapid rebuilding of the infrastructure. In the years after the war, unemployment fell and the economy grew at an astonishing pace, despite the high birth rate. The shattered infrastructure and destroyed cities were rebuilt. A key contribution to the recovery in the post-war Netherlands came from the Quiqecya Plan, which provided the country with funds, goods, raw materials and produce. Mascyllary became internationally active again. Mascyllary corporations, particularly Jennssen and Schelwinn, became internationally prominent. Businesspeople, scientists, engineers and artists from Mascylla made important international contributions. For example, Mascyllary economists, especially John Tinkbergen (1903–1994), Felix Magern (1910–1985) and Matthias Belgerdorf (1924–2000), made major contributions to the mathematical and statistical methodology known as econometrics. Across Alemannia the period from 1973-81 marked the end of the booming economy of the 1960s. Mascylla also experienced years of negative growth after that. Unemployment increased steadily, causing rapid growth in social-security expenditures. Inflation reached double digits; government surpluses disappeared. On the positive side, rich natural gas resources were developed, providing a current account trade surplus during most of the period. Public deficits were high. According to the long-term economic analysis of Horlings and Smits, the major gains in the Mascyllary economy were concentrated between 1870-1930 and between 1950–70. Rates were much lower in 1930–45 and after 1987.
Relations with the ASU and "Iron Curtain"
Following the Second Great War and the Great Depression of 1935, most western Asuran nations regarded the ASU seemingly as a potential threat to their sovereignity and democratic values, which were undermined by the communist police state of their opponents in the East. Mascylla, still weakened by economic recession and the recent political overthrows, joined the West in order for it to achieve long-term sovereignity and protection from the ASU. Military alliances and extensive diplomatic relations were begun to be forged with Asura's largest military powers such as Midrasia, Aquidneck, and tir Lhaeraidd, which refitted Mascylla's economy due to their cooperation, and enabled its military to boost capacities and manpower. By now, Mascylla's standing army had been quadrupled to 300,000 men, despite population and previous military losses in the Crown Civil Wars. They were now all ligned up at the only land border near Südhafen, which brought tensions between both factions. These actions and the outlawing of larger communist parties in federal government worsened relations between Königsreh and Rhyzevskygrad greatly.
With multiple nations, including Mascylla, joining the Drago Entente in the 1950s to avoid military conflict with the ASU, the by many politicians referred "Iron Curtain" had already divided Asura from the Gulf of Alemannia to the Asur Sea and separated Alemannia from the remaining continent. Asura would now be divided along the Drago Entente and Asuran Economic Community (the Western Bloc), and the Aeian Socialist Union and their satellite states (the Eastern Bloc) for more than four decades. Large defensive installations such as concrete walls, fences, minefields, army stations, and other measurements of border security, aswell as seamines near naval borders between the DE and the ASU had manifested the Iron Curtain as a real construct. Tudonia, Kavaleriland, Gaussland-Nulvia, and all AE member states in West Asura followed this principle, which uniformed the border across the continent. Families, which lived on the opposite side of the border, economical ties, traffic connections, trade routes, and other were now separated for decades, contact with people across the Iron Curtain remained impossible, and escape attempts while crossing the border from East to West was largely surpressed by the ASU government respectively.
ASU Civil War (1977-1981)
Post-Cold War (1981-present)
After the fall of the Aeian Socialist Union and the end of the Cold War potential menaces to mainland Mascylla appeared considerably reduced. Mascylla began reducing its nuclear capacities, such as ending nuclear weapons research and further construction of nuclear power plants, and conscription was abolished following no further need and lack of participation in 2005. It established its own space agency after taking responsibility of the ASU rocket techology during their civil war, and since then was able to conduct a series of manned spaceflights, building a space station, and actively participating in international efforts in Aeia orbit such as the Ceithe and Columbian Space Station. Mascyllary intervention in wars and other conflicts decreased in the years following the Cold War, and diplomatic actions were merely cut down to peace negotiations and political representation. However, since it received the observer status in the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and a member status in the Drago Entente during the Cold War, it established close ties to west Asuran nations. Mascylla also stayed in the Drago Entente in order to maintain good relations with tzhe rest 0of Asura aswell as a safeguarding force against Vynozhia and Veskoslovia. Cooperation in manners of diplomatic work, a common economy, and joint-military actions in the turn of the century remained a key part to Mascyllary foreign policy.
In 2000, Mascylla ratified its observer status for the Aeian Community in Berghelling, which made Mascylla a global political figure. It also promoted first cooperation between the recently established nations and surviving communist countries such as Veleaz and Dreyvisevich. Vynozhia, the so successor state of the ASU, however remained a key enemy to Mascyllary sovereignity, topped with the closing of its embassy in early 2000 following military accidents and confrontations. Relations alienated with the sinking of a Mascyllary destroyer by a Vynozhian submarine, which accidently misidentified the vessel as a training target. This accident, the "Lehberg Crisis", almost led to war, if not for the ambassadors of the other members of the CDN advising Mascylla not to provoke a new Great War. Since then, relations with Vynozhia remained soured.
In 2015, King Lukas III died of a stroke, which led to her heir, Lyanna I, a progressive and liberal educated woman, to assume the office of monarch. This shift saw one of the largest changes to Mascyllary political affairs in history, as differences from a traditional and authoritarian policy to a more democratic one was strongle resembled in the treatment of foreign nations and the populous. Most notably, 2016 was the year where most citizens felt satisfied with their government in history. Relations with the Taino improved greatly in this decade too. More Taino received voting, cultural, and political rights. This was exposed with the election of three Taino into the Mascyllary Cabinet in 2015 alone. This year also saw the establishment of a number of new educative, economical, political, and racial guidelines, which solidifed Mascylla's development after smaller skirmishes in Tainoa and Irsadic minorities demanding further representation. Terrorism also grew worsened following the hijacking of Lufthanse Flight 2980 in 2011 and the death of every 102 passengers by Irsadic terrorists, which worsened relations with the Irsadic World and almost risked a conflict in Dayganistan. Following this crisis, Mascylla was still able to maintain their status as a respected power despite its since the Cold War increased neutral position.
Situated in Northeastern Asura, Mascylla lies east of the Gulf of Alemannia, south of the Leidense Channel and west of the White Sea, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Alemannic Peninsula. To the southwest lies the White Alemannic mountain chain (Weißhauptgebirge), a range that partly separates Mascylla from Tudonia. Leiden is located to its north with Brunschoten. Soleanna is separated from Mascylla with dense forests and rivers. It has maritime borders with Leiden, Vynozhia, and Dosceriche. Its border with Vynozhia, via its small enclaves on the other side of the Delchse river, is the shortest state border within Alemannia and borders with Tudonia and Dosceriche being one of the longest. Mascylla's Tainoa lies between Columbian islands situated in the southern border of the Colombian Sea, with its only naval border to Vikani. Theresa and Phemlia, a hilly island archipelago, are situated east of the northern tip of Rennekka, while Dureme with its mountainous two islands lies a few thousand kilometres west of Arabekh. Asfarien, which is enveloped by lager plain fields and hilly backlands, lies south of Asfârum in Biladia along its coastline. In Mascylla, the Upper Lanne Plain divides the mountain ranges in the west of the country, where the Lanne flows. This tectonic rift valley, once active, defines a great portion of western geography, with various volcanic structures and rare earthquakes occuring.
At 338,424 km2 (103,666 sq mi), Mascylla is the xth-largest country in the world, the xth-largest country entirely in Asura, and the third largest in Alemannia. The lowest elevation in Mascylla is in the bay of Lake Tunreyer, near Butzow, at −2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level, and the highest point being the Schneespeer at 2,711 m (8,894 ft) above sea level in mainland Mascylla and the Taepenu at 3,502 m (11,489 ft) on Tainoa.
Mascylla has eighteen provinces or Reichsländer, based on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve no higher political or administrative purpose, other than the function of the monarchist system within the country, they play an important role in people's self-identity. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, the northern Nordland, the central Flussland and southern Bergland. The densely populated Nordland encompasses around 20% of the country, the most populated area of Flussland up to 30%, and the majorily sparsely area of Bergland with almost 50%. Mascylla also has the Wildenfällen Nature Reserve, one of the largest protected areas in Asura, totaling 562,772 ha (approx. 5,628 km2).
Mascylla lies thinnly south of the Arctic Circle. Southern Mascylla is predominantly industrial and ruralised, with evenly distributed forest coverage across the country, and around 61% of Mascylla's total land area covered with forests. The highest population density is in the Kronland Region in central Mascylla, along the eastern coast up to central Thalien, and in the valley of Lake Robert up south, Lake Großblau up north, and Königsreh. Tuamole, Qahela, and Halstein are Mascylla's largest islands; Lake Spechtern, Lake Großblau and Lake Amsen are its largest lakes. Lake Spechtern is the third largest in Alemannia, after Lake x and Lake x in Tyronova. Combined with the fourth and fifth largest lakes, Lake Hohner and Lake Brenster, these lakes take up a significant part of Mascylla's area. Mascylla's extensive waterway availability throughout the central and north was exploited with the building of the Kohnig Canal in the 19th century, shortening the potential distance between the Leidense Channel north of Greishof and Pereuth by using the lake and river network to facilitate the canal, leading up to Flussmund at the White Sea.
Most of Mascylla has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the central area is usually weak and is only manifested through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter. The country can be divided into three types of climate: the northern- and westernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the southernmost part has a subarctic climate due to its elevation. However, Mascylla is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the canalized warm winds from the south and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Aeia's rotation. Continental north-coasts (to which all of Alemannia belongs, as the eastern- and northernmost part of the Asuran continent), are notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e.g. the Mascyllary cities of Pereuth and Ihleburg with each other, the winter in north coast Pereuth is much milder; also, for example, central and northern Mascylla has much milder winters than many parts of Vynozhia, Nordhurlant, and northern Svandal. Because of its high latitude, the length of daylight varies notably. Just a bit south of the Arctic Circle, the sun never really sets for part of each summer, and it never rises really for part of each winter. In the capital, King's Deer, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 10 hours in late December. Mascylla receives between 1,100 and 1,900 hours of sunshine annually. During July there is not much difference in temperature between the north and south of the country. With the exception of in the mountains, the whole country has a July-average temperature within the range of +15.0 °C to +17.5 °C (a difference of 2.5 degrees), while the January-average temperatures vary from freezing point down to below −15 °C along the border with Leiden and Dosceriche (a difference of 15 degrees).
The highest temperature ever recorded in Mascylla was 38 °C (100 °F) in Abaqey in 1947, while the coldest temperature ever recorded was −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) in Rechtlingshausen in 1966. Temperatures expected in Mascylla are heavily influenced by the large Alemannic landmass, as well as continental Asura and western Vynozhia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Mascylla. That in turn renders most of Mascylla's central areas having warmer summers than almost everywhere in the nearby Gulf of Alemannia, even matching temperatures found along the continental Opal coast as far south as in northern tir Lhaeraidd. In winter however the same high-pressure systems sometimes puts the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation from the Opal which renders the Mascyllary continental climate less severe than that of nearby Vynozhia. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudal differences. This is due to the north being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider White Sea and the Opal air passing over lowland areas from the west.
Apart from the ice-free Opal bringing marine air into Mascylla's tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the north of the country due to the abundant cloud cover. By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is that the coldest ever month (January 1987) in Königsreh was also the sunniest January month on record.
The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. When hot continental air hits the country, the long days and short nights frequently bring temperatures up to 30 °C (86 °F) or above even in coastal areas. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Coastal areas can see so-called tropical nights above 20 °C (68 °F) occur due to the moderating sea influence during warmer summers. Summers can be cool, especially in the north of the country. Transitional seasons are normally quite extensive and the four-season climate applies to most of Mascylla's territory, except in parts of Laurenz where some years do not record a meteorological winter or in the high Weißern mountains where polar microclimates exist.
On average, most of Mascylla receives between 500 and 800 mm (20 and 31 in) of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the global average. The north-western and central-eastern part of the country receives more precipitation, between 1,000 and 1,200 mm (39 and 47 in), and some mountain areas in the south are estimated to receive up to 2,000 mm (79 in). Despite northerly locations, northern and central Mascylla may have almost no snow in some winters. Most of Mascylla is located in the rain shadow of the Alemannic Mountains through Tudonia and south-west Mascylla. The blocking of cool and wet air in summer as well as the greater landmass leads to warm and dry summers far north and east in the country, with quite warm summers at the Laurenz Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.
|Record high °C (°F)||5.9
|Average high °C (°F)||1.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||39.2
|Avg. precipitation days||16||12||9||13||8||11||15||16||14||16||17||18||165|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||47||70||163||211||238||253||232||200||167||100||46||33||1,758|
|Source: Crowned National Agency of Meteorology|
The northern and eastern coastlines of the country lie in the North Alemannic Plain, with flat terrain crossed by northward and eastward-flowing watercourses such as the Blaugold, Donbahr, Regretz, or the Melck. Wetlands and marshy conditions are found close to the Burhurdt border and along the Lorenzian coast. The central area of the country in the has many larger glacier-formed lakes dating to the last glacial period around 12,000 years ago. Moving west, central Mascylla features rough and somewhat patternless hilly and mountainous countryside, on three axies moving eastward, some of it formed by ancient volcanic activity, but most created when the last glacial ice fragments carved out the area, as they slided down the plateau. The Lanne valley cuts through the western part of this region. The central uplands continue east and north as far as Bunschoten and merge with the Hohnern Mountains on the border with Kavalerilant. Upland regions include the Weißhaupt, Hohnern and Tehgaß Forest west of the Lanne, the Kedtel hills north of Wilhelmshagen, the Vogelsberg massif, the Speer and the Eystruner Wald. Around Königsreh, the east-central part of the country is more like the low coastal areas, with sandy soil and river wetlands such as the Blauewald region.
Western Mascylla's landforms are defined by various linear hill and mountain ranges like the two adjacent ranges of the Behrder and Dorathean Alb (reaching approximately from the source of the Lanne in the northeast of Tudonia, across Behrdia into Central Doratheen and to the valley of the river Perea) and the Tehgaß Forest along the border between Weißern and Soleanna. The Weißhaupt on the southern border to Tudonia and extending to the centre, are the highest mountains, with relatively most Weißhauptine terrain lies within Mascylla (in southeastern Doratheen and the whole of Weißern) compared to Tudonia and Kavalerilant. The Behrder Forest, on the western border with Soleanna, separates the Lanne from the headwaters of the Blaugold on its eastern slopes.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Alemannia. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wolves, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Alemannic beaver. The blue cornflower is a famous Mascyllary national symbol.
The 16 national parks in Mascylla include the Jasminen National Park, the Halsteiner Lagoon Area National Park, the Großblau National Park, the Tedden Sea National Parks, the Hohrest National Park, the Hainich National Park, the White Forest National Park, the Nieweil National Park, the Golden Forest National Park and the Buchteswärden National Park. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Mascylla, which is believed to be the largest number in any Asuran country. The Königsreh Zoo, opened in 1844, is the oldest zoo in Mascylla, and presents the most comprehensive collection of species on the continent.
Mascylla has a considerable south to north distance, which causes large climatic difference, especially during the winter. The related matter of the length and strength of the four seasons plays a role in which plants that naturally can grow at various places. Mascylla is divided in five major vegetation zones. These are the northern deciduous forest zone, the northern coniferous forest zone, the southern coniferous forest zone, or the Taiga, the alpine-birch zone, and the bare mountain zone.
- The northern deciduous forest zone: Also known as the nemoral region, the northern deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also includes large parts of northern Soleanna. It has to a certain degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist. The region is characterised by a large wealth of trees and shrubs. The beech are the most dominant tree, but oaks can also form larger forests. Elm formes forests primarily along the coast, due to its need for ease soil, which is suited in sandy areas. Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include hornbeam, elder, hazel, fly honeysuckle, linden (lime), spindle, yew, alder buckthorn, blackthorn, aspen, Asuran rowan, Mascyllary whitebeam, juniper, Asuran holly, ivy, dogwood, goat willow, larch, bird cherry, wild cherry, maple, ash, alder along creeks, and in sandy soil birch compete with pine. Spruce is not native but between approximately 1870 and 1980 large areas were planted with it. They tend to grow quickly due to being outside of their native range and smaller to no distances between the tree rings cause poor board quality, sometimes even improving them. Later some spruce trees began to die before reaching optimal height, and many more of the coniferous trees were uprooted during cyclones. During the last 40–50 years large areas of former spruce plantings have been replanted with deciduous forest.
- The northern coniferous forest zone: Also known as the boreo-nemoral region, the northern coniferous forest zone, is delimited by the oak's northern natural limit (limes norrlandicus) and the Spruce's southern natural limit, between the northern deciduous zone and the Taiga farther south. In the northern parts of this zone the coniferous species are found, mainly spruce and pine, mixed with various deciduous trees. Birch grows largely everywhere. The beech's northern boundary crosses this zone. This is however not the case with oak and ash. Although in its natural area, also planted Spruce are common, and such woods are very dense, as the spruces can grow very tight, especially in this vegetation zone's southern areas.
- The southern coniferous forest zone: The southern coniferous forest zone begins south of the natural boundary of the oak. Of deciduous species the birch is the only one of significance. Pine and spruce are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the south and more elevated it gets. In the extreme south and high mountain ranges is it difficult to state the trees forms true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees.
- The alpine-birch forest zone: The alpine-birch zone, in the Alemannic mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of birch (Betula pubescens or B.tortuosa) can grow. Where this vegetation zone ends no trees grow at all, the bare mountain zone begins. The area makes up a really small area of Mascylla's territory, before south of the mountains, it gets warmer. The order then switches along the border to Tudonia.
Main article: Politics of Mascylla
The Crowned Republic of Mascylla is a federal, parliamentary, constitutional monarchy with a legislative democratic branch. The current political system was established after the conclusion of the War of the Five Kings, with the ratification of the peace treaty in Crowndeer in 1796. Mascylla's government and political system is operated, controlled, and checked by a fraimwork laid out in the 1796 constitutional documents known as the Krongesetz (Crown Law) and the Reichsverfassung (Constitution of the Realm). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
Main article: Government of Mascylla
In the Mascyllary government system, citizens are usually subject to three main levels of government: the Crowned, the Federal, and the People's government. The people's government furfills certain, such as the administration of any events or internal affairs inside a Duchy or territory. The federal government ensures the observation and infrastructurial and economical administration inside the covenant of duchies and other territories. They serve as the legislative representative in each state respectively. In allmost all cases, executive and legislative officials of the people's level are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The federal leaders are subject to birth right and heritage, as they represent their royal house. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The crowned government is composed of three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral Assembly, made up of the Council of the Crown (Rat der Krone) and the Parliament (Parlament), makes federal law, declares a state of war, approves treaties and proposals, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove lower sitting members of the government. Head of the legislative branch is Prime Minister Thomas Falkner (12 November 2014-present).
- Executive: The Monarch (König or Königin) is the commander-in-chief of the government and of the military, with the Councilman of Defense (Verteidigungskonsul) serving as advisor. The Monarch can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other offices, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.She has the ability to dissolve the current Council and to appoint high judges after will. Current queen residing is Lyanna I (23 May 2015-present).
- Judicial: The High National Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Monarch with National Assembly approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. Highest Judge is currently Lukas Pretschgen (2 August 2011-present)
The Council of the Crown has 12 voting members, all made up of the most important offices of the executive government, including ministers and other government officials. The highest positions include that of the Prime Minister, the Minister of the Realm and the Minister of Defense of the Realm.
The Parliament Chamber has around 400 members with each state having two senator, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The Mascyllary population minorities without a political entity each also have on senator. The Monarch serves a life-span term and may be superseded in its lifespan if he or she is unable to execute the office, or if he or her heir to the throne reaches the age of 18, so that he can take the office if the monarch wishes to abdicate. If so, the heir will be crowned as Monarch in immediate extent. The Monarch can only be exclusively a female or male from a royal house within Mascylla in person, but is able to originate from a relationship between two members of different houses.
The people's governments governments are structured in roughly the same fashion. The House Leader of each duchy is directly given the birth right. Some high judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the House Leaders of the respective duchies, while others are elected by popular vote. The island group of Tainoa however receives a sizable amount of autonomy, with being able to establish its own government and support bodies.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the party system had been dominated by the National Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla. So far every Prime Minister has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Citizen's Bound and Aurora have also played a major role. Since, the left-wing populist party Left Star, formed through the merger of two previous parties, has been a staple in the Mascyllary Reichsrat thogh they have never been part of the crowned government. In the Mascyllary federal election 1988, the center-wing liberal party Deer's Union gained enough vote to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. The original text of the Grand Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual houses and royal families. Article One protects the right of the so called Hochlebenden. The Constitution has been amended 27 times; the first ten amendments, which make up the so called Bills of Falkhall and the Fourtheenth Amendment form the central basis of Mascyllary individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the High Court in a decision handed down by Lukas I in 1804.
Political parties and elections
The National Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla have played leading roles in Mascylla politics since 1917, after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. After the 1930s, most governments have been dominated by the National and Social Democrats. Only five general elections since the Second Crown War — 1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010 — have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Reichsrat to form a government. For over 50 years, Mascylla had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Reichsrat — the Social Democrats, the National Democrats , the Free Citizen's Bound, the Liberal People's Party and Aurora — before the Deer's Union became the sixth party in the 1988 election. In the 1991 election, while the Deers lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Left Star and New Democracy. The 1994 election saw the return of the Deers and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2016 that the Deers' candidate for the office of the Prime Minister, Thomas Falkner, was elected to attend that office.
In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Mascylla bloc and won a majority of the Reichsrat seats. In the 2010 general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social and National Democrats, the Deers and the Left Party. The Alliance won a plurality of 173 seats, but remained two seats short of a 175-seat majority. Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Mascylla Democrats. The outcome of the 2014 general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Mascylla, with the two blocs receiving 159 and 141 seats respectively. The non-aligned Mascylla Democrats more than doubled their support and won the remaining 49 seats. On 3 October 2014, Stephan Löpfen formed a minority government consisting of the Social Democrats and the Deers. Election turnout in Mascylla has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout (80.11% in 2002, 81.99% in 2006, 84.63% in 2010) and 85.81 in 2014. Mascyllary politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s, However, that level of confidence has since declined steadily, and is now at a markedly lower level than in its Alemannic neighbours.
Mascylla has a civil law system based on Midrasian law with many references to Alemannic law. The Reichsverfassungsgericht (Constitutional Court of the Realm) is the High Mascyllary Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems. Mascylla's high court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Reiches , is specialised for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Court of Justice of the Realm, and for other affairs the courts responsible are the Labour Court of the Realm, the Social Court of the Realm, the Financial Court of the Realm, and the Administrative Court of the Realm. The other system is responsible for affairs between individulas and authorities, the Niederen Administrationsgerichte. They operate under a manner, until the case questions a concern of international security, if a politician is involded, or other, it is directly occupied by the High Court for further investigation.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Straftatsgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The Mascyllary penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the duchies or states.
Acoording to a governmential study in 2016, Mascylla holds low levels of criminality, such as murder, bride seekings, car theft, drug problems, burglary, and corruption, but has above-average of assaults, both sexual and racial, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. The low murder rate as of 2017 measures 0.3 murders every 100,000 residents.
Political administration and divisions
Mascylla comprises eighteen federal duchies and or states which are collectively referred to as Reichsländer and one Reichskolonie. Each state has its own constitution, its own monarch, as entitled Lord for males or Lorden for females; in Tainoa they are neutrally referred to as Alipa, with overseeing political and cultural affairs in their house homes respectively, and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organization. They maintain separate responsibilites such as organising health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions ,preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services. One of the states is consisting of just one urban area: The Crownland with the city capital of King's Deer, occupying the entire area of the municipality. The state of Halstein consists of just various islands off the shore of Schwechsen that are all separated from eachother by the many channels and bays of the White Sea eastwards. Kai'ana remains the only largely populated colony outside of Asura, consisting of three major and countless smaller islands.
Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary. For regional administrative purposes four states, namely Tainoa, Weißern, Hochalden, Ragern and Thalien, consist of a total of 21 Administrative Districts (Herrenländer), though all are also codified as "National Regions" (Reichsregionen). As of 2017 Mascylla was divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 297 rural districts and 104 urban districts. Those districts are governed by a County Governor (Landesgouverneur), appointed by the Lord or voted upon in an election.
Main article: Foreign relations of Mascylla
Throughout the 20th century, Mascyllary foreign diplomacy was based on the principle of non-alignment and neutrality in wartime. Mascylla's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war. Mascylla's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Great War in 1899. During the Second Great War Mascylla joined neither one of the factions, though it intended on accepting refugees. This has sometimes been disputes since in effect Mascylla accepted not only refugees but also political refugees and by certain nations seen criminals seeking asylum in the country, which were granted upon. Although this sparked tension between various nation and Mascylla, the crisis was quickly solved due to reprieves made by the High Court. However, Mascylla also indirectly contributed to the defence of Alemannia, and permitted the training of foreign troops within the country.
During the Cold War era, Mascylla combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence. The function of the Mascyllary military was to deter attack. At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal relations with West Asuran nations, especially in the realm of intelligence information exchange. In 1952, a Mascyllary DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Vynozhian jet fighter, while a Catalina search and rescue plane was sent out as a rescue mission was also shot down later. Other incidents like the sinking of a submarine in 1981 offshore the city of Penicke led to a diplomatic crisis between the two nations, remaining until today.
Since then, Mascylla attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved significantly in international peace efforts and in support to the Third World. As a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Mascylla playing a more active role in Asuran security co-operation, due to its small distance to Vynozhia. After the Cold War, it also seeked membership in the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and the Aeian Community, which had been granted with an observer status, in which Mascylla finds itself on geopolitics up to today. Now, the country maintains diplomatic relations with nearly all nations, with the exception of a few, and is known for its militaristic patroulling with naval ships at Tainoa in the Columbian Sea, and those within the White Sea, but also with its peaceful appearance on the world stage.
Main article: Mascyllary Armed Forces
Mascylla's military, the Reichswehr, is organised into the Heersarmee (Army and special forces HSK), the Marine (Navy), the Luftwaffe (Air Force) , the Reichswehrmedizinbasis (Reichswehr Joint Medical Services) and the Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Services) branches. In absolute terms, Mascylla military expenditure is the xth largest in the world. In 2017, military spending was at $15.9 billion, about 2.0% of the country's GDP, decreased over the manner of several decades after the end of the Cold War. As of 2017, the Reichswehr employed roughly 187,200 service members, including about 22,000 volunteers. Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defense exercises and deployment abroad. Since 1945 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction, with about 36,000 female soldiers currently on active duty.
The Mascyllary Ministry of Defence is responsible for the peactime operation of the Reichswehr. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Mascyllain the event of war. In such state of defence, the Monarch in office would become commander-in-chief of the Reichswehr. The role of the Reichswehr is described in the Constitution of Mascylla itself as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Constitutional Court of the Realm in 1995 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Mascylla, but also for crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of the country anywhere in the world. As of late 2018, the Mascyllary military has about 1,880 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 720 supporting operations in Aramas, 317 in Kavo or Araabyne, and 301 in Midrasia following Mascylla's intervention in the Triskaideka War.
Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served seven-month tours of duty; conscientious observers could instead opt for an equal length of time in the Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. Recruiting of male conscriptors had shrunk drastically, with the result of official suspension of conscription and the replacement by a voluntary service.
Main article: Economy of Mascylla
Mascylla has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a very low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the 18th largest exporter of goods, and has the second largest economy in Alemannia which is also the 30th largest by nominal GDP and the 29th one by PPP. The service sector contributes approximately 61% of the total GDP, including information technology, heavy manufacturing industry with 38%, and foodstuffs production with 1%. Mascylla's engineering sector accounts for 50 percent of output and exports, while telecommunications, consumer electronics, automobile manufacturing, beverage production, and pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Mascylla's mining exports include copper ore, iron ore, Platinum, and rare earth elements, the last two of which making up a considerable part of the entire global production of these metals. They represent a noticable part in the national economy and are selled all across the world, most of it going to technology-producing countries such as Crylante, Glanodel, Midrasia, and tir Lheraidd.
The unemployment rate published by Alemmastat amounts to around 4.1% in January 2015, which is one of the lowest rates in Alemmannia and Asura. With 7.2% Mascylla also has one of the lowest youth unemployment rate in all Asuran states. According to the National Labour Observe Mascylla has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.
Trade unions, employers' associations, and collective agreements cover a large share of employees in Mascylla. The high coverage of collective agreements is archieved despite the absence of state mechanisms extending collective agreements to whole industries and sectors. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the rate of coverage is archieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market partners themselfs) over state regulation in Mascylla's industrial relations. When the Mascyllary Gennt system was changed in 2007, resulting in considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, a substantial decline in unions density and density of unemployment funds occured. In 2010 Mascylla's income Gini coefficient was the fourth lowest among developed countries, at 0.27 — slightly higher than Glanodel and Aquidneck — suggesting Mascylla had low income inequality. However, Mascylla's wealth Gini coefficient at 0.853 was the second highest in developed countries, and above Asuran averages, suggesting high wealth inequality. Even on a disposable income basis, the geographical distribution of Gini coefficient of income inequality varies within different regions and municipalities of Mascylla. Denthern, outside of Königsreh, has Mascylla's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0.55, while Alameyc on Tainoa has the lowest at 0.25. In and around Eystrun and Kreschitien, two of the more densely populated regions of Mascylla, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.35 and 0.55.
Mascylla is part of a large Alemannic single market which represents dozens of millions of consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among the Alemannic nations and by varioous legislations within the country. Mascylla introduced its currency, the Karning, in 1823, after abolishing separate currencies inbetween its member states. Its monetary affairs are controlled and regulated by the Grand Bank of the Crowned Republic, simply said the Central Bank of the country, which is headquarted in Dockfurt, the nation's financial capital.
Mascylla maintains trade relations with approximately three dozen countries globally. Mascylla's biggest importers of its products were Tudonia (14.2%), Tyronova (11.0%), Glanodel (9.2%), and Crylante (8.3%), while Tudonia, Leiden, Tyronova, and Chokashia export most of their products to Mascylla.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, the Fortune Global 500, 9 are headquarted in Mascylla. 11 are major Mascylla-based companies are included in the MAIX, the prime Mascyllary stock market index which is operated by the Dockfurt Stock Exchanges. Well-known international branches include Benz, Koldmeier, Tesch, Borealis, Bund, Anrefall, and Schelwinn. Mascylla is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. More than 150 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled "hidden champions". Königsreh developed a thriving, cosmopolitan hub for start-up companies and became a leading location for venture funded firms in Alemannia.
In terms of structure, the Mascyllary economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector; and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Mascyllary economy. High and medium-high technology manufacturing accounts for 9.9% of the GDP. The vast majority of Mascylla's industry is privately controlled, unlike many other industrialized Western counries, and, in accordance with a historical standard, publicly owned enterprises are of minor importance.
Agriculture and food
Mascylla has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Extensive tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and modern subsidies have combined to make Mascylla one of the leading agricultural producers and exporters in Alemannia (representing 20% of Alemannia's agricultural production) and the world's fithteenth biggest exporter of agricultural products. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary Mascyllary agricultural exports. Apple Wines and Beers are primarily consumed within the country, however Beers and other liquor are major exports, being known worldwide. Governmential agriculture subsidies to Mascylla have decreased in recent years but still amounted to $6 billion in 2007. That same year, Mascylla sold 13.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. Mascylla produces rum via sugar cane-based distilleries almost all of which are located in overseas territories such as Toamequele, Theresa and Punjib. Agriculture is an important sector of Mascylla's economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agriculture-food industry made up 4.2% of Mascyllary GDP in 2005.
Although most animal foodstuffs are created by actual animals, an ever-increasing amount of flesh, milk, and eggs are manufactured in laboratories, without any living animal involved. This made Mascylla one if the first on Aeia to widely accept so called "clean meat" within its borders, after regulations by the government even promoting the consumption of such products. Most notably, Only Foods remains as the monopole company in the production of synthetic food, contracted by the government in 2016, but announced to open new markets in nearby nations.
With its north-eastern position in Asura, Mascylla is not considered a serious hub for central Asuran travel, but a key transport connection for Asura-Vynozhia/Catai travel. It also monitors most traffic and routes to Leiden via its border to Bunschoten. Like its neighbours in Eastern Asura, Mascylla's rail network is among the densest in the world. The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the eighth-largest worlwide in length and is known for the absence of a general speed limit. It measures with a length of 182,707 km and runs all over Mascylla, mostly along costal areas. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway system was finished connecting Eisspeer and Ihleburg on 17 October 2009. Mascylla had right-hand traffic from approximately 1756 and continued to do so well into the 20th century.
Mascylla has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterLandExpress or ILE network of the Gekrönte Bahn serves major Mascyllary cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph). The Mascyllary railways are subsidised by the crowned government, receiving $11.0 billion in 2014. The Königsreh metro is the largest underground train system in Mascylla and serves the city of Königsreh via 130 stations, and is privately owned, although most larger companies are still owned and financed by state. Tram lines at major cities are very common, following constructions in the mid 1970s. Most popular tram lines are built on the Christinenstraße in Königsreh and the Buchenallee in Eichlingen, and a new system is planned to be finished in Tilchingen in 2019.
The largest airports include Königsreh-Polschnitz Airport (16.1 million passengers in 2012) 19 km west of Königsreh, Flussmund-Lachsen Airport (6.9 million passengers in 2011), and Königsreh-Stadter Airport (2.0 million passengers), all three hubs of Falke, while AirBlue has hubs at Ankstedt-Löchsen and Dockfurt-Leibnitzer. The most used airport for much of the mountainous Southern Mascylla are major airports in Kavalerilant and Tudonia. The nautical Ports of Ankstedt and Seebronn also are the nation's largest harbours. Ferry connections to various neighbouring countries also establish a separate traffic system, such as ferry lines to coastal cities of Vynozhia, Leiden, Tyronova, Soleanna, and as far as Aleia. Islands of the Municipality of Halstein receive the most frequent departures, with up to 110 every day. Every coastal city in Mascylla posesses a ferry harbour station.
Infrastructure and energy
In 2008, Mascylla was the world's nineteenth-largest consumer of energy, and 20% of its primary energy was imported. In 2014, energy supply consisted of: hydrological power (53.2%), other renewable energies (11.1%), nuclear (9.1%), natural gas (20.5%), coal aand lignite (6.9%), and oil or petroleum-based substances (7.1%). The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2030. It also enforces energy conservation, green technologies, emission reduction activities, and aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 90% renewable sources by 2030 too.
Following the 1979 Great Blackout in Mascylla, the government strengthened the idea to decrease dependencies on imported fossil fuels. Since then, hydroelectric power and other renewable energy sources have begun to drastically increase in participation on national energy production. Mascylla committed to the national Eichlingen agreement and many established policies and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management, and the renewable energy commercialisation. The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world, at arounf 65%; the country's total greenhouses gas emissions being one of the lowest in Alemannia. The Mascyllary energy transition (Energiewende) is a recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of ernergy efficiency and renewable energy.
Science and technology
Main article: Mascyllary spaceflight
In the 19th century Mascylla's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from western Asura. In 1839, the Royal Mascyllary Academy of Sciences was founded follwoing the decisive Pereuth Conference, a meeting between the country's most respected, renowned, and important scientists and explorers, with people such as Carl Linnder and Andreas Kelschwiger as early members. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Gustav Dalen founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Alfred Kamretz invented cerosine, made important contributions to theories of gravity and space-time, and instituted as an advisor the Nobel Prizes. Larsen Magnall started the company bearing his name, Magnall, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Johnas Wenströmer was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with famous inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Mascyllary inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Heinz Wallenberg. Loseck, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. More recently Heinrich Lanst invented the Automatic Identification System, influenced by ancient navigating techniques used by native sailors in the Columbian Sea, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. Kai'anan inventors mainly contributed in silk production, ship building, and medicine.
Mascylla also deploys an old space agency, named the Mascyllary Aerial and Orbital Agency or MAOA for short, being introduced in the first half of the Cold War, in 1967. Founded to research rocket technology, it became a steady leader in space exploration, mainly to contribute to superior technological advancement against the ASU, and to boost means of military retaliations in case of war. Mascyllary astronauts participated in various missions of other Asuran nations, but also conducted own missions, starting from Cayle. A new rocket system was developed in the 1980s, the Falke capsule, and still remains one of the most reliable ones in current use. The agency received the general layout and previous versions of the capsule from the former space agenc of the ASU, which resembled a technoloigcal jump for Mascylla. It later deployed its first and only space station, the Ceithe, serving from 1988 to 1993, remaining abandoned in orbit until late 2016 when re-entered above Biladia. It advanced biological, technological, and scientific knowledge of the nation and Aeia, and remained one of the first multi-modular space stations and earliest attempts of international space cooperation in history.
The agency is responsible for governmential activity in space and aviation, with recent contributions to low orbit exploration and manned spaceflight. Multiple successful manned missions and landings to low Aeia orbit and landing of probes on celestial bodies represent the efficiency the agency is working with, due to a small budget and limited expertise available. Deployments of satellites, astronauts and probes, aswell as further international cooperation between other speceferring Asuran nations by Mascylla attending memebership in the Asuran Space Agency (ASA) in 1972 mainly covered the activities of the agency. Its headquarters is located in Lehpold and the main launch sites are established in Cayle, a city on Caylagua (Tainoa).
A large portion of the Mascyllary economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Mascylla have their origins in the ingenuity of Mascyllary inventors. Mascyllary inventors held 47,112 patents in Aeia in 2014, according to the Aeian Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only twenty other countries hold more patents than Mascylla. Combined, the public and the private sector in Mascylla allocate over 3.5% of GDP to research & development (R&D) per year, making Mascylla's investment in R&D as a percentage of GDP the second-highest in the world. For several decades the Mascyllary government has prioritised scientific and R&D activities. As a percentage of GDP, the Mascyllary government spends the most of any nation on research and development. Mascylla tops other Asuran countries in the number of published scientific works per capita.
Mascylla is the seventeenth most visited country in the world, with a total of 50 million overnights during 2012. This number includes 22.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Mascylla. King's Deer has become the third most visited city destination in Alemannia. Additionally, more than 30% of Mascyllar spend their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Tainoa and Thalien. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over KER23.2 billion to Mascyllary GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of Mascyllary GDP and supports 600 thousand jobs (4.8% of total employment). Mascylla is well known for its diverse tourist routes, such as the Romantic Road, the Apple Route, the Castle Road, and the Avenue Road. The Mascyllary Timber-Frame Road (Maskillische Fachwerkstraße) connects towns with examples of these structures. Tropical beaches, cultural centers and national parks on Tainoa also make up a sizable portion of the tourist attention. Mascylla's most-visited landmarks include e.g. Hochkronstein Castle, Ankstedt Cathedral, King's Deer Reichsrat, Royal Brewing Factory (Hofbräuhaus) Stadtekow, Beergarten Castle, Langquaid Zwinger, Ihleburg Tower, Haqaikea Palace and Lorenz Cathedral. The Aklece-Park near Freienburg is Alemannia's second most popular theme park resort.
The total resident population of Mascylla was 28,972,039 on 31 March 2017. The population exceeded 20 million for the first time on approximately 12 August 1894 and 25 million in the spring of 1951, according to Measure Mascylla. The population density is 22.5 people per km² (58.2 per square mile) and it is substantially higher in the north and central than in the south. About 85% of the population live in urban areas. The capital city Königsreh has a municipal population of about (with million in the urban area and million in the metropolitan area). The second- and third-largest cities are Flussmund and Dockfurt. Greater Flussmund counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Laurenz Bay, along the centraleastern coast. Greater Südhafen and Losaurach, the Kavaler-Mascyllary and Soleannan-Mascyllary cross-border regions extend even in the neighbouring nation's territory, and has a population of 4 million together. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Thalien, the northern, eastern and southeastern coast, the area around Lake Spechtern in the Flussland and the agricultural area around Eichstegen.
Bergland, which covers approximately 60% of the Mascyllary territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometre). The mountains and most of the remote areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Weißern, as well as southern and central Hohnern. An area known as Anegua, which is located in the north-east of Toamele, on Tainoa, can also be considered as almost empty of people.
Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 0.9 million Mascyllary, a tenth of the country's population, emigrated to Western Asura, and most of them to nations in neighbouring positions. There are more than 2.6 million Mascyllary Tudonians according to a 2006 Crowned Foreign Census Bureau estimate. In Soleanna, the community of Mascyllary ancestry is 330,000 strong.
There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Measure Mascylla, around 2,681,647 (13.5%) inhabitants of Mascylla were of a foreign background in 2017, defined as being born abroad or born in Mascylla with at least one parent born abroad. The most common countries of origin were Tainoa (4.70%), Vynozhia (1.49%), Tudonia (1.39%), Soleanna (0.90%), Kavalerilant (0.73%) and Dreyvisevich (0.66%).
Mascylla is a highly urbanised country, due to its mostly barren, dense, and or unpassable terrain making settlement on a large portion of the country difficult. Most metropolitan regions are centered along the coastline or the central river and lake systems. Most notably, around a quarter of the population alone live in Kreschitien, at the Laurenz Bay, and Thalien alone, making them the densest populated areas in the country. The largest city of Mascylla is Flussmund, making up a population of nearly two million people, followed by the nation's capital, Königsreh, and the city of Lehpold, comprising each about a million inhabitants. Outside of the country, the regional capitals of Tainoa and Punjib, Abaquey and Ashvata, remain the largest centers of population on their islands, respectively.
Largest cities or towns in Mascylla
Crowned Demographical Agency of Mascylla
Historically, indigenous Mascyllary people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 8th century: the Terunder, Alemannians, Lowmen, Plendwern and the Fluman. Terunder people are estimated to potentially be the oldest ethnic group in Mascylla. A 2006 genetic study shows that more than 50% of Mascylla's gene pool contains Alemannic Y chromosomes. Another 2005 genetic analysis indicates that "about 75% of the traceable ancestors of the modern Mascyllary population had arrived in the Mascyllary Basina by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the Mascyllary Neolithic Age or Stone Age, and that the Mascyllary broadly share a common ancestry with the West Asuran people. Mascylla has a history of large-scale non-white immigration, with Wilhelmshagen having the oldest Non-White population in the country dating back to at least the 1730s during the period of the colonisation of the New World. During this period it is estimated the Columbian population of Mascylla was 10,000 to 15,000 which later declined due to the abolition of the import of slaves into the Mascyllary mainland. Mascylla also has the oldest Cataian community in Alemannia, dating to the arrival of Cataian seamen in the 19th century in Mascyllary harbours, trade expeditions in the Jade Ocean and the establishment of the Mascyllary Ashihara posession in the 1840s.
In 1840 there were probably fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Mascylla, almost all born overseas. In 1842 there were an estimated 94,500 people living in Mascylla who had been born in East Catai, especially Ajerrin, Vynozhia, Majula and the Columbian, under 0.4% of the Mascyllary population. By 1860 this number had more than quadrupled to 424,000, over 2.1% of the nation's population. This migration were led by the Taino people of the island archipelago, the Rennekkan Irunguya and Inguiu People and the Native Sallendure People. Since 1944 substantial immigration from Majula, the Columbian and West Catai has been a legacy of ties forged by the vast Mascyllary trade network. Migration from Alemannic neighbouring states in Eastern Asura since 1981 has resulted in growth in these population groups, although some of this migration has been temporary. Since the 1990s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with migrants to Mascylla coming from a much wider range of countries than previous waves, which tended to involve larger numbers of migrants coming from a relatively small number of countries. Largest minorty grouos in Mascylla are: Native Tainoa, Native Sallendure, Leidense, Vynozhian, Kavaler people, Tudonian, Biladian, Soleannan, Tyronovan, Gyldenportan, Ajerrin, Ashiharan, Native Inguiu and Irunguya, and Dreyvisevichean. Today, the Taino population vastly makes up the largest portion of the ethnic minority population, with 3.62 million people identifying as Taino.
Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in Mascyllary national statistics, which were first introduced in the 1991 census, involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. In 2011, 87.2% of the Mascyllary population identified themselves as white, meaning 12.8% of the population identify themselves as of one of number of ethnic minority groups. In the 2001 census, this figure was 7.9% of the country's population. Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in Mascylla and Tainoa, data on the Other White group is not available for Mascylla as a whole, but in the Kronlande and Thalien this was the fastest growing group between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, increasing by 377,417 (1.8 percentage points). Amongst groups for which comparable data is available for all parts of the federal level, the Other Cataian category increased from 0.4 to 1.4% of the population between 2001 and 2011, while the Mixed category rose from 1.2% to 2%. Ethnic diversity varies significantly across Mascylla. 30.4% of Königsreh's population and 37.4% of Flussmund's was estimated to be non-white in 2005, whereas less than 5% of the populations of Weißern and Schwechsea were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2001 census. In 2016, 31.4% of primary and 27.9% of secondary pupils at state schools in Mascylla were members of an ethnic minority. The 1991 census was the first national census to have a question on ethnic group. In the 1991 country census 94.1% of people reported themselves as being White Mascyllary, White Asuran or White Other with 5.9% of people reporting themselves as coming from other minority groups.
Before the 15th century, Mascyllary adhered to Mascyllary paganism, worshiping Renha gods, with its centre at the Temple in Lagquaid. With slow Alydianisation in the 16th century, the laws of the country however didn't change, allowing worship of other deities up to today, making both religions the major belifs in Mascylla. After reformations made by King Lukas II in the 1860's, religious freedom was finally manifested in the country, allowing every religion to be believed on, including ones with no connection to Asuran religions, making Mascylla one of the earliest countries in Asura to do so; a variety of religions became widespread. Adoption of this law meant the abolishing of a state religion, finally ending the process of the segregation of church and state in 1869. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the Lukan Tolerance, small groups on Non-Asuran peoples, worshipping versions of their religions played a noticable role in industry and trade, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept low religious profile, often ending in hate crimes, rasicm, and sexual harrasement if misregarded, although the Reformation strictly forbidd such actions. This problem could not be solved until the dawn of the 20th century.
With religious liberalisations by Lukas II believers of other faiths, were allowed to live and work freely and to openly practice their religion, a key aspect of today Mascyllary society. However, until 1870 it remained illegal for Alydians to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various Alydianic free churches, and, secularism, leading many to distance themselfs from church rituals. Leaving the Church of Mascylla became lgal with the so-called dissenter law of 1874, but only under the provision of enetering another Alydianic denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law of Freedom of Religion in 1888. In 2016, the Church of Mascylla was disestablished. Mascylla was the second Alemannic nation during a monarchy to do so.
At the end of 2016, 61.2% of Mascyllary belonged to the Church of Mascylla; this number had been decreasing by about 1.5 percentage points a year for the last 5 yeears and one percentage point a year on average for the last two decades. Approximately 2% of the church's members regurarly attend Sunday services. The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that, until 1996, children automatically became members at birth if atleast one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, only children that are alydianised become members. Some 275,000 Mascyllary are today members of various Aldydianic free churches, and due to recent immigration, more Non-Asuran and Old Mascyllary faith members.
According to the Measure Mascylla in 2018:
- 18% of Mascyllary citizens responded that "they belive there is or are one or multiple gods".
- 45% answered that "they belive in some sort of spirit or life force".
- 34% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of god, spirit, or life force".
According to a Demoskop study in 2016 about the beliefs of the Mascyllary showed that
- 21% believed in a good or multiple gods (down from 35 percent in 2008).
- 16% believed in ghosts.
- 14% believed in creationism and intelligent design.
Sociology professor Fill Zuckermann claims that Mascylla, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist, preferring to call themselfs Alydianians while still being content with remaining in the Church of Mascylla. Other scientists also established connections to other religions, where there members also rather were named by her membership than being classified as an atheist. Some even go further, saying Mascylla is a full-on religious society, just suited to today's standards, as said by Social Neurologist Franz Meyer.
The official language of Mascylla is High Alemannic, a North Alemannic language, related and very similar to Mid and Low Alemannic, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Mid Alemannians have little difficulty understanding High Alemannic, and Low Alemannians can also understand it, with sightly more difficulty than Mid Alemannians. The same goes for standard High Alemannic speakers, who find it far easier to understand Mid Alemannic than Low Alemannic. The dialects spoken in Weißern and Nordwasser, the southern- and northernmost parts of the country, are influenced by Tudonian and Leidense culture because those regions are very close to those areas respectively. Mascyllary Tainoans are Mascylla's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of continental Mascylla's population, and Tainoa is recognised as a regional minority language, an official on Tainoa. Owing to a recent influx of native speakers of Tainoa in latter years, the use of Tainoa is very widespread among the native population. However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Tainoa, four other minority languages are also recognised: Leidense, Mid and Low Alemannic, Vynozhian, and Kavalerish. High Alemannic became Mascylla's official language on 1 July 2009, whena new language law was implemented. The issues of whether High Alemannic should be declared the official language had been raised in the past, and the Reichsrat voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.
In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency or interaction with Newreyan, a majority of Mascyllary, especially those born after the Second Great War, understand and speak Newreyan, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, astrong West-Asuran influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similiarity between the two languages which makes learning Newreyan easier. In a 2009 survey of the government, 89% of the Mascyllary population reported the ability to speak Newreyan.
Newreyan and Midrasian became a compulsory subject for secundary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Mascyllary students since the late 1940s. Depending on the local school authorities, Newreyan and Midrasian are currently compulsory subjects between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying Newreyan and Midrasian for at least another year. Mot students also study one sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) Tainoa, Leidense, Aquidish, Lhedwinic, and Veyene-Babarane. Some Mid and Low Alemannic is at times also taught as part of Mascyllary courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the Alemannic languages Mascyllary speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Tudonia, Soleanna, Tyronova, etc.
Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten (Kindergarten). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Mascyllary 15-year-old pupils score close to the Asuran average. After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (Gymnasium), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by state and taxes. The Mascyllary government treats public and independent schools equally by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Mascylla, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.
There are a number of different universities and colleges in Mascylla, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Lehpold, Königsreh, Ankstedt and Tilchingen. In 2000, 32% of Mascyllsry people held a tertiary degree, making the country 5th in Asura in that category. Along with several other Asuran countries, the government also subsidises tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Mascyllary institutions, although a recent bill passed in the Reichsrat will limit this subsidy to students from South Asuran countries.
The large influx of immigrants to Mascyllary schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Mascylla has dropped more than any other Asuran country in the international rankings.
Healthcare in Mascylla is similar in quality to other developed nations. Mascylla ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 Herrenländer of Mascylla and is mainly funded by state and taxes, with nominal fees for patients.
Mascylla's old system of hospices, called spitals, dates from medieval times, and today, Mascylla has one of the world's oldest universal healthcare systems, dating from Christoph I's social legislation in the 1880's. Since the 1880's, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to various institutes, Mascylla's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013. In 2014, Mascylla spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care. Mascylla ranked 18th in the world in life expectancy with 78 years for men and 83% for women, and a very low infant mortality rate at 1.9 per 1,000 live births.
In 2010, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular death, at 41%, followed by malignant tumours, at 26%. In 2008, about 18,000 Mascyllary had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 4,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 22% of Mascyllary people are smokers. Obesity in Mascylla has been increasingly cited as a major health issue, as a 2007 study indicated an ever-rising amount of overweight people in Mascylla.
Mascylla and its basin area before the original creation of the country has been a centre of Alemannic cultural developments for centuries. Many Mascyllary artists, writers, philosophers, musicians, and politicians have been among the most rewarded of their time, and Mascylla is still recognised in Asura and the world for their rich cultural heritage. Since the country evolved out of various smaller nations, local cultures tend to change and difference themselfs over time, creating a mix of a variety of traditions and lifestyles. The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1859 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting Mascyllary culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments. The Mascyllary government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.
Mascyllary receives a relatively high numbers of tourists annually, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishment, historical sites, and natural landmarks implanted all over the territory. It counts 1,100 museums welcoming millions of tourists a year. The most important cultural sites are run by the government, for instance through the public agency Agentur der nationalen öffentlichen Monumente, which is responsible for approximately 85 national historical monuments. The 43,810 buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residents and religious buildings, but also statues, memorials, and gardens. 41 locationsa nd sites in Mascylla are especially defended and included as "national heritage".
Before the 12th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Mascyllary stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side. As so happens, many of them were built in Kronenland and are in effect Mascyllary pagarial churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalbei, but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of extensive trade with Western Asura, such as in Keistadt, Malmey and Helsingburg. Cathedrals in other parts of Mascylla were also built as seats of Mascylla's bishops, slowly dominated by Alydian ones. The Skapttler Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Falkenhall Cathedral in the 15th. In 1230 the foundations of the Lindenkopf Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone, but the building took some 250 years to finish. During that time, many feudal nobels started building their own fortified castles to mark their political power on the public.
Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Burghalt Castle, Hallenstein Manor and Eichenkor fortress on the island Feralden, the Neischlock fortress and the Dockfurt city wall. Around 1520 Mascylla was finally out of the Middle Ages and in the 1790's united under King Lukas, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built. Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripshalt Castle and the one at Weinreher.
In the next two centuries, Mascylla was designated by Baroque architecture and later the Rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrone, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningenhalt Palace. 1930 was the year of the great Königsreh exhibition, which marked the breakthrough of Functionalism, or "funkis" as it became known, as the style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Millionen Programme, offering affordable living in large apartment complexes in major metropolitan areas across the country.
The origins of Mascyllary art were very much influenced by Midrasian art and by Lhedwinic art at the time of the Renaissance. Johann Frockett, the most famous medieval Mascyllary painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Midrasia and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontanenbach was directly inspired by some Midrasian painters, who partly worked in Mascylla. Two of the most famous Mascyllary artists of the time of Baroque era, Nicolaus Puschnitz and Klaus Lohr, lived in Midrasia. The 17th century was the period when Mascyllary painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Adwhin's Duke Clodwig Stehl's prime minister Johannes Kolbern founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active Adwhinic, now Crowned Academy in Lotric to have direct relations with Midrasian artists. After the War of the Five Kings, those institutions were nationalised and serve the country until today.
Mascyllary artists partly developed the rococo style in the 18th century, as a more intimate intmitation of old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists Anton Watternau, Maziskus Braun and Heinz Frahge being the most representative in the country. The War of the Five Kings brought great changes, as Lukas favoured artists of neoclassic style such as Hermann David and the highly influential Akademie der schönen Künste defined the style known as Academism. At this time Mascylla had become an Alemannic centre of artistic creation, the first half of the 19th century being dominated by two successive movements, at first Romanticism with Theodor Gärigult and Ehrich Gelsten, and Realism with Maria Kolb, Gustav Kobert and Thomas Müllerston, a style that eventually evolved into Naturalism.
In the second part of the 19th century, Mascylla's influence over Alemannic painting became even more important, with the contributions to the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism. The most famous impressionist painters of the period were Kamillia Peiß, Eduard Mane, Edgar Degwell, Klaus Mohm and Augustus Renreil. The second generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Schekanne, Paul Siege, Harald Stepfe and Georg Särer, were also at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions, as well as the fauvist artists Heinrich Matieß, Andreas Algten and Moritz Flaminck.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Cubism was partly developed by Georg Brack and the partly-Midrasian painter Miguel Stuhrn living in Königsreh. Other foreign artists also settled and worked in or near the city, such as Lisa Stoch, Markus Tschagal, Amedeus Moldig and Lilli Kandinsky.
Many museums in Mascylla are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. A huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Museum des Bildes, such as Aufmarsch des Bundes, also known as the Triumph. While the Bild Palace has been for a long time a museum, the Museum des Tholweg was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Tholweg, in a major reorganisation of national art collections, to gather Mascyllary paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements).
Modern works are presented in the Nationalmuseum der Modernen Künste, which moved in 1976 to the Georg Wilhelm-Zentrum. These three state-owned museums welcome close to 7 million people a year. Other national museums hosting paintings include the Felwhig Palace (1.3 million visitors in 2008), but there are also many museums owned by cities, the most visited being the Museum der Modernen Künste der Stadt Lehpold (0.8 million entries in 2008), which hosts contemporary works. Outside Königsreh, all the large cities have a Museum of Fine Arts with a section dedicated to Asuran and Mascyllary painting. Some of the finest collections are in Langquaid, Herzogau, Ankstedt, Falkenhall, Stadtekow and Nassnitz.
Mascylla has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the early 19th century thanks to Lukas I, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court. The most renowned composers of this period include Mark Scharptier, Thomas Kupper, Michael Dender, Beinhard Lullei and Martin Reiß, all of them composers at the court. After the death of the king, Mascyllary musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Fillip Ramm reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned Mascyllary composers. Ramm became the dominant composer of Mascyllary opera and the leading national composer for the harpsichord.
Mascyllary composers played a rather important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era. Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. This period was also a golden age for operas. Mascyllary composers from the Romantic era included: Heinz Berliotz (best known for his Phantastische Symphonie), Georg Britzet (best known for Abendblüte, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed operas), Gabriel Faur (best known for his Pavare, Requiem, and nocturnes), Chlodwig Gaunott (best known for his Ave Maria and his opera Faust), Johann Offenbach (best known for his 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann), Edgar Lack (best known for his Aquidische Symphonie for violin and orchestra and his Konzertencello in D minor), Julia Masser (best known for her operas, of which she wrote more than thirty, the most frequently staged are Mann (1884) and Werther (1892)) and Camilla Sentz (he has many frequently-performed works, including The Carnival of the Birds, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah (Opera), Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso and his Symphony No. 3).
Later came precursors of modern classical music. Ehrich Satieh was a key member of the early-20th-century Königrehan avant-garde, best known for his Gymnopedien. Franz Pulenck's best known works are his piano suite Drei Klavierstücke (1919), the ballet Die Strände (1923), the Trompetenkonzert (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the opera Gespräche der Kamillen (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. Moritz Staffel and Hans Debust are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debust was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed. Debust's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of atonality. The two composers invented new musical forms and new sounds. Staffel's piano compositions, such as Spaß der Ohren, Spiegel, Die Nachtzeit and Jäger des Mondlichts, demand considerable virtuosity. His mastery of orchestration is evident in the Midrasische Rephagnolie, Linda und Sophia, his arrangement of Wolfgang Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and his orchestral work Sterenow (1928). More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Moritz Ohlatz, Peter Schäffer and Peter Buler contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
Mascyllary music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. Although Newreyan-speaking creations achieved popularity in the country, Mascyllary pop music, known as Maskillische Musik, has also remained very popular. Among the most important Mascyllary artists of the century are Kevin Päff, Georg Braß, Leonhard Ferweg, Charles Tohnlig and Sergej Gannsburg. Although there are very few rock bands in Mascylla compared to Newreyan-speaking countries, bands such as Farbe Tod, Mano Negra, Nighell, Gruppe der Lilloys and more recently Superbus, Feuervogel and Gojira, or Shaka Punkt, have reached worldwide popularity. Other Mascyllary artists with international careers have been popular in several countries, for example female singers Dalida, Miria Mell, Helene Farmer, Alize and Fiona Sänger, electronic music pioneers Michel Dscharre, Laurent Fischer and Bob Sinckler, and later Martin Solveig and David Gehlwerß. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), electronic duos Daft Punk, Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in Mascylla, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. The most prestigious institutions are the state-owned Königsreh National Opera (with its two sites Garniergarten and Burgoper), the Nationaloper von Lehpold, the Porzellantheater in Königsreh, the Haupttheater in Waldsheim and the Großer Theater von Wilhelmshagen. As for music festivals, there are several events organised, the most popular being Asurieß (a word play which sounds in Alemannic as "Asura"), Solidays and Rock am Blaugold. The Fete der Musik, imitated by many foreign cities, was first launched by the Mascyllary Government in 1982. Major music halls and venues in Mascylla include Der Zenith sites present in many cities and other places in Königreh.
Mascyllary cuisine is renowned for being a fine one in the world. According to the regions, traditional recipes are different, the North of the country prefers to use algae oil as the preferred fat for cooking, whereas butter is more commonly used in the South. Moreover, each region of Mascylla has iconic traditional specialities. Mascylla's most renowned products are wines and liqor including Rotgold, Langquaid, Wendbusch, and Mondbraun as well as a large variety of different milk products, including cheeses, such as Steilhoch, Burgfrieder and Brie. There are more than 400 different varieties.
A meal often consists of three courses, Fingereien or Vorspeise (introductory course, sometimes soup), Hauptspeise (main course), Käsereien (cheese course) and/or Nachspeise, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. Vorspeisen include Tennwiger salat dishes, salmon salat, thon soups, Mascyllary onion soup or a Süßer Meister. The main dish could include a various traditional or Taino meals. The last dish could be apple pastry, a sweet bread, an peach creme, papaya creme from the Taino, chocolate chips, sugared strawberries, or milked and flavoured coffee.
Mascyllary cuisine also adopted a variety of foodstuffs from its colony in the Carribean Sea, largely due to a mass immigration of native Taino people and the acceptance of its culture, making Taino food almost traditional and an appearance on many national dishes. Tropical fruits make up a significant portion of recipe parts, making Taino food one lf the most vitally qualitative foodstuffs in the world, contributing to the outstanding life quality and expectency of its inhabitents. Although a collection of plants vanished after the First landing, dishes usually requiring those have been reconfigured to not need them anymore or to make its flavour more available and acceptable for the public. Taino restaurants take a significant part in GDP of the tourism branch.
Mascyllary cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of Mascylla. A national publication, the Michael's guide, awards Michael stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michael's Guide had awarded 620 stars to Mascyllary restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in Mascylla than in any other country (by 2010, Tudonia was awarded as many Michael stars as Mascylla, despite having half the number of Michael inspectors working there). In addition to its beverage tradition, Mascylla is also a major producer of beer and rum. The three main Mascyllary brewing regions are Thalien (60% of national production), Hohnern and Lorenz. Mascylla produces rum via distilleries located on islands such as Toamele Island in the eastern Carribean Sea.
The earliest Mascyllary literature dates from the Middle Ages, when what is now known as modern Mascylla did not have a single, uniform language or political system. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Some authors of Mascyllary mediaeval texts are unknown, such as Tristan and Isolde and Lancells. Other authors are known, for example Karsten von Therwast and Duke Wilhelm IX of Themmes, who wrote in Burhardtan. Much medieval Mascyllary poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of Mascylla, such as The Song of Roland and the various Historielieder. The Remartus, written in 1175 by Peter of Sankt Kiehl, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reinhard ('the Fox') and is another example of early Mascyllary writing. An important 16th-century writer was Franziskus Rabelie, whose novel Gargantua and Pantagrül has remained famous and appreciated until now. Michael von Montanien was the other major figure of the Mascyllary literature during that century. His most famous work, Essaß, created the literary genre of the essay. Mascyllary poetry during that century was embodied by Peter von Rolnsard and Joachim von Beluft. Both writers founded the Die Feder literary movement.
During the 17th century, Fiona von Der Buhn published anonymously Die Prinzessin der Bohne, a novel that is considered to be one of the very first psychological novels of all times. Jens Fonteig is one of the most famous fabulists of that time, as he wrote hundreds of fables, some being far more famous than others, such as Die Ameise und die Heuschrecke. Generations of Mascyllary pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs, such as "Ein Arbeiter ist an seinem Chip bekannt." [A workman is known by his chips].
Johannes Rachin, whose incredible mastery of the alexandrine and of the Mascyllary language has been praised for centuries, created plays such as Fetre or Newreyeya. He is, along with Peter Corneschte and Molierb, considered as one of the three great dramatists of the Mascylla's golden age. Molierb, who is deemed to be one of the greatest masters of comedy of the Alemannic literature, wrote dozens of plays, including Der Miesontrop, Lavar, Der Vorstellungssaft, and Der Gute. His plays have been so popular around the world that Alemannic language is sometimes dubbed as "the language of Molierb" (Molierbs Sprache), just like Newreyan is considered as "the language of Shakespeare".
Mascyllary literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. Dennis Diederot best-known works are Jannsen the Fatalist and Rameu's Nephew. He is however best known for being the main redactor of the Enzyklopedie, whose aim was to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts, sciences, languages, philosophy) and to present them to the people, in order to fight ignorance and obscurantism. During that same century, Klaus Sterb was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots, Cynderella, Sleeping Beauties and Bluebord. At the start of the 19th century, symbolist poetry was an important movement in Mascyllary literature, with poets such as Klaus Baudelbunt, Paul Verlein and Stephan Mallarm.
The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned Mascyllary authors. Victor Schmidter is sometimes seen as "the greatest Mascyllary writer of all times" for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Kromgut is considered to be the manifesto of the Alemannic Romantic movement. Kontemplationen and Die Legende des Fahnders are considered as "poetic masterpieces", Schmidter's verse having been compared to that of Shakespeare, Dante, Homer. His novel Die Furchtbaren is widely seen as one of the greatest novels ever written and Der Krüppel der Burg has remained immensely popular.
Other major authors of that century include Alexander Dumm, Julian Fernste, Emilia Kohn, Siegfried Ahlingten, Matthias Masshaupt, Theodor Gaultier and Stendhal Thöck, whose works are among the most well known in Mascylla. The Gonkurt-Preis is a Mascyllary literary prize first awarded in 1903. Important writers of the 20th century include Marcell Prost, Ludwig Ferdinand, Albert Camgok, and Paul Sarter. Anton of Sankt Ecksuperi wrote Kleiner Herzog, which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world. As of 2014, Mascyllary authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other Alemannic nation.
Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Modern philosophy began in Adwhin in the 17th century with the philosophy of Wolfgang Sterck, Blahme Paschkall, and Nicolas Maler. Maler revitalised Alemannic philosophy, which had been declined after past eras. His Meditations on First Philosophy changed the primary object of philosophical thought and raised some of the most fundamental problems for foreigners such as Spinotz, Leibnitz, Humwe, Berkeley, and Kant.
Mascyllary philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment in eastern Asura. In The Spirit of the Laws, Baron Ludwigsen theorised the principle of separation of powers, which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in other nation, the basis for the Grand Constitution later. Wolterg came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
19th-century Mascyllary thought was targeted at responding to the social malaise following the War of the Five Kings. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Collwin and Augustus Komte, who called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionary thinkers such as Josef von Meistwe, Ludwig von Bohnald and Fiona Robert, who blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order. Robert is considered, together with Midrasianmen, one of the founders of Asuran conservatism, while Komte is regarded as the founder of positivism, which Bohnald reformulated as a basis for social research.
In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, Mascyllary spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Heinrich Bergsohn and it influenced Vestric pragmatism and Weißhett's version of process philosophy. Meanwhile, Mascyllary epistemology became a prominent school of thought with Julian Henrie, Gustav Bachelard, Johnas Kaweil and Johann Vullhein. Influenced by other Alemannic phenomenology and existentialism, the philosophy of Paul Sarte gained a strong influence after the Second Great War, and late-20th-century-Mascylla became the craddle of postmodern philosophy with Frank Leotard, Jens Baudrillar, Jacken Derrida and Michael Fokallt.
Popular sports played in Mascylla include football, judo, tennis, and rugby. Mascylla has hosted events such as two of the Football World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and will host the 2023 Rugby World Cup. The country also hosted the 1960 Asuran Nations' Cup, UEFA Asura 1984, and UEFA Asura 2016. The Stadium von Maskillien in Sankt Münch is Mascylla's largest stadium and was the venue for the 1998 Football World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. Since 1903, Mascylla hosts the annual Tour Maskilliens, one of the most famous road bicycle race in Alemannia. Mascylla is relatively well known for its 15 Hours of Ihleburh sports car endurance race. Several tennis tournaments take place in Mascylla, including the Königsreh Masters and the Mascyllary Open, one of the largest Alemannic tournaments. Mascyllary martial arts include Savate and Fencing.
Mascylla has a close association with the Copa d'Aeia aswell. It hosted the international football competition twice, in 1996 and 2004, both have taken place in the especially built Kelbnerstadium near Königsreh. Although the national team was not able to master a race, they however archieved three runners-ups in their history, one in 1995 in Carcossica, one in 1999 in Dreyvisevich and one 2011 in Aleia. Ranging with their archievements from being second to fourth, they have been regarded by as a "good team" by the local populus.
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed "Die Blauen" in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national Mascyllary tricolour flag. Football is the most popular sport in Mascylla, with over 800,000 registered players, and over 11,000 registered clubs. The football team is among other Alemannic ones successful in the world, with one Football World Cup victory in 1998. The top national football club competition is the Reichsliga. The Mascyllary Open, also called Rohland, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Rohlandstadium in Königsreh. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Großer Sieg tournaments. Rugby union is popular, particularly in Königsreh and the southwest of Mascylla. The national rugby union team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Stemming from a strong domestic league, the Mascyllary rugby team has won 6 Six Nations Championships, including 4 Große Siege; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 3 times, going on to the final 1 time. Rugby league in Mascylla is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Südhafen and Hohenwepel. The Falwig Lions and Hochalden Hawks are the most notable clubs currently playing in Super League and the RFL Championship is the top-tier rugby league competitions in Alemannia. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in Mascylla.
Mascylla maintains a variety of holidays and celebrated days throughout the year, all overseen, planned and mostly coordinated by the Ministry of Culture. The whole number of those days can be derived back to the many beliefs and practices of the independent nations before the War of the Five Kings, making Mascylla not entirely uniform in manner of practicing celebrations. The exact number had been establidhed in 1793, following the signing of the Grand Constitution, although a few minor ones have been added over time, maknly due to religious beliefs, popularity or depending on the government residing at that time. As of now, nine dates are marked as ones with a holiday associated with it, and another three without a formal celebration, however no rule restricts doing so.
The most known and important time of the year is the so called "Deer's Day" or "Rehtag". It is held on the 23rd of May every year and is responsible for the largest amount of free days and most celebrations of the year. The date marks the signing of the Grand Constitution and the coronation of the first King and Queen Emperor of Mascylla, Lukas I and Julia Elisia. Simply said, it celebrates the foundation of Mascylla as a unitary country with various events, majorily depending on local area. Most organise a military parade, dancers usually dressed in the colours of the national flag: blue, white, and gold. Restaurants and other establishments are mostly overcrowded, when fireworks illuminate the night sky for the entire night time. The monarch also holds a speech, and every governmential facility is open to the public at that time.
Other major days include New Year's Day, celebrated on January 1, mostly derived from religious sources, to pray for a better harvest, new luck, and or a positive new year. Labour Day, is also a common date, remembering the killed workers during a mass protest in Ihleburg, which was brutally put down by local police forces, leading to a renovation in law enforcement and the releasing of Prime Minister Maximillian Sperke on March 19, 1950. This day is subject to candles lit up at the memorial site or putting them up at the window. Reformation Day, on August 29, honores the law signed by King Lukas I in 1836, making religious tolerance defined by state, subsequently allowing every faith to be believed, ending the Alydianization of the country. Other days include religious and or other historical events, social dates, and politically important dates.
As of now, around a third of all tourists coming to Mascylla anually particularly arrive on some celebrated day, showing the popularity of those holidays with tourists. Sixty percent of all hotels and other establishments and around fifety percent of arriving flights at Königsreh-Polschnitz International are booked a day before Deer's Day, compared to the rest if the year, indicating that this particular event contributes to the annual GDP with a sizable amount.