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Crowned Republic of Mascylla
Gekrönte Republik Maskillien
Motto: "Hier stehen Wir"
"Here We Stand"
Anthem: "Geeint in Blut und Schwur"
"United in Blood and Oath"
Location of Mascylla (dark green) in Berea (dark grey and green)
|Recognised national languages||Cuthish, Waldish, Falian, Warnoan|
|Ethnic groups||84.2% Mascyllary|
10.5% other Telmerian
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
• Congress of Rehnern
|20 December 1757|
|4 September 1789—29 March 1793|
• Treaty of Langquaid signed
|18 May 1793|
• Coronation of Lukas I
|23 May 1793|
|10 May 1923—22 January 1924|
• Current constitution adopted
|24 January 1924|
• Coronation of Maximilian I
|5 March 1924|
|432,017.0 km2 (166,802.7 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2018 census
|113.4/km2 (293.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2017)|| 28.2|
|HDI (2016)|| 0.922|
|Currency||Mascyllary Karning (MKN, Ӄ)|
Mascylla (Hesurian: Maskillien), officially the Crowned Republic of Mascylla (Hesurian: Gekrönte Republik Maskillien) and rarely referred to as Mascillia, is a sovereign state on the Telmerian peninsula in northern Berea. It is bound to the west by Temaria, Lilienburg and Lake Sigismund, to the south by Cuthland-Waldrich and X, to the east by Valimia, and to the north by the North Sea and White Sea, with additional maritime borders with X to the north and Norden to the west. Königsreh is the country's capital, and with Flussmund as the most populous city are the two main cultural and economic centres of Mascylla; other major cities and urban areas include Langquaid, Augusthal, Lannbrück, Dockfurt, Karnitz, Weidenau and Konreid. With a population of approximately 49 million inhabitants as of 2018 and a territorial area of 432,017 km2 (166,802.7 sq mi), Mascylla is both the second-most populous and second largest country in Telmeria.
Mascylla is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy since its formal establishment in 1793. Current monarch since 2015 and the second female head of state in Mascylla's history is Dorothea I, while Thomas Falkner is elected head of government as Prime Minister since 2016. The constitution adopted in 1924 determines the separation of power is exercised by the country's Reichsrat and Reichssenat, the Kronenrat, formally by the ruling Monarch, and the High Court.
The area of what is now Mascylla was originally inhabited by a collection of Telmerian tribes, most notably the Therunds (Terunder), Falians (Fahlier), Aldens (Aldier) and Adhuins (Adhuiner) since classical antiquity. Following ill-fated attempts by the Cambran Empire to expand northward beyond modern-day Dulebia and its subsequent collapse in the aftermath of the Migration Period by 300 AD, the newly founded Albarian Kingdom annexed southern Mascylla while introducing Cambran innovations and customs to the region and developing a distinctive culture and language as the basis for modern Mascyllary culture. The presence of the Albarians prompted the slow creation of duchies and states from the Mascyllary tribes, and by 1000 AD most of Mascylla had been organized into a patchwork of petty kingdoms and duchies. Soon after, religious disputes and a prolonged series of dynastic disputes dominated Mascyllary politics in the Middle Ages, increasingly influenced by growing predecessors to the First Cuthish Empire and Loxstedt-Hoeveden Monarchy.
After the Adwhinish Wars and War of Kalaphay Succession in 1569 and 1603 respectively, two nations had emerged as regional powers, Aldia and Adwhin, vying for hegemony over the remaining Mascyllary states, with Aldia rapidly rising with a colonial empire it had acquired from Cuthland in the 1700s. The hostilities between both nations began to grow and, following the gradual dwindling of power of the Cuthish Empire in the latter 18th century that left a power vacuum in Mascylla's central provinces, three consecutive wars of unification were fought in the 1740s, 1760s and 1770s respectively. The epitome of violence would be reached in the War of the Five Kings from 1789 to 1793, with Aldia, leading a confederacy of states against Adwhin and ultimately emerging victorious. The subsequent Treaty of Langquaid negotiated the unification of Mascylla into a nation state with a continuation of the Aldian monarchy through Lukas I at its helm. The collapse of Cuthland and its slow periods of partition enabled Mascylla to vastly expand its Berean as well as Pamiran and Alvinian influence. Moreover, Mascyllary culture and commerce flourished by the turn of the 19th century, and the Aldian colonial system expanded into a global colonial empire that was the second largest by the 1830s. However, with the rise of the Second Cuthish Empire under Edwin III and following the Second Cutho-Mascyllary War (1839–41), Mascylla was utterly defeated and forced to cede pre-1758 Cuthish territories in Mascylla as well as a portion of its colonial possessions. The ensuing antagonization by the Mascyllary populous and the mutual hateship between both countries that had developed over the last two hundred years was a decisive factor in the causing of the Great War (1911–16). As a major participant and ultimately victor of the war with the Armala Coalition, it set the terms of peace, crippling Cuthland's military, economy and territorial extent, as well as reshaping the geopolitical order through the establishment of the Assembly of Nations in 1917. War-torn conservative Mascylla however succumbed to increasing calls for reform by the worker class, with the Mascyllary Revolution overthrowing the to this point de facto absolute monarchy and instituting a democratic republic with a constitutionally regulated monarch in 1924. An unprecedented economic boom in the 1920s and 1930s quickly recovered the damaged economy while solidifying the recently introduced democracy.
The enmities left by the Great War proved to be pivotal in the later course of the 20th century, when a re-organized Cuthland leading the Mageiros League and X rivaled the western democratic nations united by the BDTA after 1944. While Mascylla kept clinging onto its colonial possessions, the Melasian Crisis from 1941 to 1943 triggered the slow decolonization of its empire as well as the beginning of the Great Game (1944–1990). The 1960s and 1970s saw civil unrest and dissatisfaction with the country's policies, and additional terrorist movements and scandals further coalesced into a national insurgency, culminating in the July 20 1991 terrorist attacks. After numerous attempts of reconciliation by the democratic and communist blocs and following the 1987 stock crash and financial crisis, the X collapsed, leaving Cuthland and Mascylla as the two remaining rivals of the former Great Game. Recent reapproachment with post-communist states beginning in the 1990s however kept diplomatic tensions between the two at bay.
Mascylla today retains its political, cultural and economic power amassed in the 19th and 20th centuries. As the single largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest by PPP, Mascylla is a highly developed country. It additionally ranks highly in rankings of human development, education, political and personal freedom, healthcare, life expectancy and economic competitiveness. Generally considered to be one of the world's great powers, it is a permanent member state of the Assembly of Nations Security Council and recognized country possessing nuclear weapons. It is a member of the Assembly of Nations, BDTA, Telmerian Union, and ECDF.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Telmerian tribes and antiquity
- 2.3 Middle Ages and Cuthish influence
- 2.4 Aldian and Adwhinish rivalry
- 2.5 Elbgau Confederacy and unification
- 2.6 Mascyllary Kingdom
- 2.7 Great War and Revolution of 1923
- 2.8 Crowned Republic (1924–present)
- 2.9 Contemporary history
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The oldest evidence of the presence of the species Homo on Mascyllary territory date back atleast 500,000 years, and permanent presence to the south of the country is exptected to have begun 390,000 years ago. Homo geisahlensis is named after the city close to the site of its discovery. The atleast 200,000 years old Storßener Speere und Messer (Storßen Spears and Knifes) are the oldest entirely preserved hunting tools of humans yet discovered and marked a radical shift in the understanding of neolithic social development in the 1990s. The arrival of Homo sapiens, the anatomically modern human, having immigrated from Caphtora, marked the sudden dissapearance of all humans in Telmeria 14,000 years ago, though recent studies suggest all human species had joint descendants; this era also saw the zenith of the Upper Paleolithic revolution.
Coming from the Middle East and migrating through Dulebia to Telmeria, Neolithic farmers with their domesticated animals and plants slowly displaced the hunters and gatherers of the Mesolithic period in southern Mascylla by 5,500 BC. The cultures of hunters, collectors and fishermen to the north of the country remained resilient, but ultimately adopted the methods of the now sedentary, agricultural Western Linear Pottery cultures to the south in approximately 3,800 BC. With over 500 years of delay, the Bronze Age in Mascylla started 4,700 years ago and produced a wide range of artifacts and tools, most famously the Sky Disc of Halie discovered in 1990. The begin of the X period in 2000 BC marked the gradual end of Proto-Dentrian inhabitation and the rise of iron as the preferred working material. By 600 BC, the first considered modern Hesurianic cultures had already formed in northern Mascylla, and towns such as Falkenhall, Dalbeck, Rothnau, Bützow and Augusthal became the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in Mascylla. Ancient authors first used "Hesurians" as a ethnographic collective term in the 1st century BC.
Telmerian tribes and antiquity
The Cambran Empire organized and attempted numerous actions of expansion up the northern Telmerian peninsula between 100 BC and 300 AD, mainly from its positions in modern-day Dulebia on the River Dnistr. Provisional legion camps were initial seeds in the establishment of early centres of administration and society in southern Mascylla, namely Lannbrück (originally founded as Laneaum), Konreid (Conria) and Südhaven (Hamentum). After the incursions of the Aldens and Welbarians in 320 AD the Migration Period put an end to the Cambran Empire, constituted the dramatic change from late antiquity to the Early Middle Ages and helped shape several historic tribes in Mascylla such as the Aldens, Chenians, Therunds, Warnons and Adhuins.
In the wake of the end of the Triumvirate of Cambra, numerous Hesurianic Cambran successor states formed on its territories, the most influential of which in Telmeria was the Welbarian Kingdom. While the centre of power and population was located in Dulebia, it had a significant influence on the Mascyllary tribes present, as it introduced late Cambran culture, judiciary and artwork and prompted them to merge into several proto duchies. After 700 AD, the Welbarian Kingdom dwindled in power following the separation of the Kingdom of Aldena and left a vacuum of power by which feudalism became the dominant policy and five principal tribal duchies Adwhin, Fahnicht, Folneria, Falia and Wenilia were formed. The following three centuries saw the rise of territorial fragmentation of Mascylla ("Kleinstaaterei") and decisive defeats of the invading Pomorians, largely with the Battle of Moosfeld in 903.
Middle Ages and Cuthish influence
The prestige win of Adwhinish duke Adalbert II following the successful retalation against the Pomorians in 903 boasted a new Mascyllary dynasty of now kings which ruled over the individual duchies of the 1000s, named the Adalbertian dynasty (Adalbertanierdynastie). Though it gained enough traction to reign as sovereign of Mascylla, the Semitar church in Cambra awarded the entity the title of regnum Cheniaticorum ("Kingdom of the Mascyllary") but refrained from referring to it as an empire (Imperium) in order to relativize the claims of sovereignty from its Cambran successors. The title and kingdom was preserved until the 12th century and is generally seen as the origin point of the "modern" Mascyllary history. Otto II of Mascylla claimed the royal dignity of Welbaria in 1020 and forcefully tried to unite his regnum Cheniaticorum with Imperial Rovina (Reichsrovinen) to the south, in hopes of establishing a western "Cambran" empire (Kämbrisch-Hesurisches Reich). Briefly, this empire grew to encompass a hegemonious position in Telmeria from 1000–1030. His military campaign proved disastrous however, and was forced to dissolve his kingdom in exchange for his ducal title of Adwhin by Aldena in 1039, ending any hopes of a unified Mascyllary empire of Cambran descent.
Numerous feudal rulerships came at the cost of a regal imperial power in the form of territorial states, and thus made consensual rule impossible for much of the 12th and 13th centuries: Duke Richard II of Adwhin failed with an attempt to rule as Mascyllary emperor de iure uxoris as hereditary monarch of the Markiner dynasty. The gearing of worldly and spiritual power prohibited his actions through the imperial church system (Reichskirchensystem) which triggered the Regal Contest of 1217 between church and state. The devisive nature of the debate led to Richard's downfall and further diversitification of Mascylla's countdom after the interregnum of Adwhin's dukes. However, visions of a joint federation of states under an elective monarchy never ceased to infest policies of several influential dukes throughout the Middle Ages. The most notable conflict surrounding that debate arose when in 1262 King Dilisme I of Warnia attempted to force the Archbishop of Langquaid to concede to his claim on the imperial crown; the war left the lasting impression of Mascyllary familiarity and the Concord of Rothenthur in 1306 formally defined Mascylla's territories as an ambiguous "empire" or "Reich". Coinciding dynastic disputes expanded the conflict to Dilisme's War which ultimately ended in stalemate and was partially resolved with the Peace of Westmarke in 1297, which pardoned Dilisme of his actions, forced him to surrender his imperial crown, and ensured his kingdom would serve as regal protector of all of Mascylla (Reichsprotektor) as compromise throughout the 14th century. The ensuing rivalry among Mascylla's major royal houses, the Salzlowers, Sohlnarers and Welsbachers, kept tensions between Mascylla's states high and provided for intricate plays of power. The 14th and 15th centuries Late Middle Ages were dominated by crises such as the Black Plague, agricultural mass mismanagement (Famines of 1339 and 1401) and the gradual rise of the bourgeoisie which led to the formation of free merchant cities (Freie Reichsstädte).
The transition to the Renaissance marked the end of the Salzlowers as paramount Mascyllary monarchs, the rise of the Welsbachers as Grand Dukes of Welsbach and the entry of the House of Loxstedt-Hoeveden via the emerging First Cuthish Empire derivings its origins from Aldena and Dulebia of the 16th century. Through delicate maneuvering, it gained expansive territories in Mascylla as Berean great power and eventually gained the legitimacy as Imperial Protector, putting the struggle of achieving unity under a Cambran Hesurianic sovereign to rest. The 16th century saw efforts by Cuthland to sustain a universal monarchy with its holdings in Mascylla, descendance from Aldena and Dulebia and a large colonial empire, and the transition of several Mascyllary states to Berean powers, most notably the Kingdom of Aldia and Duchy of Adwhin, with their own colonies and political ambitions. Conflicts of dynastical interest intensified and occured more often, including the War of the Eustrian Succession 1588–1605 and the Delcian War 1642–1653, and the effects of the Enlightenment of the 18th century was tromendous for Mascylla's politics and society.
Aldian and Adwhinish rivalry
For much of Mascylla's history, it remained divided into numerous principalities and states on the basis of its frequent warfare and battle of pre-dominant royal dynasties vying for eventual unification. The rivalry between its two most powerful and influential states, the Kingdom of Aldia and Electorate of Adwhin, was largely derived from a strategic enmity following the collapse of the First Cuthish Empire and the partition of its Mascyllary and broader Telmerian territories by them. The states ruled by members of the House of Loxstedt-Hoeveden became irritated over their political future, and large territories were ceded to either Aldia and Adwhin, which nurished considerable debate and discussion. The conclusion of the War of Cuthish Succession in 1740 predetermined the future rivalry of Aldia and Adwhin.
The rivalry first surfaced belately when Albert I of Adwhin subsequenly assumed control over the Duchy of Phalagay and crowned himself king in 1710. While Leopold of Phalagay, a member of the House of Loxstedt-Hoeveden-Kingsham, left no male heirs before his death, Albert brought forth his distant kinship to Leopold and succeeded him as Duke of Phalagay. However, not every Mascyllary state was compliant with this dramatic shift in power, and among those Wilhelm II of Aldia. In exchange for his recognition, Adwhin was expected to cede Dorsace, which it had just acquired from the Cuthish Empire with the beginning of the War of the Cuthish Succession, to Aldia on the basis of dated treaties. On 5 August 1710 he therefore proposed an ultimatum to Albert I. Without awaiting a response of the ultimatum, Aldia invaded Dorsace on 8 August 1710 after brieftly besieging Saarow, igniting the Dorsace War and additionally War of Phalagay Succession. The Adwhinish were not successful in prohibiting Aldia from annexing Dorsace, but retaliated through major military engagements in Eustria. The indecisive Battle of Heiseln on 14 October drove Albert I to initially seek a truce with Aldia, also in order to win the War of Phalagey Succession to the south. The Diet of Seifritz and Peace of Augusthal of 1711 ensured Aldia's gains of Dorsace as well as the County of Herrshausen, but in turn its acceptance of all of Dorsace's debt.
The war left political disputes largely unresolved, and spurred territorial expansionism of Aldia, enboldened by their recent acquisitions. It embarked to marry its relatives to other states and join them with Aldia, which saw a gradual transition from a lesser power to a Mascyllary gargantuan, backed by its colonial possessions. Coincidentally though, Adwhin rose as well when Albert I's sucessor and brother, Karl IV, implemented radical reorganizations of his army and administration to bolster its strength as a Mascyllary power. Adhwin also spurred efforts to justify its objective as "a right to unite Mascylla", implementing the legacy and myth of Mascyllary unification as an inevitable fate.
Elbgau Confederacy and unification
With the amplifying tension between Aldia and Adwhin following a row of conflicts in the mid-18th century that left the political dispute of Mascyllary nationalism unresolved, Albrecht II of Aldia envisioned a new political unit to coordinate customs, integrate the states' economies as well as boasting friedship among its members in order to efficiently tackle Adwhin together. The Congress of Rehnern in December 1757 concluded with the establishment of the Elbgau Confederation, of which 12 states were initial members. Greatly upsetting Adwhin's plans of expanding its influence through dynastic ties in central Mascylla, it quickly orchestrated a move to deepen relations with its close neighbours such as the Kingdom of Holnia or Tudonia through the marriages of Princess Claudia of Merich-Karlsburg to the heir, Friedrich, of King Julian of Holnia, and Prince Theodor to the daughter of Grand Duke Joseph of Tudonia. While unionists and nationalists saw the recent solidification of two large blocs as a victory and step towards unification, sovereign rulers repressing national beliefs were increasingly frustrated they would be eventually in the midst of a conflict between both sides; the fear of loosing significance or independence triggered a series of new inclusions to the Elbgau Confederacy which inadvertibly sped up Mascylla's unification. The additional creation of the Nordmaskillischer Zollverein (customs union) would further encroach on the division of Mascyllary states.
Nationalist actions and Revolutions of 1769
The results of the Congress of Rehnern in 1757 gave new motivation to the long existing movement of Mascyllary nationalism and single statehood. Various student movements and groups, most notably Junges Maskillien of the University of Tilchingen, sought to promote their belief of Mascylla's "right to be united", while heavily denouncing the Cuthish Empire's political and economic influence in Mascylla by the 1760s. While the states did not support nor represent the ideals of the growing movement, they allowed it to be distributed to the public without foreign intervention from authorities. However, numerous radicalizing groups attempted revolutions in Phalya in 1759 and Shwesia in 1765 respectively, to directly push for unification processes in broader politics, but also to establish representative government and in some cases the introduction of enlightened absolutism to its monarchies, in tandem with calls for reform and change in Cuthland and Falland.
While the movement remained a fringe group of activists, their goal conincided with the political ambitions by both Aldia and Adwhin, who exploited their public popularity to bolster their vision of a united Mascylla under the leadership of their respective monarchies. Aldia emerged more sucessful with this approach however, when Aldish king Albrecht II promoted an influential leader of the movement in Aldia, Franz Kohlner, to the status of consultant to the government. While alienating the conservative members of the nobility and government, Albrecht amassed the support of the educated middle class, and following the institution of numerous reforms that brought Aldia towards a monarchy with enshrined enlightened aspects, it used its image as leverage and justification for its future leadership of Mascylla.
The social and politial discontent by reformists in other parts of Mascylla led to attempts by them to duplicate the success in Aldia. Subsequently, the July Revolutions of 1769 led to the occupation of military forts and the collapse of a number of small duchies reformed into representative democracies, the most notably of which the Republic of Konreid in 1769 and the Lorenz Republic in 1773. A council of representatives from the new states, members of the Elbgau Confederacy and other activists was assembled in Langquaid in September 1773 to draft a constitution for a unified Mascylla (Langquaider Reichsverfassung), later implemented as the charter of the Confederacy itself. In the south of the country, the revolutions were largely repressed by military force, and most of the movements were initially dissolved and exiled, with many of them fleeing north into Aldia.
War of the Five Kings and Mascyllary unification
The destabilizing effect of the attempted revolutions throughout the state further increased tension between the two coalitions led by Aldia and Adwhin. The economic integration of the two blocs additionally led to a sharp increase in economic prosperity and wealth, but on the cost of the Elbgau Confederacy needing natural resources and vital trade routes to continue its expanding economy, thus making a conflict due to the geopolitical and strategic importance of central Mascylla inevitable. The death of the aging Albrecht II and the ascension of his son and heir, Lukas I, who was vehemently in favor of national unification due to his father's efforts, was the turning point in Mascylla's history.
In March 1789, the Grand Duke of Phalya, Karl IV, suddenly died but left no apparent heir and the throne vacant. Aldia quickly suggested an Ahnern candidate, Lukas's brother Leopold, as Phalya's successor, but Adwhin, recognizing the topographical importance of Phalya, aggressively objected and pushed for King Theodor's nephew, Prince Maximilian, to succeed Karl IV. The issue quickly evolved into a diplomatic fiasco, and on 4 September 1789, Adwhin issued to resolve the conflict through war. While Adwhin quickly invaded Phalya, the Elbgau Confederacy was able muster a larger standing army under the command of Feldmarschall Wilhelm von Stenreck, supported by a growing number of civil militias trained and equipped by Aldia. The conflict quickly escalated into a full-scale war and it became apparent the Elbgau Confederacy and its allies would emerge victorious. After numerous victorious battles in Eustria and Phalya over the course of two years, the Battle of Austerlitz in May 1790 was a decisive blow to the Adwhinish armies protecting the fortress of Austerlitz, completely eradicating the bulk of its land army and capturing King Theodor himself. While Aldia continued to advance further south, Franz Kohlner and a trail of thousands of petty soldiers, peasants and activists, collectively known as the "Expedition of the Thousands" (Zug der Tausenden) marched onto and invaded Breisgau, Adwhin's seat of government.
Shortly thereafter, Adwhin capitulated without any peace terms and representatives of 32 Mascyllary states and free cities gathered in Langquaid to decide the political fate of Mascylla. Lukas I of Aldia was chosen to ascend the title of King of Mascyllla, the Elbgau Confederacy dissolved, and its member states as well as the defeated nations merged into a Mascyllary state. A rigorous debate erupted as to how the political system of Mascylla would actually be structured; a majority of states from the south who had a conservative point of view advocated for an enlightened, but absolute monarchy, while the peasantry, middle class and a number of northern states favored a democratic republic with a monarch as its figure head. Fearing the southern states would rebel and eventually secede from Mascylla, Lukas I drafted a compromise betweeen both parties, in which the monarch would have considerable power but be advised and kept in check by elected members of government. While this compromise resolved the ongoing dispute of Mascylla's governance, Lukas had own personal aspirations as a leader of power and therefore detested being removed political powers. Franz Kohlner as an influential political figure first strongly opposed his proposal, but reluctantly agreed later on, burying the nation-wide hopes of a democracy for a century. The treaty itself was signed and ratified on 18 May 1793 after months of negotiation. Subsequently, Lukas I was officially coronated in Langquaid to the largest audience of nobility in Mascylla's history.
While the war itself was short, it left a devastating toll on the civilian population and southern economies who suffered from taxation and looting during the conflict. The government was largely composed of war veterans, such as Wilhelm von Stenreck being elected as Mascylla's first Prime Minister, though former Adwhin and other southern states were deeply in debt, inpoverished and virtually politically unrepresented, culminating in a series of strikes and riots in 1795 which were quickly put down by Aldian military forces. However, Mascylla witnessed an unprecedented economic rise, and Lukas I massively grew in public popularity with the introduction of a new row of statutes that satisfied the expanding middle class of classical liberalists and nationalists who continued to rise in influence in national politics and commerce, while the country's separate monarchies were slowly replaced by constitutional systems.
The Mascyllary Kingdom was the brainchild of King Lukas I and his Prime Minister, Wilhelm von Stenreck, upon its foundation in 1793. While the government of the new state was intended to establish the rule of the people under the supervised reign of a monarch, in reality both collaborated in splitting political duties and exchanging policy proposals and ideas, which as a matter of fact greatly bolstered Mascylla's political efficiency and rapid rise in international power. However, Lukas' impulsive actions were checked and regulated by Stenreck, who relied on more expertise in being a statesman and later constituted an intricate foreign policy that would ensure Mascylla's security as a unified nation while exercising its geopolitical ambitions, commonly known as his Ruhe, aber graulen policy ("Be calm, but growl" policy). While considerably unpopular due to his hardline domestic conservative policies, he signed into law universal healthcare and education, boasted the country's war-torn economy and was able to command enough respect in his government for him to largely shape Mascylla's political landscape throughout the first half of the 19th century.
With the deterioration of Stenreck's health by the 1820s, Lukas I assumed a more significant portion in the country's policymaking, while increasingly relying on the Reichsrat as an advistory body alone, which further alienated his former liberal and reformist allies in the elected components of government. When he finally died in 1832 however, his more ambitious and impulsive son, Lukas II, ascended the throne and redefined a large number of Stenreck's previous delicatly introduced policies. Aspiring to expand Mascylla's foreign and economic powers, he abandoned Stenreck's foreign policy, pursuing colonialist ambitions primarly in Pamira and Caphtora, which at this point were largely absent of Berean colonial presence. While at first unilaterally approaching Berean politics, his successors sophisticated the expansionist ideals of Lukas II, while embarking on approaching other powers it saw fit to combat its primary political enemy, the Cuthish Empire, that ultimately became a major factor leading to the Great War.
Cuthish Revolution and rise in power
Mascylla at first had a resentment towards intervening in other Telmerian conflicts concurrently with its unification, the most notable rejecting such ambition being Wilhelm von Stenreck. Lukas I at first remained reluctant as to whether it should intervene in the Cuthish Revolution at first, but the bulk of representatives of parliament foremost denied any involvement with foreign wars if Mascylla's own countryside had not been rebuilt and its political unity settled. When the deposed Algar III of Cuthland however offered his restoration as Cuthland's monarch in exchange for a portion of its Berean and overseas territories, Lukas I pushed for a more prominent stance in Berean affairs, and with solidifying his rule and Mascylla's legitimacy especially in the country's south, he convinced Stenreck to overrule the Reichsrat and ratify the Ulich Agreement in February 1798, which saw the Mascyllary Kingdom entering the Cuthish Revolutionary War as its first military campaign and recognizing the Cuthish king's legitimacy in deposing its young democracy, which was widely seen as a threat to its just established monarchy.
While the war was at first successful with territorial gains in northern Cuthland for much of the conflict, Mascyllary cities such as Birchau and Vogtburg were sacked by Cuthish republican forces in 1799. Nevertheless, the republic was overthrown and the war concluded with the Cuthish monarchy's victory. The Treaty of Swithtun in 1800 saw Cuthland's third and last partition, with Mascylla annexing large territorial cessions by Cuthland, including the northern Cuthland regions and all of its remaining Alvinian and most of its northern Pamiran colonial possessions. The war elevated Mascylla to a great power in an instant and motivated imperialist politicians and nobility to argue for continuous colonial expansion and dominance of Telmerian politics, to the dismay of classical liberalists who advocated to consolidate Mascylla's pre-existing power and limit its interventionist attitude, in line with Stenreck's policies.
Second colonial empire and the Gründerjahre (1800–1840)
Over time, the political legitimacy of the monarchy and government had hardened and politicians began to experiment with numerous courses for domestic and foreign policy. With the worsening health of Stenreck, his power withered and was slowly taken over by more ambitious statesmen, supported by the too eager Lukas I who aspired to expand Mascylla's bulk of power in Berea and overseas in order to cement his legacy. His son, Crown Prince Lukas II staunchly rejected Stenreck's reserved approach to Telmeria and favorited to continue what he described to be a "continuous expansion of the Mascyllary nation" most notably in Pamira and Caphtora. Around this developing political objective, a group of conservative and monarchist politicians established the first political party of Mascylla, the National Democrats, a predecessor to today's National Democratic Union, which dominated Mascyllary politics for well of the 19th century. The reign of Lukas II was shaped by the introduction of loyal statesmen who he thought to be able to project his political ambitions, restore the war-damaged economy and consolidate his father's legacy to bolster support for the monarchy.
The Mascyllary colonial empire, formerly under Aldian control, developed from numerous attempts and stepstones: Caphtoran and Pamiran trade outposts and towns with little territorial extent and vaious Alvinian islands which had been explored and settled to establish plantations and mines. In the early 19th century, the colonies had almost no domestic political value and furthermore little economic importance; however, the accelerating growth of local populations (more than triple by 1850 than in 1810) soon challenged the weight of the metropole within the empire. Political interest also rose with an increased rivalry among Berean colonial powers over yet unclaimed territories which were further fueled by the aftermath of the Karsk Sea War and Conference of Aniarro in the 1860s, including the expansion of the Mascyllary colonial empire at the cost of collapsing Cuthland. A series of small-scale wars and skirmishes with other colonial powers, most notably Lavaria and Sarrac, and numerous colonial tribes and petty kingdoms in Caphtora and Pamira dempered romanticism and prestige of an emerging colonial power, but were quickly compensated through successful and expansive campaigns in Cunucca and Mavronesia, which gave rise to the largest Mascyllary colonial possession, Melasia, in 1830 and 1832 respectively. Falland emerged as the primal colonial enemy in the mid-19th century, frequently exchanging hostile actions and souring relations between it, Mascylla and Lavaria.
Although exerting a large strain on Mascylla's home economy and political capital, it soon acquired enough resources in natural wealth and man labour to bolster its economy, which steadily grew by half in the next twenty years from 1830 to 1850. The emergence of the Second Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century also transformed Mascylla's economy to this point: the sharp increase in manufactured goods led to an explosion of the upper class' consumption and a larger gravance for raw resources, which enabled Mascylla to use its colonies as trade ports to buy and sell their goods while exerting influence on regions and territories with a wealth of resources desperatly needed in the metropole. In the following ten years, Mascylla rapidly grew to the second largest economy on the planet thanks to its expansive colonial system and trade agreements with native states abroad. The colonial empire had exceeded Mascylla's expectations and ambitions in catapulting the country to the status of a great power of Berea within thirty years.
Cutho-Mascyllary enmity, 1847 revolution and Neuzeit
After the partitions of Cuthland and the increasing agrivation of Cuthish and Mascyllary leaders greatly disturbed their relations in spite of a massive shift in power by the Cuthish collapse and rise of Mascylla, which was further deepened following Mascylla's aggressive foreign policy and expansion brought about by Lukas II and Friedrich von Gäste. Stenreck and his political adversaries were deeply concerned about the abolition of the delicate policies set in place to ensure Mascyllary sovereignty which was now endangered. Ultimately, that proved to be true when Cuthland under the rule of Edwin III and the ensuing Ahlstead Wars signaled the now Second Cuthish Empire's stance on recovering its territories lost to mainly Dulebia and Mascylla. The resulting Second Cutho-Mascyllary War in September of 1839 was quickly decided as Cuthland scored a row of military victories, dispersing a Mascyllary army and encircling another one at Augusthal. The bulk of Mascylla's standing army was defeated in Vogtburg a month later and opened the opportunity to encircle and besiege Königsreh in spring of 1840. The hastily organized counter defences were however able to force the besieging army to disperse and capitulate after a crop failure and unrest in the Cuthish armies, but to no avail as Königsreh was forced to capitulate in summer and a provisional government willing to sign a treaty of surrender at Marienfelde. As a result of the negotiations, and formally declared by the Treaty of Alderport, Mascylla was forced to pay reparations and indemnities of 4 billion karnings and cede Elpsland and Dorsace to Cuthland, as well as a number of colonies primarly in Alvinia.
Following the desastrous outcome of the war, the current political establishment and the monarchy under Lukas II in particular earned growing criticism and unfavorable review for the rising influence of the middle and lower class, anticipating a class conflict. The discomfort of the fiercly nationalistic populous, paired with a government that grew more authoritarian and conservative, led to the rise of an insurrectionist movement originating in Königsreh, later known as the Cornflower Uprising of 1847. The bloody revolt, though ultimately unsuccessful at last, prompted other riots, especially within the country's military, to rise up and seek the overthrow of Lukas II. The 28 October coup d'état, largely supported by the peasantry and rogue military factions, deposed Lukas II as King, and despite fierce resistance by the government and elements of the coup originally seeking to overthrow the monarchy entirely, elected Sophia I as Queen. The Reichsrat of 1847 was suspended by her and a new government later formed. The revolution, later known as the October Revolution in Mascylla, primarly introduced further protections and rights for the socialist peasantry, and bolstered support in the existing administration after the coup.
The war left Mascylla, its political administration and military deeply humiliated, which was previously considered to be one of the most well equipped and organized Beream armies. Reluctance over accepting the conclusion, revanchism and already significant popularity of an expansionist Mascylla further exacerbated the Cuthish–Mascyllary enmity and became a key factor in Mascylla's foreign policy going from 1842 onward. Therefore, Mascylla underwhent a dramatic transformation from an isolated and humiliated power, to the centre of a system of Berean alliances intended to counter the growing influence and friendship of Cuthland and the Dulebian Empire by the turn to the 20th century. It established the Otimo Acordo with Lavaria in 1900, subsequently with Sarrac in 1901, and four years later normalized and eased tensions with Falland through the Fallish-Mascyllary Alliance. Its colonial empire also gave way to a more federated version with the establishment of the Federated Melasian States in 1904 as a Dominion of the empire.
The Neuzeit (lit.: 'new age') was a product of the renewed strength and prosperity from its alliances and continued peace in the late 19th century. Due to prolonged economic growth, relative peace and cultural, political and scientific innovation by its populous, Mascylla reinstituted a state of wealth and being a Berean leader in not only military, but also societal and commerce affairs. Simultaneously, the invention and introduction of popular amusements brought about by scientists and innovative artists, most notably the cinema and art styles of Impressionism and Art Nouveau, aided in Mascylla preserving its place as a centre of arts and expression. Additionally, events such as the Universalausstellung of 1891 hosted in Königsreh was an opportunity for the country to present its most recent scientific discoveries, inventions and research. These and other developments, often sponsored by the government itself, were attempts at constituting the bulk of soft power for the Mascyllary state in solidifying its influence not only in its colonial empire and political power, but also culture and technology. Nervertheless, Mascylla remained deeply divided on terms of ideology, foreign policy, regionalism, economic growth and distribution, and the classes, which became a more frequently addressed subject with the introduction of the emancipation of the worker class in political process through the Proletarian Party under Georg Schmidt in the 1890s and the increasing polarisation of the debate on women's suffrage, the bourgeoisie caste and the political legitimacy of the states' monarchies.
Great War and Revolution of 1923
Great War (1911–1916)
Mascylla did not expect war when the Great War came about, as Prime Minister Hermann von Martinsen began attempts of reconciliation and political détente with the Lindenau Accord in 1904, albeit with fierce resistance from a majority of the Reichsrat and King Ludwig I himself, who opted to resort to warfare if necessary as soon as possible. While Mascylla remained divided as to whether to anticipate a war with Cuthland or begin negotiations to ease relations, it became very active in international affairs with politically intervening in the Third Dulebo-Gurkhan War in 1899-1902 and the X, to the dismay of Martinsen who witnessed a counteracting movement in foreign policymaking while undermining the government's policies.
When the X triggered a complex network of alliances and treaties, it drew every Berean power, including Mascylla, into conflict within the first few weeks. While Mascylla was militarly superior in 1911, Cuthland was more efficient and effective at organizing its armies and planning a decisive strike on Mascylla's western defences in Aldia. In September of 1911, Cuthish forces under the command of X swiftly defeated the armies garrisoned at Saarow and Geißdorf, which prompted the Mascyllary Kingdom to hastily muster their defences without prior tactical decisioning. Therefore, the Cuthish was able to penetrate Mascyllary defences at their border and sweep into the Fanian Plain, quickly gaining military control over important industrial regions in Mascylla, in hopes of forcing a quick defeat on Mascylla. While the campaign was very successful within the first four months in curbing combat opportunities of Mascylla such as in the First Battle of Augusthal in late 1911 and the Battle of Winden in 1912, the decisive Battle of Lückwalde proved the Mascyllary forces under Friedrich von Gabig and Ehrhard von Belau could resist the Cuthish advance and save the capital from a siege. Following that and Mascylla fully mobilized, the Northern Front began to solidify with the emergence of trench warfare and increasing war-weariness. The less intense fighting along the southern frontier to Valimia and Cuthland also became static in late 1913. In 1915 to 1916 however, after the assassination of Hermann von Martinsen by a Cuthish nationalist, the utilization of the tank and improved war tactics were finally able to break the stalemate of the front, and swift but often intense fightings caused tromendous casualties and costly victories. The Mascyllary were able to push beyond its borders and well into Cuthland near Kingsham and Alderport by spring of 1916, before the Cuthish signed an instrument of armistice on 29 May 1916 and Mascylla ended effective fighting three days later.
The Armala Coalition posed their terms on primarly Cuthland in the Treaty of Lehpold, hosted by Mascylla, in 1916-17, in which they intended and forced Cuthland to pay huge sums of war reparations, demilitarize heavily and abolish its monarchy. Mascylla had the prevailent say in the treatment of Cuthland in the negotiations, and opted to treat it harshly. It regained the territories of Elpsland and Dorsace lost in the Second Cutho-Mascyllary War, received reparations in form of war material, financial assets and industrial goods, and occupied Cuthland's Lake Sigismund region, while carving up Cuthland's northern territories into the independent state of Temaria under Mascyllary supervision, the Mandates of Konreid and Alderport, as well as Lilienburg in the east. Mascylla also received the Mandates of Northern Alvinia and Pandalam in Alvinia and Cancapore from the remains of the Cuthish colonial empire as well as the Mandate of Transappiria of the former Gurkhan Empire and Kenlong itself. The treaty layed out the framework of a genuine Berean peace under the established Assembly of Nations in 1917. Mascylla continued to remain active in foreign affairs though, such as intervening in the Cuthish Civil War or establishing an elaborate system of alliances with the newly founded Berean states, called the Kleinbund.
The conclusion of the war was propagated as an enourmous success and evidence of Mascylla's position as a world power, but came at the cost of entirely devastated rural and industrial regions in Aldia and Folnery and enourmous civilian and military casualties. The war effort left the war-torn economy crippled, and was only sustainably supported by the taxation of its empire and Cuthish war reparations. Only by the 1920 did Mascylla's economy begin to recover from the war, but at the expense of the worker class who were further exploited to retrieve the country's economic growth. Civil strife for reform and the re-introduction of the welfare state cancelled due to financial issues in 1918 further undermined Mascylla's stability and heated up debates for political transformation.
Revolution of 1923
The revolution was ultimately brought about by previous criticism towards the conservative policies of monarchism and nationalism, calls for reform mainly by the politicized worker class as well as the bankruptcy of the government, the war devastation increasingly attributed to the aristocracy itself and recent political instability in Cuthland spilling over into Mascylla. The boiling point came when in March 1923 soldiers and military personnel resisted and eventually revolted against the amounting pressure by the government to restore civil order and much of the destruction of western Aldia despite lacking funding and resources. The garrisons of Augusthal and Weidenau mutineered on 12 March and inspired their civil counterparts in the police and worker councils to protest as well. The government shortly after constituted its resignation and stated its loss of confidence in the monarchy on 8 May, which quickly collapsed when the Mascyllary Supreme Command under Ehrhart von Belau and Karl Georg von Pritnitz announced its neutrality on 13 May. Ludwig I and most of his subordinate nobility abdicated on 15 May and attempted seeking exile in Valimia, but was apprehended on crossing the border, transported to Königsreh and publicly executed in front of the Reichsrat building simultaneously with the proclamation of the May Republic by Leo Baeck on 23 May 1923.
A hastily assembled council of representatives from the SDP and sovereign worker councils led by the GAV was gathered in Marlau the following day on May 24 in order to seek recognition by the Assembly of Nations and international community. Negotiations with the desparatly needed Reichswehr for their military support and political influence in the upper class culminated in the Zeschtemann-Gabig Pact on 2 June, which granted the Supreme Command to partake in a set of political decisions albeit limited, under a constitutional monarchy but in exchange for supporting the social democrats of the provisional government. The Freikorps, independent but Reichswehr-loyal soldier councils, intervened in the revolution and successfully pushed back the growing movements of far-left socialists under Werhner Pehring, Henriette Zeiner and Emil Hiebert having already established short-lived attempts at carving out soviet republics such as the Proletarian Republic of Mascylla. The eventual crushing of the insurgencies and solidification of the government as a compromise between the conservative military and liberal social democrats ended the revolution when the first election of the Reichsrat was held and the first government under Peter Zeschtemann was inaugurated on 26 January 1924.
Crowned Republic (1924–present)
Post-revolution period and Goldene Zwanziger
After the Great War and preceding revolution, the Mascyllary populated saw politics as tiresome and instead favored private freedoms and lifestyle granted by the introduced democratic system. New cultural innovations and suffistication of the cinema, dance, music styles and most notably alcoholic consumption as well as the introduction of a cultural dynamism and common lifestyle defined the era for Mascylla. The stimulation of economic growth resulting from the readiness and ability of the worker class to consume led to drastic increase in the country's economy previously unseen: within the 1920s the economy grew by more than a fourth of its original size; the ecomomic prosperity witnessed is famously referred to as the Goldene Zwanziger or Roaring Twenties. Corraborating economic policy reforms and co-operation with Lavaria and Falland solidifed the young democracy's legitimacy at large. Mascylla internationally rose as a economic powerhouse and political power thanks to its heavy say in the Assembly of Nations and foreign post-war affairs.
The slow crumbling of Mascylla's colonial empire became more evident with the post-war taxation and exploitation of its colonies while neglecting their development, domestic rights or political autonomy. Growing voices in the successor states to the previously defeated Central Alliance in the Great War called for an end of colonialism which were temporarily balanced with Mascylla's and other Berean empires' importance in the organization. Internally, the excessive consumption of beverages evolved into a national debate and was outlawed nationally from 1925 to 1931 until being revoked under public pressure. The development of organized crime also coincided with the economic prosperity of Mascylla and trafficking of alcoholic products. Furthermore, the question as to whether Mascylla should continue its approach of a major power of the world or rather stipulate a state of isolationism polarised the political landscape of the young democracy, and formed the basis of two blocs of political parties opting for continued imperialism (Weltblock) or domestic preference (Heimatblock).
Melasian Crisis (1941–43) and decolonization
The economic prosperity enjoyed by Mascylla in the decade following the Mascyllary Revolution eased tensions within the colonial realm temporarily, but were resumed quickly following the gradual end of extraordinary commerical growth in the metropole by 1935, to the neglect of colonial territories heavily depending on foreign export and a stable common market. Among those, Melasia grew increasingly self-righteous, and with a nationalist spirit and identity acquired in the war efforts of the colonial empire in the Great War and post-war Mascyllary military. The staunchly conservative policies of the colonial administration largely retrieved from the Mascyllary Kingdom after the war were unable to implement reforms that would weaken segregational laws and racial inequality in its empire, which directly helped mitigate the popularity of and association with Mascylla's rule.
The 1941 revolt and subsequent Melasian Crisis in Melasia was the culmination of these tensions and issues, and was further agitated by Cuthland developing it into a proxy war between both nations. Despite the combined effort of the Mascyllary military and supporting economic wealth, its actions were ill-fated in that the gruesome guerilla warfare of Melasia's native population and deployments of Mascyllary soldiers costly in war material and human loss were ineffective in successfully regaining control over all of Melasia. Cuthland's direct intervention in the conflict through border skirmishes and preparations for a large-scale offensive pushed the Assembly of Nations to seek truce negotiations and a subsequent peace treaty in 1943 in the face of rapidly rising tensions, which forced Mascylla to withdraw and grant Melasia its independence. The inhabitants of Melasia supporting Mascylla were massively forced to flee and pursue immigration to Mascylla, sparking a fiery political and civil debate.
The crisis was a devastating blow to Mascylla's prestige as a world power and humiliation of its prowess. The majority of the Assembly of Nations approved Melasia's sovereignty and called for the begin of decolonization of Berea's colonial empires. Under pressure from the AN and the signing of a new coalition government under Ernest Rähner in 1946, Mascylla presented its plan to disband its colonial holdings in three stages beginning in 1950, 1960 and lastly in 1970. The brutality witnessed in the Melasian Crisis transformed the public perception of colonialism and Mascylla's moral conscience, and dealt a heavy blow to the country's view of its "ethical superiority". The awareness brought about by the war not only affected society and cultural views, but also foreign policy and the military, who introduced or consolidated the usage of aircraft carriers, strategic bombers and researched means of asymmetric warfare, having learned from its tactical mistakes and issues faced.
Great Game (1944–1989)
While the Treaty of Königsreh of 1943 resolved the initial disputes and tensions of the Melasian Crisis through compromisional negotiations, in reality it further deepened the enmities between Berea's leading powers in the status quo of the Great War and its direct aftermath. Owed to reactionary policies after the crisis, Mascylla, along with its closest allies Lavaria and Falland established the Berean Defence Treaty Association in 1944 in response to Cuthland's Mageiros League founded two years later rapidly rising in influence with the accession of independent Melasia to the alliance. A third party emerged from the communist states of the east dominated by the X, and the world's geopolitics became divided on the ideological and political lines of authoritarianism, western democracies and socialism. The ensuing Great Game was therefore the dominant factor of international politics and ultimately that of Mascylla. An unprecedented economic boom succeeded that of the 1920s, but with increased stability and continuous wealth brought to the Mascyllary economy, state and new middle class; the rise of mass-consumerism and awakened interest in politics can be attributed to that era.
The prioritized development of nuclear weaponry as a method of counter-balancing the powers of the other blocs respectively culminated in the 1963 Ace test of Falland's and Mascylla's Operation Whitehorse, the first nuclear weapons test in history. The introduction of mutually assured destruction to the larger conflict significantly contributed to the prolonged peace between the sides, albeit under the existential threat of nuclear warfare, which became a major point of debate by a counterculture movement developing from other criticism on society and politics in the early 1960s. Criticism on Mascyllary politics have temporarily been publicly discredited and persecuted in fear of the ideologies of the respective blocs settling in the country, which has lead to a significant ailing of its democratic values, to the dismay and concern of much of its youth and citizenry.
The 1967 oil crisis was a major shift in the Great War, marking the end of authoritarian rule in Melasia, civil unrest in Cuthland and the downfall of the Mageiros League as one of the world's three major blocs. While Mascylla initially survived the economic recession, it showed symptoms of the onset of resulting stagflation beginninng in the late 1960s and ending a decade later. Efforts to contain economic damage and lower stubbornly high unemployment rates after the crisis have been extensive, but often miscalculated or not sustainably conceptualized. After a period of civil and public outcry and unrest due to political scandals and the economic turnout from 1968—1977, Mascylla was weakened in political willpower and strength, but regained much of its prestige by Charlotte Mayn's administration in the 1980s. The development of ICBMs and initiation of a more aggressive foreign policy called Rückdrängen (meaning 'push back') disturbed the détente of the Great Game and temporarily re-heated tensions between the powers, but with a more close association with the X. The launch of X triggered the Space Race, by which a collaborative effort by Mascylla and Dulebia succeeded in first landing humans on the Moon in 1981. The subsequent years experienced renewed ease in tensions and with the collapse of the X, abpruptly triggering the 1987 financial crash, the Great Game is generally considered to have ended in 1989. The weakened socialist world and Cuthland's allies paved the way for a brief era of Mascyllary and BDTA global unipolarity.
Civil dissatisfaction and reform period (1966–1981)
Between 1966 and 1981, Mascylla was witness to tromendous social and political change, civil upheaval and general instability fueled by political scandals, intrigue and economic stagnation suffered from the 1967 financial crisis and increased foreign competition. Beginning in March 1966, controversial education reforms implemented by incumbent Prime Minister Ulrich Werner on the matter of university and school curriculum regulations and payment for access to these institutions prompted thousands of students to protest in opposition to the law, but quickly expanded beyond its original intention and encompassed an umbrella movement of various political ideologies, sub-cultures and countercultures. The demonstrations grew in size, while it had adopted characteristics and intentions of other demands by the public, such as civil rights for colored citizens and the acceptance of homosexuals (commonly referred to as the Sexual Revolution), and feminists. On 13 June 1966 the movement merged into the activist organization Außerstaatlich-Völkische Opposition (ASVO) with Benno Gruhner and Eduard Malch as its figureheads. The student protests of 1966-68 dominated national media attention and polarized the political debate, considerably by the government itself who sought to discredit and weaken the movement under suspiction of them being sponsored and motivated by third foreign parties. Major episodes of riots and protests in Mascylla's cities continued to escalate, and the shooting of student Alexander Schmitt by Königsreh police forces on 11 September 1966 infuriated the members of the ASVO and seeking retaliation against the government, now having declared the ASVO as a "communist cell".
Under amounting pressure on the government by the ASVO and spreading general strikes of workers demanding higher wages, the government issued a state of emergency while envoking to use its military. On 28 February, 1968, media agencies were informed and revealed the short-coming Kornbach affair to the public, accusing Ulrich Werner to have rigged the choosing of the Highest Judge of the High Court to oppose further support to the movement and legal change. Twenty co-perpretators were sentenced and jailed, and Werner forced to resign by his own party (the NDU) and after loosing a vote of no-confidence to the Reichsrat. The succession of liberal Konrad Dierck as Prime Minister and implementation of new reforms eased tensions and led to the ASVO being fully disolved in 1969. However, other points not met were still rigorously defended and demonstrated with protests and riots throughout the country, and political instability in the aftermath shock of the scandal remained apparent until the 1980s. Trust had been completely lost in the government, and mediocre achievements in supplementing change and reforms meagerly advanced Dierck's administration. Furthermore, the assassination of the ASVO's leaders a year later continuously disrupted the social order briefly returned after Werner's resignation.
A splinter group of the ASVO, the Revolutionary Garrison founded in 1970, continued to brutally oppose the Mascyllary state, and conducted a series of terrorist attacks, kidnappings and hijackings in light of forcefully establishing communism in Mascylla. Various politicians and public figures fell victim to or were injured by the RG, and its crimes, leaders being sentenced and motivations captivated the nation. The developments of the 1960s and 1970s thoroughly split the Social Democratic Party and essentially deprived its function as a government party while the NDU had to reconcile with the Kornbach scandal and the Centre Party suffered internal fighting. Its economic downturn, social insurgency and weakened administration were largely resolved however with the election of Charlotte Mayn of the SDP by a landslide in 1981, noted for her cunning political maneuvering and skill, economic reforms and keen charismatic appearance, which by many is considered to have "brought back the people's optimism and willpower." Though not re-elected, she made a lasting impression on Mascylla's interior policy, most notably its pragmatic economic policy and welfare spending; her term in office is generally referred to as the "Maynerist Era" of 1981-1989.
The turning point came when in 1991 Königsreh was struck by a series of terrorist attacks of the Revolutionary Garrison on July 20, 1991. The attack left 504 people dead and devastated the functions of the government in a constitutional crisis after which members of the Reichsrat and state parliaments of Eustria and Folnery had been killed, while the collapse of the Martinsen Center gravely damaged Königsreh inner city. The proclaimed state of emergency gave away to the largest man hunt in history, lasting nine years in total, in pursuit of the attack's perpretators. While the emergency right retained by the government had been revoked in its aftermath and after the death of Pascal Schneidmühl, the initial mastermind of the attacks, by Mascyllary special forces in Pereuth in 2002, it constituted a keen sense of threat by society itself as well as controversial efforts to counter-act terrorism through mass surveillance and advanced rights of the national DSA intelligence agency to access law enforcement information. Numerous allegations of human rights abuses have also been brought forward and repeatedly investigated by Reichsrat committees in 2003, 2004 and 2012 respectively.
In the wake of the Great Game, the BDTA remained the world's sole powerful political bloc. Political stability and economic sturdiness established by Mayn's administration was continued after the election of Michael Meilke, and further rose in prominence with the aftermath of the financial crisis of 1987 and solidification of economic liberalism of the country in the 1990s. However, underlying social issues such as stoic unemployment rates and uneven local economic development plagued the sense of confidence in the government which had struggled to emerge from the crisis period of the 1960s and 1970s. Efforts to bridge the gap of trust in Mascylla's future after the conclusion of the 20th century have been introduced, such as expanded healthcare services, a sophisticated space program of the Raumfähre and continued international diplomatic interventionism.
The assassination of Michael Meilke on March 19, 2000, left the country in a profound state of shock, still recovering from the July 20 attacks. The disillusionment of Mascyllary invulnerability transformed domestic and foreign policy, and evolved as a vocal point of dispute by the nation's right and left politics, while also coinciding with the official end of the Mascyllary colonial empire with the release of X into independence in 199X. Furthermore, the new rise of Cuthland as a second-coming emerging world power with the Ochoccola War of 1994 and stregthened political players in Pamira, namely the Pamiran Federation and Yudong, challenged the privileged position of the BDTA.
Reconciling foreign policies were introduced with Prime Minister Konrad Folln to combat that issue, but preserved its dominant attitude in international affairs, such as military supporting parties in the X beginning in X in opposition to Cuthland and introducing sanctions against Dulebia with continued allegations of election fraud and autocratic governance of Alexey Volodin in 2010. The recent decade saw a significant revival of interest in international politics and preservation of Mascyllary importance in Telmeria and by a broader perspective, Berea. While the relations between Cuthland and Mascylla remain neutral, both have aspired to strengthen their respective allies and alliances, and were the cause for multiple incidents and long-term tensions at common points of interest, namely the Strait of X and economic integrity with southern Telmeria and Dentria.
Mascylla is situated in the north of the Telmerian peninsula of the Berean continent, being bordered by X to the north, Valimia to the east, X to the southeast, X to the south, Lilienburg to the south-southwest, and Temaria and Cuthland-Waldrich to the west. It is furthermore bounded by Lake Sigismund to the southwest, the White Sea to the northwest and north, the Hallerweg strait in the north dividing the Jusland peninsula from X, the North Sea to the north-east, and Lake Decia to the southeast. The territorial extent of Mascylla covers an area of 432,017.0 km2 (or 166,802.7 sq mi), 2.1% or 11,382 km2 (4395 sq mi) of which are areas of water; this makes Mascylla the largest country by size in Telmeria (excluding Dulebia and Valimia) and the Xth largest in the world. The country also encompasses overseas territories around the world, the largest of which by land area and population being Akawhk in Alvinia.
Its most notable feature is the abundance of diverse topographical and geological assets having been amassed throughout its turbulent geographical history. The Weißenhaupt mountains in the west of the country are the highest elevated areas of Mascylla, with the Schneespeer (at 2,597 metres or 8,520 feet) as its peak, while numerous collections of mountains and small ranges dot the central highlands region of Mascylla. The coastal areas are dominated by two low-lying agrarable and lightly forested plains, collectively the Eastern Mascyllary Plain to the east and the Fanian Plain in the north-west.
These regions are traversed by some of Telmeria's longest and major rivers, including the Blaugold, Mogd, Lahr, Warne, Rohrn and Lanne, and feature an abundance of waterways and lakes, the most notably of which Lake Sigismund (Sigismundmeer), the Welbernsee, Lake Decia (Delchsesee) and the Amsernsee. Due to its geological activity and diverse landscape, Mascylla is a deposit for numerous natural resources and biodiverse habitats.
Topography and geology
Its topographic outline is distinctive enough to be divided into three major regions—that of the Fanian Plain, Eastern Mascyllary Plain and Central Mountains massif. The central regions of Mascylla feature rugged and a patternless cluster of highlands, small mountaineous ranges and hillside, predominantly formed through ancient volcanic processes caused by the creation of the X mountains to the south of Mascylla and Telmeria, and the recent geologic development of the Cuthish Rift Valley to the west. Tectonic instability following the irregular collision of the Pamiran with the Dentro-Telmerian Plate some 42 million years ago fractured its central areas and allowed for short-lived volcanic activity that created numerous small volcanoes and uplifted large areas. Ultimately, this first phase of mountain building came to a halt 30 million years ago, when the collision and creation of the X mountains stopped as well. However, the triggered fracturing gravely destabilized the entire plate, and the Cuthish Rift Valley formed from substantial crust thinning and the establishment of a graben along the foreland basin of the too recently formed Dentrian Mountains, causing further isolated volcanic activity and the uplift of its eastern rift flank, building the present-day Weißenhaupt and Hohnern mountains 28 million years ago. As a consequence of this geological activity, the ancient Telmerian Lake was drained and transformed into the Eastern Mascyllary Plain, while the Meinhard central massif was carved out from basalt deposits through the first initial volcanic phase.
While Mascylla's major topographic makeup is geologically young in its development, the massif on which it sits on was created nearly a billion years ago, and some of its heavily eroded and almost decimated mountains still exist, such as the linear hill and mountain ranges of Jusland (the Farstwald and Schwesengebirge) or the Meinhard massif, speculated to have originated from a magma plume submerged and active 260 million years ago, and later on uplifted with the creation of the X. Its bedrock is largely covered in younger volcanic materials and layers which protected it from aggressive erosion, and was geologically only recently resurfaced. This process is the only one in Mascylla to be an ongoing activity, and in tandem with the Cuthish Rift Valley, the cause for a number of historical earthquakes and small-scale volcanic eruptions as recently as 300 years ago.
During the last ice age, Mascylla was substantially covered by a glacier shield atleast 500 metres thick. This resulted in the depressions of today's Fanian and Eastern Mascyllary Plain, while heavily eroding away much of the mountains's previous material and mass. When global temperatures rose again, the ice cover melted away and released enourmous amounts of fresh water, filling the low-lying areas of the Cuthish Rift Valley and eventually forming Lake Sigismund as a glacial lake. The steep canyons and river valleys of the Central Mountains can also be attributed to the sudden heavy erosion experienced shortly after the Pleistocene ice age. The sediments of the mountains carried away by massive rivers eventually culminated as huge sandy deltas and marshlands, over time amassing and draining large swaths of previous shallow waters. As a result, large flat plains were created that today constitute Mascylla's low-lying coastal areas and their fertility.
Mascylla is entirely situated within the temperate climate zone of Telmeria in the planet's westerlies zone and on a transitional area between the oceanic climate of Dentria and western Berea and the continental climate of Pamira. The climate of Mascylla is also influenced by the X Stream which is responsible for unusually high annual temperature averages at such a local latitude, supplying Mascylla and Telmeria with mostly wet and mild oceanic air. The influence of the Agric Ocean decreases significantly when moving from west to east. A maritime climate with minor temperature differences between winter and summer is found along the coastlines, the adjacent hinterland and areas up to the Lensrau Basin and Unterelpser Wald foreland, while seasonal temperature fluctuations increase when travelling southward to Holnia and Adwhin. However, major climatic differences also occur due to the country's obstructive and rugged topographical relief, which makes the passage of warm and cold air especially in the central regions of Mascylla difficult; while valleys and lowlands such as the Blaugold Valley and Dahle Valley allow for cold air to leave the mountaineous areas and warm air to highten its average temperatures, most areas and ranges remain generally more influenced by continental weather patterns than the geographically closer maritime climate.
The annual average temperature, when taken into account the national measurements of 1934–2000, is approximately 10.6 °C, and the national amount of precipitation estimated at 596.8 mm. While Mascylla enjoys much of the calibrating and controlling meteorological effects of large bodies of water, it has witnessed multiple extreme weather phenomena. The highest temperature ever on record and validified by the Mascyllary Meteorological Service (MMD) was 37.4 °C on 10 August 2019 in Sonthofen in Gotia, while the coldest temperature measured in Mascylla was at –22.5 °C on 19 January 1935 recorded in Munstborn, Adwhin. Natural meteorological hazards of Mascylla include forest fires such as the Thulba Fire of 2019, windstorms (called Orkane) such as Orkan Ariadne in 1998 or Orkan Lothar in 2006 and thunderstorms, floodings, storm surges, and landslides.
|Climate data for Königsreh (Schönhoch), normals 1975–present, extremes 1950–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.5
|Average high °C (°F)||6.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||47.3
|Avg. snowy days||13||9||7||2||0||0||0||0||1||4||12||18||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.7||77.6||119.4||165.6||228.1||236.9||240.3||216.2||160.8||119.4||63.5||57.3||1,746.8|
|Source: MMD and MaskData|
Biodiversity and environment
The biological territory of Mascylla lies predominantly in the temperate climate zone and its natural vegetation marks a distinct transformation from an oceanic climate to a continental climate. The flora of the country without human interaction is mostly constituted by deciduous forests of beeches and oaks and conifer forests of spruces and pines, excluding unfertile and arid areas such as mountain summits, heaths, moorlands and alpine und subalpine highlands, which are largely free of vegetation and colder in their climates. Locally, the flora in Mascylla exhibits a large diversitification due to local factors of the terrain and mesoclimatic location, which resulted in large numbers of different species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses.
Around 45,000 species of animals are identified and varified to live in Mascylla, which in comparison to other Berean ecological areas makes it a rather less diverse area. Native wild mammals of Mascylla include deers such as the roe deer, wild boars, foxes, martens and lynxes; birds of Mascylla are for example the osprey, white-tailed eagle and falcon, while maritime species include seals, certain whales and amphibians. Beavers and otters are rather rare inhabitants of rivers and lakes, albeit with a growing population. Dense and growing human populations throughout history led to the devastation and extinction of various animals such as the wisent, native salmon, brown bear, wolf and moose, though recent efforts were successful in resettling populations of them in protected areas.
As of 2017, 29% of Mascylla's area was covered in forests and more than half of the entire area, at 52%, was devoted to agriculture, two-thirds used for pastures and greenlands and the remainder for actual agricultural activities. The protection and preservation of nature is defined by the Constitution as a public duty and designated policy target; ecological protection is served and guaranteed through 20 national parks, 24 biosphere reserves, 111 nature parks and thousands of nature protection areas, landscape protection areas and natural memorials.
Mascylla is a federal parliamentary representative democracy formally governed by a constitutional monarchy, as codified and set by the its constitution. Exercising the separation of powers, the political system of the country is divded into the executive, legislative and judiciary, each controlled by a separate institution. Formally and de jure, the Monarch of Mascylla is the head of the executive branch and therefore head of state, ceremonial commander-in-chief of the armed forces in peacetime and most influential political instance in Mascyllary politics. However, since 1924 these powers are primarly vested in ceremonial and representative responsibilities and duties, and largely held by the Prime Minister, who serves as the head of government and exercises de facto executive power. The Prime Minister is elected directly by the public, and formally approved by the Monarch if he or she is able to wield the confidence of parliament through a single party majority or coalition government. The ministers of the cabinet are then proposed by the Prime Minister, who are in turn either approved or rejected by the Reichsrat. Current Prime Ministe since 2016 is Thomas Falkner of the RU and ruling Monarch since 2005 is Queen Dorothea I.
The political system is laid out by the frameworks of the Constitution (Reichsverfassung) and Crown Law (Krongesetz) established in 1793 and 1800 respectively. Essential concepts of the system, such as the federal structure, respect to human rights, the rule of law and democratic basis were officially added in 1924 and are protected by a status of perpetual validity. Direct democracy is supported through the availability of protests, referenda, a multi-party system and accountance of the government, and guaranteed freedoms of expression, assembly, and universal suffrage beginning at age 18.
The legislative is composed of two institutions, the Reichsrat and Reichssenat, who together wield legislative power in proposing and deciding on law proposals and amendments. While the Reichssenat is not an official institution established by either document, it was preserved since the country's unification in 1793. The Reichsrat is directly elected using the system of mixed-member proportional representation, while the Reichssenat as the representative body of Mascylla's federal states and free cities is appointed by the individual state governments. The legislative chambers have a wide set of political options and powers, and are overseen by the President of the Reichssenat (Präsident des Reichssenates), currently Egon Weidmann, and the Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat (Oberster Sprecher des Reichsrates), currently Walther Steintz, coming second and fourth on the oder of precedence, respectively. The judiciary of the state is embodied in the High Court of the Realm (Hohes Gericht des Reiches), led by Highest Judge Linus Pretschgen, being the official source of law of the country and guarantor and protector of the constitution.
In Mascylla's political history, the Centre Party (preceeding the Rehunion), Social Democratic Party and National Democrats have been the dominant parties, with almost every Prime Minister to date being a member of either party. Smaller parties still retain significant power however, most notably the Liberal Party who successfully navigated to enter coalition governments throughout the 20th century and maintain two Prime Ministers; the other small People's Party, The Greens, and Adwhinish Citizens' Party, while small, also frequently partake in the political discourse and are staples of the legislative. Almost every goverment was a coalition government however, and much of the smaller parties oriented to the larger parties, who maintain catch-all blocs in hopes to better negotiate a coalition government contract with another major party bloc.
The federal system of the Crowned Republic is represented and exercised through its 22 member states, which are officially referred to as Länder ('States') or Reichsländer ('Imperial States'). The city states are individually called Freie Städte or Freie Reichsstädte ('Free Cities' or 'Free Imperial Cities') depending on the historical and economic development of the cities as free entities, and encompass the states of Kronlande, interchangibly used with the city name Königsreh, Flussmund, Pereuth and Langquaid. Kronlande, Pereuth and Langquaid are each governed as unified municipalities (Einheitsgemeinden), while Flussmund, as an exception, is composed of two municipalities of Flussmund itself and Dockfurt. However, as opposed to other federal states, Mascylla does not have a territory of direct government control such as a capital district.
The states and free cities make up the most significant devolutionary subjects of the Mascyllary federal system, however they are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden) as the smallest unit of administrations. They are, excluding the free city states and independent cities of the states, each summarized into districts (Landkreise), depending on the municipality's population and location.
Districts and municipalities are subject to the individual laws of the states, and therefore considerably variable, however in compliance with the supreme Constitution. Representative councils of the municipalities are directly voted by the public, and enact local laws and decisions based on the larger state's actions and legal situation; while each subject or level maintains bodies of delegates, solely the legislature of the state and its government is politically relevant to the entire country, seated in the state's capital (Landeshauptstadt).
|Map||State||Capital city||Largest city||Population|
|Crowned Republic of Mascylla||Königsreh||Flussmund||48,972,336|
Law and law enforcement
The Mascyllary judicial system is based on the Mascyllary law developed from Mascyllary law of previous tribal communities and early versions of a modern judiciary in documents of the Middle Ages, most significiantly the Welsbächisches Bürgerrecht and Fahner Recht, and a modified version of Cambran law embraced in the 12th century due to its precision, efficiency and versility. The Crowned Republic defines itself as a constitutional state, and therefore committs itself to base political actions on the sole rule of law that can only be regulated by the constitution of the country. Anybody who has their rights violated by public violence or action has the right to seek legal justice at a court. The judges are independent and obliege no limitations in their jurisdiction. The justice system is primarly exercised by the states' courts individualized for certain crimes and affairs and their severity, including the Amtsgericht (district court), Landgericht and Oberlandesgerichte (higher regional court). The highest court of the judicial system and the country's court of appeal for civil and crime-related cases as well as the constitutional court is that of the High Court of the Realm (Hohes Reichsgericht), while other courts are responsible for work-related (Arbeitsgericht des Reiches), political and administrative (Reichsverwaltungshof), social (Sozialgericht des Reiches) and financial cases (Reichsfinanzhof).
Generally, internal security is the responsibility of the individual states of Mascylla due to its federal nature. However, Mascylla instead opted to unify the state police forces into a centralized unit in 1800, today the Imperial Police (Reichspolizei). In turn, the Reichspolizei is separated into distinctive branches of specialization, including security police (Schutzpolizei), riot police (Bereitschafts- und Sonderpolizei), criminal police (Kriminalpolizei) and special forces (such as the Spezialoperationseinheit (SOE) and Mobileinsatzkommando (MEK). The protection of public order is also supported by the border protection police (Reichsgrenzschutzpolizei) which is responsible for border protection and anti-terror measures. Other institutions include the Reichskriminalamt used to investigate severe crimes, the Zolldienst, Zollfahndungsamt and Zollkriminalamt for customs enforcement. All of these agencies are subject to the Ministry of the Realm in close collaboration with the Ministry of Finance of the Realm.
Mascylla also maintains three separate intelligence services: the civil Dienst für strategische Aufklärung (DSA) gathers civil and military intel from abroad and processes them accordingly, the internal Agentur für Demokratieschutz (ADS) oversees the protection of the constitution and deterrence of espionage, and the Militärischer Abschirm- und Aufklärungsdienst (MAAD) of the Ministry of Defence of the Realm and Reichswehr respectively. Intelligence agencies do not have the enforcement authority as opposed to police forces and are subject to more guidelines and regulations by the civil authorities.
Foreign relations and policy
Mascylla, as a dominant political, economic and military world power, has established and often extensive relations with almost every country as part of its intricate foreign policy. Almost every country maintains an embassy in Königsreh and further consulates in other major Mascyllary cities; therefore Mascylla maintains a wide set of diplomatic missions to almost every other country on the planet as well. It hosts the headquarters of the Assembly of Nations located in Königsreh, and is a member state of the organization and permanent member of the Assembly of Nations Security Council, by which it maintains and ratifies its status as a recognized great power. It is a member of the Telmerian Union.
The country has played an influential role throughout much of modern Berea's history, beginning with its inception in the late 18th century. Culminating in the joint foundation of the Berean Defence Treaty Association (BDTA) of 1944, it has maintained a significantly strong relationship with Lavaria and extensive dialogue with Falland, after having collaborated and cooperated together during the Great Game and previously the Great War as political allies. Relations with Cuthland-Waldrich remain an integral part of Mascyllary foreign policy and historically played a significant role in Mascylla's development and policymaking. While antagonizing Cuthland as a major enemy of Mascylla repeatedly through the 20th century, it has promoted the foundation of a more centralized and unified Berean political, economic and security system, and due to economic interests and political goals, advocated for a political order of Interbereanism after the demise of the Great Game. As a result, Mascylla also established treaties with Temaria and Lilienburg to bolster its economic integrity with them, while also providing means of national defence and security needs; it has pushed numerous times to expand the project to other Telmerian countries in hopes of economic and political co-ordination and unification, coming to fruition with the Telmerian Union of the 1990s. Mascylla also maintained strong bilateral relations with its former colonies, most notably the recent reapproachment to Melasia, and continuously supplied economically or intervened in insurgencies in said colonies and generally minor states in Berea, Caphtora and Pamira around the world, such as X in X, while being repeatedly criticized for its reactionary foreign policy and interventionism.
The Mascyllary Reichswehr is the military and paramilitary organization of Mascylla responsible for its external protection and military actions. It consists of the Streitkräfte, namely the Mascyllary Army (Reichsheer), the Mascyllary Navy (Marine) and Mascyllary Air Force (Luftheer), and the Zivilverwaltung of the Reichswehr Joint Medial Services (Reichwehrmedizinbasis) and Joint Support Services (Streitkräftebasis), fulfilling the role of the civil counterpart, non-combat support branch and acting police forces of the military. Combined, the Reichswehr deploys some 167,300 active duty soldiers and 329,700 reserve personnel as of 2017, making it one of the largest armed forces in the world and the second largest in Telmeria proper behind the Cuthish military; it has formally suspended the use of conscription in 2002. Mascylla's annual military expenditure was at Ӄ60.2 billion (US$46.8 billion), or 2.2% of its GDP, making it the second-largest global military spender, only behind Kodesh. The Reichswehr is overseen by the Ministry of Defence of the Realm, and while the Monarch remains the ceremonial commander-in-chief in peacetime, the Prime Minister wields executive power in essence.
Mascylla's military position is demonstrated by its status as a permanent member state of the Assembly of Nations Security Council and recognized nuclear weapons state since the testing of its first nuclear device in 1943, having both ratified and signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in 1990 and the Birchau Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1984. Its current nuclear weapons stockpile (as of 2020) encompasses 390 active warheads. Its nuclear strategy and deterrence relies on its nuclear triad capability: it maintains a fleet of 19 Pritnitz-class submarines equipped and purposed for submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), long-range strategic aircraft, such as AB-2 Donnerschlag and ABT-1 Geist bombers, capable of carrying gravity bombs, air-to-ground missiles, and cruise missiles with nuclear warheads, and silo-based ICBMs and MRBMs capable of delivering multiple nuclear weapons or one, respectively.
Mascylla's military is supported by a large complex of civil companies and therefore stimulates one of the largest arms and aerospace industries in the world. It has also collaborated on a number of international projects with other countries, most notably the other BDTA member states and Dulebia, but generally prefers the use of domestically produced arms and equipment as opposed to foreign import. Major defense contractors such as Schütze Gneisau, Wiesar or Albatross frequently partner with the Reichswehr in weapons development, and are among the largest arms sellers worldwide due to their availability to export most of the arsenal's designs.
With a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $2.616 trillion in 2018, the economy of Mascylla is the single largest one in Berea and the second-largest economy in the world, as well as the fourth-largest one measured by PPP. Mascylla is considered to be a developed country with the fifth-highest Human Development Index of the world and boasting one of the largest rates of nominal GDP per capita in any country; it also ranks third in the Global Competitiveness Index of 2019. Mascylla's economic viability is mainly derived from its policy model of numerous small and medium-sized enterprises, called Mittelstand, which are especially effective and moreoften world market leaders in specialised industrial sectors. Furthermore, the human potential of Mascylla with sufficient education and a large innovation culture are seen as integral to the success of the Mascyllary economy. Mascylla's economy is defined as a highly developed and free-market-oriented social market economy. The entirety of economic productivity is brought about by 1.1% in the primary industrial (agriculture), 38.4% in the secondary (industry) and 60.5% in the tertiary (services) sectors. Mascylla employed its largest labour force of 41.042 million people in 2017, or 84.1% of the population, in its history; its unemployment rate was estimated at 15.9% in 2017.
While Mascylla has access to large resource deposits (including coal, industrially relevant minerals such as silver, iron, zinc and copper, and salts) and a long history of mining, it is crucially dependant on the import of resources and energy assets from abroad. The most competitive sectors of the Mascyllary industry are considered to be the automotive, aerospace, electronic, heavy machinery and chemical sectors. Financial services such as banking and insurance managing are also globally significant, with Flussmund in particular serving as an international financial centre. The most important trading partners of Mascylla in 2016 were Yudong at a trading volume of $151.37 billion, Lavaria with $146.60 billion, Valimia with $126.71 billion, and Sarrac with $119.28 billion. The value of all exports of goods and services comprised 52% of the economic output in 2017, which makes Mascylla a highly globalised and export-oriented economy, although with potential to decline following global trade fluctuations, despite the economic growth of the recent decade being largely fueled by an increase in participating consumers.
Mascylla also serves as the mediator of the Telmerian Union, an economic area comprising Mascylla, Temaria, Lilienburg, Valimia and Valtriva (approximately 182 million people) to foster economic development, import and export relations, trade customs and currency policy. The Mascyllary national currency is the Karning (MKӃ, Ӄ) and its exchange rate and policy is directed by the national Great Bank of Mascylla in Flussmund. The Karning is among the most traded currencies by value and important reserve currencies in the world.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, 94 of which are headquarted in Mascylla. 31 major Mascylla-based companies are included in the MAIX, the prime Mascyllary stock market index which is operated by the Flussmund and Königsreh Stock Exchanges, in order to coordinate market economic and company-related affairs. Major, well-known and internationally popular Mascyllary companies and brands include EdgeCartz, Baumbach, Grainer and Damo in the automotive industry, Reuthers, Koldmeier, Albatross, Magnall, SPCF and AGAtechnik as electronics, chemistry and technology producers, Bunde and Königliche Bank as insurance and banking comglomerates, the retailer BIEK, petrochemical producer Shale PetroChem, transport companies MKH and Maskillische Post, Mask Telekom, software and computer manufacturers DAP, Heiders, WohlneMKS and IBA Systeme, and media producers such as RSUGlobal, Prisma, BärtleKrenz, and ANB.
While the agricultural industry gradually diminished in their importance to the national economy, partaking only 1.1% of economic business in 2015, it is still considered internationally relevant in generating a wide array of products, being the fourth-largest exporter of agricultural products in Berea. The domestic agricultural industry is extremely productive in that it is able to sustain and cover more than 85% of the Mascyllary population's needs for food in 2019, mainly due to extensive fertile soils in northern and eastern Mascylla and sophisticated modern technology used in agriculture.
Principal agricultural exports of Mascylla include products of lifestock, including poultry, beef and pork, dairy products, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, rye, cabbages, and fruit. Processed food such as variations of cheese and bread are also important, and form staples of Mascyllary cuisine, while to a lesser extent domestically grown wine, citrus fruits and legumes are also consumed and exported. Beer is a historically relevant, traditional and widely popular beverage, and many beers brewn in Mascylla are known worldwide.
Mascylla is the second-most visited country in the world as of 2015, with a total of 39.7 million international arrivals and overnight stays of tourists. Tourism as an economic sector made a considerable contribution to the national economy, generating a revenue of $186.2 billion, or 9.4% of Mascylla's GDP in 2019. It is also an important source of employment in urban areas and by a smaller margin in rural areas of frequent availability to tourists. Approximately 3,500 of the 10,162 town and villageships of Mascylla are registered in some form of tourist agency, and 260 of them are recognized spas and seaside resorts. 4,281 museums, 204 theatres, 18 amusement parks, 32,100 tennis courts, 711 golf courses, more than 175,000 kilometres of hike trails and 20,000 kilometres of biking ways, and numerous special thematic routes (Themenstraßen) are all available and accessible to tourism activities.
The country is host to a number of well-known cultural, iconic and environmental tourist destinations, as well as 27 UPESCH World Heritage Sites, among the ten countries globally with the most protected sites. Königsreh and Flussmund are the leading tourist destinations of Mascylla, attracting up to 9.3 and 7.6 million tourists in 2010 respectively; the most popular sites are the Siegestor, Reichsrat and Kronenrat building, Königsreh Zoo (Zoologischer Park), Hohenehr palace, Sankt Lorenz Cathedral, and Reichsmuseum in Königsreh, and the Nielsenbrücke, Museum der Nationalen Künste, and Amelienburg palace in Flussmund. Other major tourist destination in Mascylla include the Augusthal Palace in Augusthal, Liechtenwald Palace in Lehpold, Sankt Weidemar Church in Breisgau, Cathedral of Langquaid, Alte Halle der Künste in Konreid, Prinzenwald park in Königsreh, Dameroper in Karnitz, the states of Jusland and Halstein for their beachsides and abundance in nature, and the Altstädte (old towns, city centres) of Eichenau, Konreid, Lübbernau, Augusthal, Breisgau, Ihleburg, Langquaid and Weidenau.
Mascylla is also a significant host of international economic and innovative exhibitions, particularly the cities of Lannbrück and Langquaid, colloquially called Messestädte ('fair cities'). The country is often viewed as the most valuable fair host worldwide, and its exhibitions, fairs and congresses considered to be trend-setters of global economic sectors, with more than 7.7 million visitors arriving in Mascylla for the 100 largest fairs alone in 2010.
Transport and infrastructure
Due to the dense human habitation and central role in regional and global economics, Mascylla witnesses large-scale traffic and needs for transport accesibility. Therefore it boasts an extensive network of roadways, waterways, railways and air-bound infrastructure. Mascylla has one of the densest and longest road network in the world, with more than 412,000 kilometres of navigable roads, and 8,707 kilometres of the nation's highway Autobahn network. International access by road is substantially guaranteed for every neighbouring state of Mascylla. As of 2020, 27.5 million passenger cars were registered in the country, while the total number of all motor vehicles and trailers accounted to roughly 32.4 million in the same year.
The railroad network of Mascylla is 43,726 kilometres long and is traversed daily by up to 20,000 passenger and cargo trains. The partially state-owned largest railroad company Gekrönte Bahn AG serves and oeprates a large number of trains, passengers and infrastructure components, but under growing competition with 204 other railroad companies seeking to balance out the economic preference of the GB and establish norms of a free market economy in the railroad transport sector. Most of the railroad infrastructure is maintained, operated and financed by the Ministry of Infrastructure of the Realm of the Mascyllary government since 1997. The network is used by regular and high speed trains, most notably the ILE and InterCity trains travelling at between 240 km/h (149 mph) to under 370 km/h (230 mph), providing expansive domestic and international rail connections. Confined urban underground rapid transit such as the U-Bahn, suburban transit such as the S-Bahn, light rail tramways (Straßenbahn) and omnibus services are all well developed in major Mascyllary cities.
462 airports and airfields were located throughout the country in 2010, one of the highest densities of runways per country in the world, which also makes Mascylla an active location of air travel. The Albert Polschnitz Airport in Königsreh was the largest airport in Mascylla in terms of passenger arrivals (at 40.1 million passengers) and third-largest by metric tons of cargo in 2011. Mascylla's flag carrier airline Maskillea Airlines operates from Albert Polschnitz Airport as well as Flussmund Lachsen Airport intercontinental connections, and numerous other airlines provide domestic and international flights as well. Due to Mascylla's dependancy on import and export, trade by sea is integral. Mascylla maintains a number of seaports, the largest of which by amount of cargo are Pereuth, Flussmund and Mogdburg, as well as a network of canals supported by the country's extensive natural waterway system, the most important traversible rivers being the Mogd, Rohrn, Blaugold, Warne and Lanne.
More than 576 TWh of primary energy was domestically generated by Mascylla in 2016, making it the fifth-largest producer of energy in the world and largest in Telmeria. Mascylla's primary energy consumption in the same year was estimated at 273.2 TWh, while Mascylla was also the fourth-largest global energy consumer between 2004 and 2010, and due to its inbalance between power generation and consumption also one of the world's largest importers of energy. Power supply was ensured by 491 companies with headquarters in Mascylla in 2010, with the largest company being LOE seated in Lannbrück, a partially state-owned enterprise which holds a probable monopoly status over Mascylla's energy market; it is also one the most important markets of traded electricity in Berea and the world.
Renewable energies comprised over 63% of gross generated energy, one of the highest numbers in the world, 34% of net generated energy, and 4.5% of fuel supplies. Other main energy providers for the national electric consumption include mainly nuclear power and dependable imported supplies of coal, petroleum and natural gas from more resource-intensive countries such as Valimia and Dulebia, which in particular operates a large Telmerian gas pipeline grid. Nuclear power stations generate a considerable amount of electricity, adding 9.1% to the national energy supply in 2014, though efforts to phase out nuclear power have been gradually introduced in the early 2000s. The national energy transformation policy, the Energiewende, provides for a gradual change towards rising the percentage of renewable energy supplying Mascylla to 70% by 2070 as well as drastically lowering the emission of greenhouse gasses by more than 85% until 2100. While partially successful, numerous critics put forward concerns of an insustainable deconstruction of present energy industrial sectors such as the petrochemical and mining industries, as well as significantly low attention to nuclear power advantages.
Science and technology
Mascylla is an internationally significant and renowned location of technology and science. Since the Industrial Revolution, Mascyllary scientists participated immensly in the foundation of modern science; especially the economic productivity of multiple industrial sectors and the transfer of knowledge to practical use proved pivotal in the scientific development of the Mascyllary academic field. Approximately 12% of all patents registered in 2015, or the second-highest amount worldwide, originated from Mascylla. Publications of scientific matters receive international acclaim and domestic public popularity; scientific journals published in Mascylla include Natur and Erkunder, while Mascylla as a research host produced more than 10% of the world's scientific research papers in 2019.
Institutions of research and science in Mascylla are embodied through universities (Universitäten), technical universities (Technische Universitäten) and universities of applied sciences (Fachhochschulen). Most of which are in public ownership and service, but their research activities are often financed by third parties such as the Maskillische Forschungsunion (MFU), foundations, companies, and other. The Carl Linnder University of Königsreh and the University of Lehpold remain one of the most renowned and prestigious universities in the world. Apart from the country's universities, a large number of research organizations are active across Mascylla and abroad, represented and coordinated through associations and councils in compliance with the Ministry of Education of the Realm and each university. the most famous of which include the Joseph Görche Society (Joseph-Görche-Gesellschaft) for basic research, the Wolbrecht Society (Wolbrecht-Gesellschaft) as the country's largest scientific society, and the Maximilian Nohrbach Society (Maximilian-Nohrbach-Gesellschaft) for applied research.
Numerous researchers and scientists from nearly all industrial and modern scientific fields come from Mascylla: more than 150 X Prize winners are assigned to the country. The Mascyllary Kingdom was considerably interested in the emergence and nuturing of its academic field, and encouraged researchers with national institutions and sufficient funding in order to raise awareness and prestige from foreign circles. Joseph Görche was pivotal to the foundation of theoretical physics and the understanding of electromagnetism, Conrad Ehrach discovered and studied x-rays, later named Ehrach radiation in his honor and today used for medical diagnostics and material examinations, and Johann Theodor Threu formulated important works of electromagnetic radiation, today indespensible for telecommunications and quantum physics. The efforts of Carl Eduard Edge, Adolf Baumbach, Johannes Mohren, and Ferninand Bürgel helped revolutionize transport with their early prototypes and inventions, and many of which became pioneers in the development and later popularization of the automotive, airplane and submarine. Figures such as Erhard Reuthers for his utilization of the dynamoelectric principle, Justus von Holtzbruch for the discovery of nuclear fission, the 18th century universal scholar Eduard Friedrich Lobrecht, Philipp Alexander von Hährnig as the principal naturalist and explorer of the early 19th century, mediciners and pioneer microbiologist Norbert Schenck, and sociologist and social theorist Egon Kolber are all renowned and influential scientists of early Mascylla.
During the Melasian Crisis, Mascylla and Falland cooperated in developing and successfully detonating a nuclear weapon, ushering in the Atomic Age. The invention of the transistor by Gottlieb Rieß marked the beginning of modern day electronics. Mascyllary spaceflight achieved decisive pioneer accomplishments in materials science, aeronautics and space sciences and together with international partners such as Falland and Dulebia performed numerous operations and projects, most notably Sigma 5 of the Sigma program which first landed humans on the Moon in 1981; spaceflight activity also spawned the Mascyllary Aerial and Orbital Agency (MAOA) as a capable space agency and renowned rocketry engineers such as Emil Haller and Wernher Grätzge.
Mascylla has a population of approximately 49.23 million according to its 2019 census estimate, thus making it the most populous country in Telmeria ahead of Cuthland with around 44 million inhabitants, the second-most populous in Berea and the sixth-most populous country in the world. Despite its population size, it stands at a relatively small population density of 90.4 people per square kilometre (234.1 per sq mi) and high rate of urbanisation. Being a developed country, Mascylla's average life expectancy at birth measures at around 80.05 years (79.72 years for men and 81.94 years for women) and a dampened fertility rate of 1.76 children per woman, below the required replacement rate of 2.1 children. Historically the rate of reproduction remained above-average with 2.49 children in the 1970s, but deteriorated significantly since then with a period of the death rate of Mascylla exceeding its birth rate and a slightly shrinking population between 1990 and 2010. However, Mascylla since then adovcated immigration to the country and introduced efforts to stimulate population growth; increased birth rates and migration numbers curbed the low fertility rate and supported population growth since 2010. Mascylla's population, like other developed countries, is aging as well: the average age is estimated at 41.8 years, making it the fourth oldest population in the world.
Most Mascyllary people are predominantly of Hesurianic origin, which make up approximately 81.4% of the population. However, Mascylla features a wide range of ethnic groups mainly attributed to either small minority groups in Mascylla proper, such as the Cuthish and Waldish to the west and south of the country, though often associated with the Hesurianic ethnic groups at large, Valimians to the east, and ethnic groups attributed to substantial immigration from countries formerly part of the Mascyllary colonial empire, namely Melasians and Cunuccans due to the lack of a pre-existing language barrier, or other countries in Caphtora and Pamira which has led to a large diversitification of the immigrant population in recent decades.
Mascylla is one of the most important immigration destinations in the world. In a 2017 census, 9.59 million people (or close to 19.6%) were either of immigrant or partially immigrant descent, and in 2015, 21% of all newborn children had atleast one parent born in a foreign country, and 12% atleast one born outside of Berea, including Mascylla's overseas territories. Immigration to Mascylla is a key factor in supporting its population growth and supply of work forces in light of its aging population, and Mascylla hosts the third-highest number of international migrants at about 6.04 million people.
Mascylla is a highly urbanized country, with a disproportionate amount of larger cities as defined by the country's data census. Its largest cities include Flussmund (with 4,118,492 inhabitants), Königsreh (3,231,326), Langquaid (815,180), Augusthal (789,426), Lannbrück (615,337) and Pereuth (581,034), and features a number of large metropolitan areas summing up urban agglomerations, such as the Greater Flussmund region or the Rohrn-Klahr Region with populations exceeding up to 7 million inhabitants. Four states, referred to as Free Cities (Freie Städte or Freie Reichsstädte), encompass solely highly urban regions and administer the country's largest cities. Geographically, most urban regions are concentrated in the central regions of the country, branching out west and east respectively, with minor clusters along the Sigismund Corridor and Warne regions.
Largest cities or towns in Mascylla
|Rank||State or Free City||Pop.||Rank||State or Free City||Pop.|
The most widely used and spread language in Mascylla is Hesurian (High Hesurian). It is the standard language of overregional media and is used as the accepted written language; Hesurian remains the predominantly spoken language in almost every region, while the transition of usage to Mascyllary Hesurian dialects is minor. As one of the country's official languages, Hesurian is the most important administrative language, though the acknowledgement of an administrative language is part of the states' individual cultural sovereignty, while the encompassing state only determines a language for official use and domestic duties. Upon request, it always remains possible to adapt any official document into a translation of a wished language. Historical national minorities include Waldish, Valimians, Warnish, and Temarians. Certain regional and minority languages can be used as official, administrative and court languages. The by deaf people used Mascyllary Sign Language (MGS) was recognized as a language following the introduction of the Behindertengleichstellungsverordnung (BGsV) in 2000.
Languages introduced to Mascylla by immigrants are numerous and often treated as "unofficial official languages." While the descendants of older migration waves have largely adapted to the linguistic environment of Mascylla, immigrants of previous decades, more often guest workers and refugees, still frequently use their mother language in their daily lives, most notably X. Other such widely used languages include Dulebian, introduced by a large diaspora of Dulebian Hesurian people and contingent refugees, Rovinian, Cuthish and X. The prioritized foreign language taught at public schools is Lavish, and the second foreign language is often Fallish, Cuthish or Cambran, more rarely Lyonian or Dulebian. Mascyllary citizens are thought to be multilingual, with 70% of citizens claiming to be able to communicate in atleast one language other than Hesurian.
Due to Mascylla's history, Hesurian is a widely recognized world language of business and culture and one of the world's most spoken languages as part of the legacy of the Mascyllary colonial empire of the 19th and 20th centuries, sharing the status as official language with three other countries. Hesurian-speaking countries and their inhabitants are referred to as hesurophon. Hesurian is taught as a foreign language at a large number of schools abroad and remains a significant global political, economic, cultural and social language.
Like the majority of Northern and Western Berea, Mascylla was significantly influenced by Semitar and Occidental theorems until the Late Middle Ages, and scientific and enlightened sociological models from the 18th century onward. The basis for early religious and cultural development were influences from Erytherian and Cambran culture, and X and Semitar traditions and practices that have mixed with Hesurianic cultures since the gradual Semitarization of Telmeria in the 5th to 8th centuries.
As a legally defined secular state, Mascylla guarantees freedom of religion as an individual constitutional right and institutional separation of church and state. Thus the religious view of the state is determined to be neutral and the right of self-determination for religious groups upheld. While the government refrains from recognizing any certain rights of a religious group, and these groups are expected to reject any interaction with politics, church and state rather act as partners: they maintain substantial ties in social, educational and cultural affairs, for example by kindergartens, schools, hospitals or retirenment homes overseen by religious actors but state-financed.
Approximately 54% of the total Mascyllary population were members of a Semitar confession: 26.4% Cambran Semitarism, mainly located in southern and western Mascylla, 22.8% Nordic Semitarism, and 5.2% Orthodox Semitarism and other Semitar churches. The number of worshippers is significantly smaller than the total number of church members; in 2015 around 1.1 million people, or 2.6% of the national population, attended a Semitar church service, while the number is overwhelmingly higher during religious holidays, doubling in total. More than 32% of the population are non-denominational and identify as atheist or agnostic, and another 2.8% adhere to minor sects, differenciating beliefs or other religions. In 2019, 2.4 million people identified as Muqallids in Mascylla, constituting 4.9% of the population. More than half are of X origin, and another 20% come from the Middle East.
The Mascyllary universal healthcare system is highly developed, as indicated by its very low infant mortality rate of 3.6 boys and 3.3 girls per 1,000 births and a high life expectancy of around 80.05 years, 79.72 years for men and 81.94 years for women. According a 2017 international study conducted by the ECDF, patients in Mascylla experienced minor waiting times, small individual financial expense and a large number of options. However, the study showed difficulties and shortcomings in medical prevention, resulting in the large number of cases of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers; the system still qualifies in that it is able to save most patients in critical conditions, such as after strokes. The number of hospitalisations and surgeries as well as the expenditures for medicine are among the highest in the world; in 2013 Mascylla's national expenditure for healthcare was at 13% of its GDP. The majority of the population is protected by the Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung (GKV) and obtain assets based on their income; family members without an income are provided for nonethless. The means of service are independent from the contribution amount; around 9.9% of the insured were privately insured in 2010.
The system encompass the service providers such as doctors, pharmacists, nursing staff, the state (including the Ministry of Health of the Realm, the states and municipalities), the health, accident, care and pension insurances, the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (RVÄV), the employers and workers' associations, other groups of interest and the patients themselves, often represented by foundations and associations. Hospitals are majorily operated by non-profit organizations, but increasingly privatized. Other services are provided by private individuals (doctor's offices, pharmacies or companies in the pharmaceutical industry). The state is only involved as a direct healthcare provider through local health departments, communal and university hospitals.
The modern Mascyllary educational system has its roots in the Linnderian ideals of education, a world-renowned and numerously replicated academic model of many Western universities. Educational affairs at large are the responsibility for the supervision of the individual states (called Kulturhoheit), but is often co-ordinated by an annual nationwide conference of education ministers who also agree on educational standards. Kindergarten education is optional and dependant for each state, while higher school attendance is compulsory for nine to thirteen years. Primary school attendance is atleast six years long. After that, students can enter continuing or vocational schools. Most of the Mascyllary states follow a structured school system with Hauptschulen, Realschulen and Gymnasien, and additional Gesamtschulen and Ganztagsschulen. University entrance qualification (Hochschulreife or Abitur) is acquired after attending twelve or thirteen years in school, depending on the state.
Almost all young adults visit another educational institution after school. Apprentices in companies usually attend a Berufsschule once or twice a week for skilled qualification education, as part of the internationally renowned duale Ausbildung model. The academic counterpart to that is the duales Studium. Students can choose between either universities or specialised colleges (Fachhochschulen). The established Mascyllary universities are some of the oldest and most prestigious in the world, among them the University of Lehpold, founded in 1419. While Mascylla is one of the leading destinations for international study in 2015, most of which for the country's universities and advanced research facilities, it remains noticably below-average in international comparisons for the performance of primary school students. According to four ECDF studies in 2008, Mascylla's educational system is exacerbating the gap between the rich and poor, as it appears less likely for a student from a poor financial background to gain higher educational qualifications than individuals from the middle and upper class. Further criticism also involved the lack of support for noticably poor and above-average perfoming students, insufficient funding for primary schools and care options for younger students.
Mascyllary culture and its historical development, its roots reaching back as far as the Hesurians and Cambran culture, has since the early Middle Ages produced numerous intellectual and popular figures. Hesurian-speaking individuals became pioneers of new major intellectual and cultural currents in Europe in almost every disciplinary field. Some of the most influential Mascyllary artists and thinkers are counted as protagonists of Western thought and civilization.
Since Mascylla did not exist as a nation state for centuries, Mascylary culture had defined itself through its common language; after the unification of Mascylla in 1793, the country was still seen as a cultural nation. The rise of mass media in the early 20th century paved the way for popular culture to became an influential factor in Mascyllary culture. The expansion of the internet in the 21st century has led to a differentiation of the cultural landscape and changed the various niche cultures in their characteristics. The promotion of Mascyllary culture and the Hesurian language is the responsibility of the Baerde Institutes (Baerde-Institute), with approximately 102 offices in 16 countries.
The first pieces of art were crafted well over 13,000 years ago in form of neolithic figures, sculptures and pottery. While Mascylla was a centre of human habitation and Medieval culture, it produced particularly few motions for artistic currents and significant works. Gothic art was immensly popular in 12th century Mascylla, and was a resonance room for various Berean periods of Western art. The political and economic rise of Aldia in the 17th century coincided with a sharp increase of intense artistic achievements in Augusthal, Pereuth and Weidenau.
Important Mascyllary artists of the Renaissance include Albrecht Neuhoff, Herbecht of Tschele, Ruprecht Waillen, Hans Lukas the Younger, and most famously, Gottfried Hälsch. Heinrich Mürer, Theodorich Zimmerwitz and Martin von Reuchen were subsequently the most significant Baroque and Rococo Mascyllary painters. Major artists of Romanticism, together with Eberhard Helsig, were Philipp Georg, Friedrich Weißer and Carl Otto Tannholtz. Aldian painters Matthias von Elbseck and Reinhold Junge specialised in history painting, while the Breisgauer and Merzenicher Kunstschulen art schools were of international importance in the 18th century. Other renowned historical artists include the Impressionist Alexander Lolbitz, Surrealists Hans Oedtermann, Adolph Aspe and Leo Staffel, and Max Molker, Paul Gronius, Tronte Alb and David Ruprecht of Expressionism.
The second half of the 20th century saw the rise of the New Objectivity in the post-revolutionry Mascylla in opposition to Expressionism. Younger artists of that period were for example Moritz Krolhaff, the Action and Concept artist Adelbert Beuther and the brothers Joseph and Richard Vagt as central figures of the Junge Wilde. In the 1950s and 1960s, new trends of art developed particularly in Flussmund and Königsreh as major international centres of visual arts, with Wolfgang Pestell, Wernher Lotta and Alice Kippen as pioneers of movements such as Happening, Video art and Fluxus. Broad trends such as Neo-Expressionism with Lothar Gessel and Daniel Schlichter also dominated Mascyllary visual arts by the 1970s. Thomas Kürz, Sigmar Schlag, Richard Gersky, Hans-Joachim Horst and Emil Hoffschwert were influential photographic artists of 20th and early 21st century Mascylla.
Mascylla has a long and varied history of architecture that is closely tied to the Occidental architectural history of its neighbouring states. The basis of Mascyllary architecture were primarly contributions of Ottonian style introduced in the 11th century, and later Gothic architecture adopted from Lyonian works in the 13th century. In 1650, the Renaissance arrived from modern day Lavaria and produced renowned examples such as the Südhaven and Pereuth City Hall (Südhavener and Pereuther Rathaus). The Baroque also set in by 1670; prominent examples include the works of Dietrich Nolsich, the Feldkirche in Karlsburg and Friedrichsburg Palace (Residenzschloss Friedrichsburg). In 1770 to 1780, the Classicism period was very well-received and immensly popularized across Mascylla, and triggered the construction of the Siegestor, Altes Museum, Museum der Nationalen Künste and Köpenick Castle (Schloss Köpenick) in Königsreh by Karl Wilhelm Langstand and Gorch Hahn. Langstand was an Aldian architect who influenced generations of builders through his Langstand School (Langstandschule) and Königsreh Construction Academy (Königsreher Bauakademie).
Much of Mascylla's most recognizable buildings and landmarks were built in the Historicism style between 1830 and 1890, examples being the Dameroper in Karnitz, Sankt Lorenz Cathedral (Sankt-Lorenz-Kathedrale), Reichsrat in Königsreh and Sigairen Castle (Sigairener Schloss), and introduced important architects such as Gottfried Krüger, Otto von Longen, Friedrich Graeber and Friedrich Hans von Rath. This era, due to the Industrial Revolution, Gründerjahre and coinciding rapid population growth, proved more influential to Mascyllary architecture than the preceding periods. Numerous architectural bureaus, schools such as the Weidenauer and Langquaider Architekturschule, and unique regional styles diversified Mascyllary architecture of the 19th century.
Classcial modern architecture was partly pioneered by Mascyllary architects of the early 20th century. Pivotal to that development was the Mascyllary Craftsmen Association (Maskillischer Werksbund) founded in 1901. Helmut Soljas was the founder of the Bauhaus style, and Ernst Heinrich Zwicke together with his school (Die Stadt) spearheaded the Neues Bauen city planning model. Concurrently the first skyscrapers and suspension bridges out of steel and concrete were erected, primarly in Flussmund. Localized and largely confined styles of Expressionism and Regionalism (Heimatarchitektur) were significant in 1930s Mascylla as well, most notably in Adwhin and Welsbach. In the latter half of the 20th century, Postmodernism emerged as the principal style, and produced works like the Augusthal Aurorum Stadium (Aurorumstadion Augusthal) by Karl Otter and Franz Behnsch, or various Plattenbau settlements across national suburban areas such as the Teufurt planned city project. In 1967, the 391 metres tall Assembly of Nations Headquarters became the highest skyscraper in Berea, before it lost that title to the Intertrade Complex in Flussmund in 1977, currently the highest buildings in Mascylla.
In recent decades, architecture gradually globalised and more recently introduced new currents of New Urbanism (Neuurbanismus), while reviving older styles such as block perimeter development (dubbed Blockrandbebauung of the 19th century) now again popular in cities as part of their modern gentrification processes, or inspirations from historical buildings and traditional architecture. Contemporary Mascyllary architects and architecture agencies are globally active and include renowned figures such as Peter Kalthoff, Helmut Scheere, Andreas Aschinger and Oswald and Jonas Ülthinger, contributing to numerous architecture projects in cities around the world.
Philosophy and literature
The most important manuscript in the development of the Mascyllary Hesurian language use and also the oldest known Mascyllary book is the 895 Abrogans of Semitar practices and translations of benedict Sarich the Hesurian, currently stored in the Seydrich National Archive (Staatsarchiv Seydrich). General Mascyllary literature reaches back as far as the Early Middle Ages, when the first Medieval libraries began producing manuscripts, books and book paintings. Especially significant in that era were the contributions of the Minstrel (Minnesang), many of which recorded in the Codex Manessia, the largest surviving Mascyllary collection of Minstrel songs and tales. The most famous Minstrel is considered to be Dieterich Elgast der Kleeheide, and the epos Falians' Song (Farierlied) is an early milestone of Mascyllary fictional literature.
Some of the most revolutionary or noticable Mascyllary authors include Bertold von Rasling as the father of the modern theatre and political drama, Wilhelm von Baerder as one of the most significant contributors of modern Mascyllary poetry, and Adolphus Schupp for his publication of the first Hesurian Encyclopedia and extensive collection of Mascyllary folk tales and myths. Other noticable writers of the 19th and 20th century in Mascylla include Heinrich Janne, Knut Bruno, Anne Schönmann and Conrad Berthold. The Langquaid Book Fair (Langquaider Buchmesse) is generally seen as one of the major global events of the literary scene and international publishing, awarding the annual Berthold Prize (Berthold-Literaturpreis) to a work of literature; the Ihleburg Book Fair (Ihleburger Buchmesse) is mainly of importance for new publications.
Influential intellects and thinkers of Mascylla were for example the universal scholar Eduard Friedrich Lobrecht for his works on rationalism and analytic philosophy, Matthias von Spaier as the first proponent of humanism, Albert Sahl as a central thinker of the Enlightenment, categorical imperative model and deontology, Lukas Wilhelm Hayder as the founder of Mascyllary idealism, Egon Kolber as the father of modern rationalisation and sociology, and Maximilian Joseph Schneitzer for his contributions to perspectivism, nihilism and cultural criticism. Important political currents originated from Mascyllary philosophers such as Mascyllary idealism, classical liberalism, early feminism, secularisation and political capitalism. In the 20th century, the Flussmund School (Flussmunder Schule) under Hans Korkbaum and Edwin Liebknecht developed the critical theory and housed modern thinkers such as Günter Engel and Henriette Haberman.
Cinema and media
Films were produced in Mascylla and the Hesurian-speaking countries since the end of the 19th century. The Große Ecke varieté theatre in Königsreh was one of the first cinemas in history, with pioneer filmmakers August and Lukas Schpitz as its operators presenting films to audiences since 1892. The Filmstudios Sarfeld in Estmar near Flussmund were founded in 1909, being the first large film studio in the world and conceptual prototype for later studios. It produces films until today and is considered to be one of the largest film studio facilities in the world; the term Sarfeld became historically synonymous with popular and successful film productions. Multiple genres of the early film were developed partly by Mascyllary filmmakers; the 1929 film Stahlhimmel ("Sky of Steel") by Fritz Bellmann was among the first science fiction films, while Vom Blitz Getroffen ("Hit by Lightning") in 1931 by Charlotte Arpus internationally popularized Mascyllary sound film. The emergence of documentary films in the 1940s, advertising films in the 1960s, and home video in the 1980s, as well as major contributions to motion picture technology and engineering significantly linked Mascylla to cinema history.
Major Mascyllary film studios and companies are RSU, Global Motion, Brothers Raicht Studios, Zenith Pictures, TUA Studios and BärtleKrenz. Some of the most successful, renowned and prolific modern Mascyllary directors include Gabriel Sonderberg, Stephan Fahler, Linus Loren, Albrecht Thomas Kössler, Johann Schaffel, Georg Hoebsch and Thorsten Britzke. Recognizable actors and actresses from Mascylla are for example Alexander Jainrich, Caroline Lank, Ulrich Becker, Adam Trippler, Monika Bräuer, David Weiß and Matthias Kleera, and other famous figures include the composer Ludwig Bruch, animation icon Felix Anton and production designer Otto Schellenberg. The most highly valued award in the Mascyllary film industry is the annual Internationale Festspiele der Königsreher Filmmeisterei (Königsreh International Film Mastery Festival, or often called "Königsrehale" or "Mastery Awards"), having established itself as an internationally acclaimed film festival. The country's strong film industry releases rougly 400 films a year, and distributes them to international audiences, with numerous Mascyllary productions grossing financial success or critical acclaim.
Mascyllary inventors and engineers were involved in the early development and mass popularization of radio and television beginning in the 1920s. The supply of broadcasts of various topics to the public is conducted historically via terrestrial television (UHF/VHF), regional cable companies and more recently via satellite. Developments to digitalize television and radio are partly underway and already offer services such as IPTV, streaming and online radio on the internet. Television in Mascylla is evenly divided between the public state-owned broadcasters including ENS and ARF and the private companies, the largest of which being the Telemax Group, Kanal+Media Group and BärtleKrenz. Aprt from freecly receivable broadcasters, there are numerous regional channels, pay TV channels and streaming services. The country also maintains a dual broadcasting system between tax-financed public broadcasters, largely bound with broadcasting and topical outline to their serviced states, and a large number of private smaller channels mainly financed by advertisements.
The Mascyllary press landscape is diverse and offers content as printed, online and digital media. The most popular overregional newspapers are the Faktor, Langquaider Zeitung, Allgemeines Blatt, Globus and Handelsblatt. A characteristica of the regional and local distribution of press is the Ein-Zeitung-Kreis, meaning in many regions there is only a single daily newspaper published and is thus holding a localized monopoly. News and topical magazines such as Exact, Zeiten, Erkunder, Die Schau and Aurora all enjoy great popularity. Some of the largest international media corporations with seat in Mascylla include BärtleKrenz Media, Müller Media Group and Monika Schölf Publishings SE. The use of social media and user-created content like blogs, videos and information outlets also rose in prominence in the past decade, able to reach a potential audience of 29.5 million people in 2018.
Traditional Mascyllary cuisine varies from region to region, but often stands in relation with the culinary cultures of neighbouring countries. Different immigrated groups and typical Western styles of eating have greatly expanded the variations of cuisine in Mascylla; additionally a gradual in vegetarian diets can be observed throughout the country. According to international customers and recipients, Mascyllary speciality cuisine has achieved a highly regarded standing. Moreover, the private supply of foodstuffs is dominated by few providers, the Biek Group, Gekoha-Gruppe, Hansen and Bertel-Gruppe serve more than 83% of the Mascyllary food market.
Widespread Mascyllary dishes include the festive Gänsebraten with red cabbage, Kassler with Sauerkraut, Grünkohl with smoked Mettwurst or Bregenwurst, Schweinshaxe, and various stews. However, very old and simple dishes such as Arme Ritter and Labskaus are also popular as well. Potatoes are a common ingredient to a large number of dishes especially in northern Mascylla, while traditional Knödel, Spätzle and noodles are more commonly used by southern Mascyllary cooks. Famous and notable particularities include the Weißwurst in Adwhin, the Bratwurst in Fania, the Schwenkbraten in Ihlarn, the Maultasche in Gotia, or the Schwesener Rostbratwurst. Desserts are often served as variants of fruit compote or sweetened curd. Mascylla is home to an extraordinary number of bread and sausage variations. The typical first meal of the day is a breakfast based on bread rolls with either toppings of cold meat and cheese or sweet toppings like honey, fruit jam or cocoa spread. A cooked egg, cereals prepared with dairy, or the more traditional Bauernfrühstuck also often accompany breakfast. Coffee is often consumed while eating, whereas tea is more widespread to the west and north. Traditionally, a warm dish is served at noon (Mittagessen) and a bread-based one at supper (Abendbrot or Abendessen). Sweet pastries, cakes and candy are part of the Mascyllary cuisine as well, with Brunsrücker Großtorte, Lannebach or Augusthaler Kranz served at afternoon coffee tables (Kaffeetafeln). Famous and frequently exported sweets and small foods such as Gummibärchen, Estmarer Marzipan, Stollen, Liqueur products and Bretzeln are internationally popular.
Mascylla is also renowned for its long tradition in beer brewing, with many local Mascyllary favouring a regionally produced beer. Domestically brewed variations of beer include the Altbier, Dunkel, Bockbier, Kölsch, Lagerbier, Malzbier, Tinzner, and Weizenbier. Grown Mascyllary wine is also recently growing popular, with up to 13 wine regions mainly centered along the shore to Lake Sigismund. Carbonated mineral water is the most popular soft drink in Mascylla, while fruit juices and Schorle as water mixed with juice or wine are also widely consumed.
In 2011, approximately 15.2 million people were organized in 47,000 sports and gymnastics clubs in Mascylla, the overwhelming majority of which are embodied in the Mascyllary Auroran Sports Association (Maskillischer Aurorischer Sportbund). The Mascyllary Kingdom and its successor state hosted the Auroran Games six times, three times for the Summer Games in 1906, 1954 and 2006, and three times for the Winter Games in 1930, 1982 and 1990; Mascyllary athletes ranked second in the all time number of received medals at 1,047.
Football remains the most popular sport in Mascylla. Roughly 2.9 million members and more than 70,000 football clubs are registered in the Mascyllary Association of Football (Maskillischer Fußballbund), which hosted the X World Cup in 1964, 1990 and 2012 and became one of the largest and most successful sports associations worldwide. The Mascyllary national football team, while internationally renowned and regarded, lags behind other football teams and thus only gained two victories in the 1990 and 2004 X World Cups. The Reichsliga is the main association football league of the country; the most successful Mascyllary football club and second-largest club worldwide by amount of members is FC Ankstedt.
The Reichsliga Handball is often seen as the best class of handball in the world, having won four titles of world champion. 470,000 active members are part of 1,920 sports clubs encompassing the Mascyllary Association of Handball (Maskillischer Handballbund). Mascyllary hockey, volleyball, cycling and particularly tennis are also individually very popular and quite sucessful in international competitions, the most notable athlete of which being tennis player Emilia Nagata. Motor sport, sport shooting and swimming are of particular notice, with athletes and figures such as Ralf Woerle, Florian Wellsbock, Sebastian Rährl, Katharina Stephan and Sophia König among the best athletes of their respective sport and holding numerous titles and awards.
National symbols and holidays
The Constitution of Mascylla defines a certain set of acknowledged symbols and icons legitimately representative of Mascylla, those being: the national flag of Mascylla adopted in 1923 but a similar design before then since 1793, the coat of arms of the government and monarchy respectively, the national anthem "Geeint in Blut und Schwur" by David Fallsbecht and Theodor Birk used since 1793, the national motto "Hier stehen Wir" as an allegory of the inofficial motto of the House of Ahnern, and the national personification of Mascylla, Mascane. Specifically Mascane holds significant iconography as a portrayal of the Mascyllary unification, the values of republicanism and democracy, and the Goddess of Liberty and Goddess of War itself, with her appearance as a young women with brown or golden hair and armored warrior with a spear and Corinthian helmet. Mascane has often been associated with Mascyllary imperialism and its colonial empire since the 19th century, and receives places of significance on currency, in government buildings and as statues and memorials.
Apart from its official symbols, Mascylla also possesses three other lesser known and inofficial symbols still widely considered to be and used as icons of Mascylla, such as the roe deer as a national animal, and the oak tree and cornflower as representations of the country's flora. Mascylla also has 17 recognized national holidays, many of which are public holidays and subject to celebration or lay-off of worktime. Most of them are derived from Semitarist practices and beliefs, while other are significant historical and national dates, days of rememberance and introduced aspects of foreign culture.
|Holiday name||Native name
|New Years' Day||Neujahrstag||1 January|
|Epiphany||Heilige Drei Könige||6 January|
|National Day||Tag der Nation||26 January||Celebrations commemorating the foundation of the Crowned Republic by Peter Zeschtemann after the Mascyllary Revolution in 1924.|
|Crown Day||Tag der Maskillischen Krone||5 March||Celebrations commemorating the crowning of Maximilian I as King of Mascylla in 1924.|
|Emancipation Day||Tag der Emanzipation||8 March|
|Good Friday||Karfreitag||Two days before Easter Sunday|
|Easter Monday||Ostermontag||One day after Easter Sunday|
|Labour Day||Tag der Arbeit||1 May|
|Unification Day||Tag der Einigung||23 May||Celebrations commemorating the unification of Mascylla after the War of the Five Kings and the proclamation of the May Republic at the begin of the Mascyllary Revolution in 1923.|
|Ascension Day||Himmelfahrt||39 days after Easter Sunday|
|Rememberance Day||Tag der Gesinnung||20 July||Day of rememberance to the victims of terrorism and war of Mascylla; date specifically set for the July 20 attacks in Königsreh in 1991|
|Whit Monday||Pfingstmontag||50 days after Easter Sunday|
|X||X||60 days after Easter Sunday|
|All Saints' Day||Alleheiligen||1 November|
|Christmas Day||Weihnachtstag||24 December—26 December|
|New Years' Eve||Silvester||31 December|