Crowned Republic of Mascylla
Gekrönte Republik Maskillien
Motto: "Hier stehen Wir"
"Here We Stand"
|Official languages||Standard Hesurian|
|Recognised regional languages||Falian, Low Hesurian, High Hesurian, Warnish, Wenish|
|Ethnic groups||83.1% Mascyllary|
32% No affilition
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
• Treaty of Langquaid
|6 August 1792|
|23 May 1793|
• Declaration of the Crowned Republic
|23 May 1923|
• Ratification of current constitution
|26 January 1924|
• Coronation of Maximilian I
|5 March 1924|
|338,424 km2 (130,666 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2017 census
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$1.528 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$1.383 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Karning (KN, Ӄ)|
Mascylla (Standard Hesurian: Maskillien [maːˈskiːli̯ən]), officially the Crowned Republic of Mascylla (Standard Hesurian: Gekrönte Republik Maskillien [ɡəˈkʁ̥øːntə ʁepuˈbliːk maːˈskiːli̯ən]), rarely referred to as Mascillia (Standard Hesurian: Maskillea [maːˈskiːlle:a]), is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy in northern Erdara. The country is bordered to the west by Juznia and Hytekia across Lake Sigismund, to the north-west by Alriika, to the south by Krumlau and Lilienburg, and to the east by Finstria. With an area of approximately 338,000 square kilometers and encompassing nearly 39 million inhabitants, Mascylla lists as the second-largest and second most populous country in Erdara.
Mascylla is a heavily decentralized constitutional monarchy, attributed to a democratic legislative system, with the government residing in Königsreh, the nation's capital, second largest city and main economic centre of the country, while Flussmund is the most populous city. The current monarch is Queen Dorothea I since 2015, and her Prime Minister is Thomas Falkner, leading the current government since 2016.
Hesurian peoples have inhabited Mascylla since classical antiquity, emerging into history as the Therunders (Terunder), Mascyllary (Maskillier), and constituting the sea peoples known as the Warnons (Warnowen). Over time, they established into duchies and kingdoms, all spread over the original territory of Mascylla. Administrated after the formation of the Ragucin Empire for over a century, cultural and linguistic ties grew within the countries. After the collapse of the Empire, the Mascyllary nations established a heavily decentralized community.
During the War of the Five Kings, a large portion of those countries emerged uniting into a single nation state, with an independent Mascyllary state finally assembled in the late 18th century. Following its inception, Mascylla waged wars with the Kingdom of Hytekojuznia, loosing large territories to the empire and beginning a mutual hateship between both countries. Mascylla, in an act of revenge, declared war on Hytekojuznia and joined the Continental War militarily, manifesting the kingdom as a great power following the Treaty of Lehpold and its expulsion from Hytekojuznik submission. After the revolution of 1923, the Kingdom was replaced by the parliamentary May Republic, undergoing rapid political and economic transformation. Throughout the later 20th century, Mascylla persued a hardline anti-communist policy, specifically headed against Hytekojuznia and Arlyon, excarberating as the Great Game unfolded. Having tried to undermine their political influence and expand political knowledge, Mascylla underwhent several measures such as espionage, entering the Hytekojuznik Civil War in the 1980s supporting Juznia, and intervening in the Finstrian insurgency in 1986. Even though the tried re-conciliation of Hytekojuznia by Ernst Lehmann in the mid 1960s, tensions remained turbulent. In the wake of the Great Game, Mascylla emerged as one of the few remaining global powers, being allied with Lavaria and Krumlau as a "principal triad".
As a highly developed country with a very high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education. Furthermore, Mascylla is a foremost member of the Assembly of Nations, Dreibund and Erdaran Union, and enjoys membership in a row of other educational, scientific, health, and cultural organisations, which further solidify its presence on the global stage, being a signficiant contributor and influential country of said fields. Mascylla is a recognized nuclear-weapon state since 1950. Its developed economy has the world's 3rd largest GDP nominally and by PPP and ranks highly in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, being among the safest or most peaceful countries in the world, economic competitiveness, equality among men, women, LGBTQ+ members and of other races, general prosperity and human development; it is generally counted to be one of the principal great powers of the planet.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Antiquity
- 2.3 Early Middle Ages
- 2.4 Ragucin control and late Middle Ages (1297–1404)
- 2.5 Early modern period
- 2.6 Mascyllary unification
- 2.7 Founding Years (1810–1900s)
- 2.8 Early contemporary Mascylla
- 2.9 Mascyllary Revolution (1923–24)
- 2.10 Great Game (1924–1981)
- 2.11 Contemporary Mascylla (1981–present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
Main article: Name of Mascylla
The name Mascylla was loaned from the Mascyllary in the 17th century to refer to Mascylla, especially its central river basin. Mascylla, an Xication of the word Maskillien can actually be derived back to "The Land of the Mascils", on which "Mascils" are referred to forest wildlife in general. Before the creation of an unitary Mascyllary state, early proto-languages used Macyla interchangibly.
Variations of the name Mascylla are used in most languages, with the exception of High and Mid Hesurian Maskillien, Low Hesurian Maaskillen, and the more notable exception of some other local languages where Rähland (Kammewitsch) and Hocvielant (Wattisch) are used, names commonly considered as referred to the people from the mountainous areas of Roßlagen, Kolingen, who were known as the Roß, and through them etymologically related to the Mascyllary Low Hesurian name for Delubia, Dalehbien.
The etymology of Mascyllary, and thus Mascylla, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Hesurian Maschikoltz meaning "one's own", referring to the rather autonomous and isolated Mascyllary tribes before the later establishing of the Ragucin Empire.
The oldest traces of human life in what is now Mascylla date from approximately 1.8 million years ago. Humans were then confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. The oldest discovered complete set of tools, majorly hunting weapons, were discovered dating back around 22,000 BCE, indicating the presence of intelligent hunters that early. Mascylla has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved in Erdara and abroad, the caves near the city of Laskauen (approximately 18,000 BCE). Most of interior Mascylla was until that time defined by the presence of an enourmous freshwater lake, the Lendyra Sea. However, the Lendyra holocene impact event destroyed the lake and devastated large areas in central Mascylla, leading to a temporary halt in human development in the region for another millenium.
At the end of the last glacial period (9,000 BCE), the climate became milder; from approximately 5,000 BCE, this part of Erdara entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. Evidence suggests the first real city was built near the coast of the White Sea in today Warnowen, with the discovery of fire places, rough architectural outlines, and even a primitive version of a sewer system put in place.
After strong demographic, cultural and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, forming bigger societies and ethnicities, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 2rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, and later iron. Musical instruments and depictions of animals and humans as figures were also found being manufactured at that time. Mascylla has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptionally dense Tholstein stones site (approximately 3,300 BCE). At the same time, first astrological tools, like the famous Alterst sky disk made as an artifact out of granite and gold, were presumably created.
In 600 BCE, Terunder people, originating from the southern lands of today Krumlau, founded the colony of Kolceylla (present-day Koltburg), on the shores of Warne river, which they passed on an adventurous expedition north, thus making it Mascylla's oldest, still inhabited city. At the same time, some Finstrian tribes penetrated parts of the current territory of Mascylla, either by landbased expeditions or over the White Sea and this occupation spread to the rest of Mascylla between the 5th and 3rd century BCE. The concept of Hesurian Erdara emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of ethnic Hesurian settlement ranging between the Blaugold, the Lanne, the Delchsesee and Lake Sigismund. The borders of modern Mascylla are roughly the same as those of the spread of ancient Hesurian tribes, which was inhabited by said peoples. Today Mascylla was then a for agricultural purposes prosperous land, of which the central and eastern part was heavily subject to various indigenous and recently created cultural and economic influences. The enriched soil and dense forests established various cultures, as most where cut off from one another by geographical subjects.
Around 125 BCE, the south of Mascylla was largely brought under the control of the Adwhin, ending much tribal dispute in the region. Mascylla was then finally divided by chiefs of their tribes in the first diplomatic meeting of this sort, the so-called Council of the First, into political provinces. Many cities were founded during this period, including Folksche (present-day Falkenhall), which is considered the largest city of the area of Mascylla at that time. These cities were built in traditional Hesurian style, with a central marketplace, a wedding house, a holy church, a house for the chief and small cooking places, all made out of timber, animal skin or grass. The Hesurians mixed with other distinct settlers and eventually adopted their own culture and their own variated speech (High Hesurian, from which the Mascyllary language evolved). The unique polytheism merged with the Hesurian paganism into the same syncretism.
From the 250s to the 280s CE, Mascyllary, now duchies and kingdoms, suffered a serious crisis when its fortified borders were being attacked on several occasions by foreign hordes, mostly originating from Finstria and Rotsir. Nonethless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for the Mascyllary Hesurian people. In 312, King Wolfgang II of Fahnicht, converted to a version of Mascyllary paganism, making this an appearance for following centuries. Subsequently, paganists, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire basin. But, from the beginning of the 5th century on, foreign invasion resumed again, and Alriikan tribes, such as the Jusnes, Tranwhens and Alans crossed the channel and settled in today Jusland and other parts of the most northern shorelines.
Until then, contact from most of the world was very limited, until new trade routes through the waterways of Lake Sigismund enabled travelers to reach the White Sea.
Early Middle Ages
At the end of antiquity, ancient Mascylla was divided into several dozens of smaller Hesurian kingdoms and duchies, decentralising and deviding cultural groups, which would hinder the creation of Mascylla as a nation state for centuries later. Simultaneously, distant hordes settled the western part of Warnowen's coastlands for its agricultural value. As a result, the Skeilla peninsula was renamed Warnowen, its micro-culture was mostly revived and numerous independent petty duchies arose in this region, a trend for all of Mascylla's prolonging cultural distanciation.
The pagan Mascyllary originally settled the mid-eastern part of Mascylla, but under Loudwigh I of Aldia spread its cultural and liguistic, standardised versions of the already most prominent Hesurian cultures, into most of the other kingdoms in northern and southern Mascylla. In 498, Loudwigh I was the first Hesurian, so said, "king", as he gathered his followers and inspired admiration and submission. He was then forced to convert to Cathartic Ditanery in order to maintain his legitimacy as ruler; by now Ditanery has grown as a leading religious faction in Mascylla and it quickly converted to its beliefs.
The Mascyllary mostly embraced the Ditanist culture and ancient Mascylla was eventually replaced with a set of disperse cultural identities. The Mascyllary Hesurian people adopted standardized Low Hesurian, except in northern Mascylla where Low Hesurian settlements were less dense and where Higher languages emerged.
The Mascyllary treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so around two-hundred principalities emerged, all in small skirmishes with one another. The various kings lost prestige over time, which led to a growing hatred towards the ever-growing oppression and taxation of the lowest social grade, in order to finance the militaries needed for territorial integrity. In 920, reports suggest various protests of enfuriated subjects, which was brutally put down by depopulating entire regions and dismantling whole communities. Though this war seemed successful at first, it only seized further disarray with the nobility and the peasantry. In Terunder for example, during what was known as the Peasant's Revolt, dispersed soldiers and farmers rose up and defenestrated their liege lords in a quick siege of Weidbach castle. Other examples of extreme brutality were observed all over the countryside.
Ragucin control and late Middle Ages (1297–1404)
In the early 13th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as indulgences in the Ditanist Church, caused by the noticable and threatening expansion of the nearby Ragucin Empire and its historic predecessors, and a general desire for reform. This sparked various riots and larger civil unrest, sincerely demanding its return to a more formal policy, which divided those of stornger faith and opposing people, ending in harrasments, riots, and civil wars among many small states.
From 1291 to 1297 Dilisme's War raged in Mascylla. Its causes were the personal conflicts between states, the efforts by the various states within to increase their power, and the Ragucin Empire's attempt to achieve the administrative and political unity of the realm. The immediate occasion for the war was the raid of the Ragucin cavalry of Juznia against the current duke, but the conflict was widened into a Mascyllary war by the intervention of King Christian II of Benschmark (1258-1295) and Gustaf Thelm of Burhurdt (1266-1320). Central Mascylla became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between Ragucin and several states for predominance in Mascylla. The fighting often was out of control, with marauding bands of hundreds or thousands of starving soldiers spreading plague, plunder, and murder. The armies that were under control moved back and forth across the countryside year after year, sacking cities, and seizing the animals and food stocks of the peasants without payment. The enormous social disruption over two decades caused a dramatic decline in population because of killings, disease, crop failures, declining birth rates and random destruction, and the out-migration of terrified people. One estimate shows a 38% drop from 6 million people in 1321 to 3.7 million by 1350, while another shows "only" a 20% drop from 7 million to 5.6 million. The Altmark and Lehpold regions were especially hard hit. It took generations for Mascylla to fully recover.
The war ended in 1297 with the Peace of Westmarke. Most of Mascylla's leading states submitted to Ragucin administration and rule, thus being integrated into the rising larger empire. While it grew vastly in size, the kings and dukes retained much of their authority and autonomy, but were held under control by large payments of tribute to the Ragucin kings. Much of the power of the countries declined further as the states' military, population, and economical strength were decreased.
After the death of Dilisme in 1323 and the formal dissolution of the Ragucin Empire, Mascylla again lost authority and thus plunged back into independence. Of the former armies that remained, man of those either sacked other cities or fled back to Juznia.
Early modern period
From 1400 onward, Adwhin had started to rise under the "Great Regnant," Karl Wilhelm. The Peace of Langquaid in 1409 strengthened it even further, through the acquisition of East Pholroyne. From 1413 to 1450, King Karl Wilhelm II, also known as the "Sword King", established a highly centralized, militarized state with a heavily rural population of about two million (compared to the other eight million in the rest of Mascylla). In terms of the boundaries of 1793, Mascylla in 1500 had a population of 10 million, increasing slightly to 12 million by 1600, and growing more rapidly to 15 million by 1800. Wars continued, but they were no longer so devastating to the civilian population; famines and major epidemics did not occur, but increased agricultural productivity led to a higher birth rate, and a lower death rate.
Ludwig II of Welsbach conquered parts of Elsatz and Lorauen (1578–1581), and had invaded and devastated the Electorate of Kalaphay (1588–1597) in the War of Kalaphay Succession. Ludwig II benefited from Adwhin's problems with the Finstrians, which were menacing Adwhin. Ludwig II ultimately annexed the Electorate of Kalaphay howver, which led to Adwhin joining the war. Afterwards Gehstroh was reconquered from the Welsbacher; Adwhin, developed into a great power, quickly reconquered the annexed land held by the Welsbacher, and even gained the city of Kanritz, sacking it and raising it to the ground in 1599, turning the war on Adwhin's side. As Welsbach was not prepared for a sudden retaliation, they were quickly overturned, and eventually surrendered a few weeks later. The ever-growing strength of the Adwhin-Hohner alliance disturbed a power balance and rendered fear in a large portion of southern Mascylla.
Albert II "the Great" is best known for his military genius, his reorganization of Adwhinish armies, his battlefield successes, his enlightened absolutism, and especially his making of Adwhin being one of the great powers, as well as escaping from almost certain national disaster at the last minute. He was especially a role model for an aggressively expanding Mascylla down to 1793, and even today retains his heroic image in Mascylla. In the War of Terunder Succession (1640–1648) Julia I fought successfully for recognition of her succession to the throne. But in the Adwhinish Wars and in the Warnow War she had to cede a big portion of Amretz to Albert the Great. After the Peace in Hubertsburg in 1663 between Terunder, Adwhin, Amretz, and the Lehpold States, Adwhin won recognition as a great power, thus triggering a century-long rivalry with Terunder and other countries, all in soured relations to Adwhin, about the leadership of the Mascyllary peoples in a future nation-state.
From 1663, against resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an "enlightened absolutism" was established in all Great Powers, according to which the ruler governed according to the best precepts of the philosophers. The economies developed and legal reforms were undertaken, including the abolition of torture and the improvement in the status of Disitru practicers. Emancipation of the peasants slowly began. Compulsory education was instituted. In 1672 Adwhin took the lead in the politcal partitions of Dorathea, with the Kingdom of Hohnern and the Republic of Konreid splitting the rest. This action devastated relations with the other powers even more, shifting political climate to a bioling point. Adwhin occupied the eastern territories of the former Lehpold States that surrounded existing Adwhinish holdings. Lehpold again became independent in 1790.
Completely overshadowed by Adwhin and the Great Powers, the smaller Mascyllary states were generally characterized by political lethargy and administrative inefficiency, often compounded by rulers who were more concerned with their mistresses and their hunting dogs than with the affairs of state. Jusland was especially unfortunate in this regard; it was a rural land with very heavy debts and few growth centers. Lensrau was in economically good shape, although its government was seriously mismanaged, and numerous wars had taken their toll. During the time when Adwhin rose rapidly within Mascylla, Lensrau was distracted by interior affairs. The house of Wettinger concentrated on acquiring and then holding on to the Krumlavian throne which was ultimately unsuccessful. In Rothenau the duke lavished funds on palaces, mistresses, great celebration, and hunting expeditions. Many of the city-states of Mascylla were run by bishops, who in reality were from powerful noble families and showed scant interest in religion. None developed a significant reputation for good government. Most governments also signed pacts and agreements with one of the Great Powers, as they were mostly not able to represent their own statute, largely splitting Mascylla into factions over time, promoting further escalation.
The birth of the Mascyllary Kingdom was the result of efforts by Mascyllary nationalists and monarchists loyal to the houses in the north to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Mascyllary peninsula. Following the Congress of Rehnern in 1715, the political and social Mascyllary unification movement, or Gemeinsamer Bund, emerged to unite Mascyllary consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Rudolph Meiner, member of the secret revolutionary society Eichenbaum and founder of the influential political movement Junges Maskillien in the early 1730s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. The most famous member of Junges Maskillien was the revolutionary and general Franz Kolnher, renowned for his extremely loyal followers, who led the Mascyllary republican drive for unification in Adwhin. However, the Northern monarchies in the north, of the Houses of Fahnicht, Ahnern, Therunder, and Schwesen, also intended to establish means to form a united alliance, whose governments was led by King Lukas, King of Ahnern, also had ambitions of establishing a united Mascyllary state.
In the context of the 1748 liberal revolutions that swept through Iraia, an unsuccessful first war of unification was declared on Adwhin. The Kingdom of Terunder again attacked the Kingdom of Adwhin in the Second Mascyllary War of Unification of 1759, with the aid of Terunder, resulting in liberating Welsbach at last. For now, ideas of a unitary Mascylla got quieter, even fully devastated, as new political tension resulting from those wars led to a tense situation in Mascylla.
In 1783, the heir to the House of Phalya, Robert Leopold, suddenly passed away mere days before his coronation, which sparked suspicion at first. It was quickly theorized Adwhin had murdered him in order to claim the vacant throne. Those soured relations even more, and with the attack on the duchy of Rehnert by Adwhinish forces it sparked the fire, while alliances and reactionary states prompted the whole realm into conflict. Finally, the Kingdom of Aldia declared war on Adwhin, engulfing Mascylla into its last war, the War of the Five Kings. Meanwhile Kolnher led the drive for unification in Adwhin and Hohnern (the Expedition of the Thousand), while the Houses of the north, bound together in the newly formed "Elbgau Confederacy" occupied the central territories of the Mascyllary peninsula, except Karlsweil and Lensrau. Lehpold was the site of the famous meeting of 26 October 1787 between Franz Kolnhern and King Lukas I, in which Kolnher bowed before Lukas and hailed him as King of Mascylla; thus, Kolnher sacrificed republican hopes for the sake of Mascyllary unity under a liberalized monarch. Lukas agreed to include Kolnher's Southern Mascylla allowing it to join the union with the Elbgau Confederacy in 1789.
Facing various battles and the slow disintigration of its monarchial power, Adwhin slowly lost its grip, until a famine in 1792 led to the collapse of its military. Pressured by its enemies, it finally dissolved when nationalists assasinated King Theodor IV. This allowed the governments to declare a united Mascyllary kingdom on 23 May 1793. Lukas I and Linda I then became the first king and queen of a united Mascylla respectively, and the capital was moved to Langquaid temporarily. Mascyllary unification was completed and shortly afterward the new nation's capital was moved to newly built Königsreh. After the unification, Lukas I, Linda I, Kolnher and Stenreck have been hailed as Mascylla's Parents.
Founding Years (1810–1900s)
Industrialisation and transformation
In the earliest years after its unification, Mascylla largely concentrated its resources and attention on improving living standards and general infrastructure in the more rural north and west, while first beginnings of the Industrial Revolution took place in Iraia. Areas were tried to be given a proper road and rail network, as it would unlock yet untouched natural resources in the vast moutain ranges of the southern west. Quickly new cities and administrative regions were established, witnessing a wake of national migration across the new country, with most finding new luck in the mountains, while farmers of the central and east enveloped cities, growing city population between 1811 and 1815 as fast as in the previous hundred years. Economic reformation saw a fluctuation of first small manufacturers, and with the introduction to the steam engine, factory businesses.
In the mindset of many Mascyllary, the epoch is intrinsically linked with King Lukas I and Chancellor Stenreck, but it did not end with them (in 1839) but continued well into the reign of King Lukas II. It was a "Golden Age for Mascylla" in which the disasters of the War of the Five Kings and the previous internal wars were remedied, and the country competed internationally on a continent-class level in the domains of science, technology, industry and commerce. This was the time when particularly the Mascyllary middle class rapidly increased their standard of living, buying modern furniture, kitchen fittings and household machines.
The social effects of Industrialization were the same as in other Erdaran and Iraian nations: Increased agricultural efficiency and introduction of new agricultural machines led to a polarized distribution of income in the countryside. The landowners won out to the disadvantage of the agrarian unpropertied workforce. Emigration, most of all to Cardia, and urbanization were a consequence. An unexpected population explosion boosted the nation's population from around 10 million in 1790 to 14 million in 1820, most notably experienced in major cities such as Langquaid, Flussmund, Ankstedt and foremost Königsreh, where construction of new living quartiers couldn't manage the huge number of its citizens. In the rapidly growing industrial cities, new workers' dwellings were erected, lacking in comfort by today's standards but also criticized as unhealthy by physicians of the time: "without light, air and sun", quite contrary to the then prevailing ideas on town planning. The dark, cramped flats took a large part of the blame for the marked increase in tuberculosis, which spread also to wealthier neighborhoods.
Nevertheless, the working class also saw improvements of living standards and other conditions, such as social security through laws on workers' health insurance and accident insurance introduced by Stenreck in 1827, and in the long run also through the foundation of a social democracy that would remain the model for the Erdaran sister parties. Even today the model of social care developed by Stenreck in 1827 (Reichsversicherungsordnung) remains the contractual basis for health insurance in Mascylla. During that time, citizens increasingly influenced cultural development, such as beginning of the classical liberal epoch, even when the political demands of the time were only partially met. The Industrialisation also posed aesthetic and artistic challenges, above all in the field of architecture and craftsmanship, through developing of existing forms, rather than innovation as such. Art was heavily influenced by this time, mainly due to the rather grim daily life of the worker class and the pollution, which seemingly engulfed the cities. Paintings were given a more darker colour shading, and were more realistic in every aspect, from shadowing to proportions of bodies and faces.
Clashes with Hytekojuznia
Since the inception of a Mascyllary nation-state, political relations with other Erdaran nations have been more or less strained in fear of a new power rising. Specifically the nations of Visnevas and especially Hytekia had common interest in securing local strategic location in Mascylla and attempting to prohibit loosing their power in the Lake Sigismund region and throughout Erdara. Though attempts were made to achieve that hegemony through more diplomatic ways in the decades before, relations reached a tipping point, which resulted in the subsequent Saarow War (1854-55). A military responde was made vehemently, as Lukas II rushed to defend the cities under attack, afraid of loosing the war and assertation of power to Hytekia.
The rushed mobilisation of Mascyllary forces as well as outstanding Hytek strategic achievements under Patrik Lehr and Hans II culminated in a crushing defeat for the Mascyllary forces, surrendering in the Treaty of Karonau. Under these circumstances, Mascylla had no choice but to cede Mögtland, Saarow, and Bad Ülerst, as well as face monetary reparation.
Though the conflict seemed over at first, it only prompted further wars, in 1875 with the Elpsland War, which saw another huge blow to Mascyllary forces and culminated in the ceding of huge swaps of land, most notably the entire Elpsland region, and in 1885 with the Konreid Campaign, a small military conflict which saw the secession of Konreid and various borderlands to the newly-founded Kingdom of Hytekojuznia in 1884. The legacies of Hans II and his successor Adelaide were largely based on these successful campaigns. Despite the infuriating losses and worsening image of Hytekojuznik, resulting in the Mascyllary mindset of Erbfeindschaft, Hytekojuznik prime minister Fabian Katz was still quite popular among leftists and socialists, and his political theories worked upon in the Mascyllary Revolution. The more neutral and liberalised Johannes I also enjoyed affection in Mascylla during his reign. Yet the Lindenau Accords of 1904 completely eradicated Mascyllary-Hytekojuznik relations, when the Mascyllary government under Paul Martinsen admitted its concessions and canceled any claim on the lost territories under pressure of Hytekojuznia respectively, being a foremost reason of the latter confrontation in the Continental War by 1910.
Early contemporary Mascylla
Intervention in the Continental War (1910–1916)
Following the outbreak of war in September 1910, the Hytekojuznik army opened the Northern Front by first invading Anlaufhafen and then Lilienburg, which prompted the Mascyllary Kingdom to enter the war against Hytekojuznia. However, Hytekojuznik was able to penetrate Mascyllary defences at their border, sweeping into their territory, gaining military control of important industrial regions in Mascylla, decively proved by the First Battle of Augusthal. With too little forces set up in time and a chaotic retreat as a result, Mascylla suffered heavy territorial losses and only managed to partake a victory randomly through the events of the Battle of Lückwalde and Marienfelde. With Mascylla beginning to hold ground against Hytekojuznia, the front now established between the North Sea and Lake Sigismund began to solidify, adding a new dimension to the theatre: trench warfare.
Through means of enourmous mobilization and total war, advancements could be achieved in the latter stage of the war, for example through the Battle of the Rohrn which saw the first large-scale shift of the front and invasion of Hytekojuznia. Afterwards, the unstoppable advance of the Mascyllary armies during the Three Months Offensive in 1915 and 1916 caused a graduating collapse of the Hytekojuznik armies and finally persuaded the Hytekojuznik commanders that defeat was inevitable. The Hytekojuznik government surrendered in the armistice of 29 May 1916, and the terms of peace were settled by the Treaty of Lehpold in March 1917 in Mascylla.
Interwar period (1916–1923)
Mascylla saw a radical transformation of its society resulting from the Continental War, often associated with the introduction to a more equilatarian social structure. Energised self-consciousness among workers quickly built up higher participation in political affairs and a higher voting population. Furthermore, the consequences of the war led to an acceleration of social reform and state control of the economy. Individual moral behavior improved, and many historians argue, that the Mascyllary society became less traditional and more evenly distributed. The Ministry of Health introduced the Haus- und Stadtplannungsakt (Housing and Town Planning Act), which reduced urban slums and built houses. The low rents were also implemented to make the act more attractive to parliament and less costly, which succeeded in the passing in 1918. Up to 88,000 houses were built in 1921, which further reduced the number of homeless people and improved living conditions. The Arbeitslosenversicherungsakt (Unemplyment Insurance Act) passed at a time of very little unemployment. It set up a system that provided 39 weeks of unemployment benefits to practically the entire civilan working population except domestic service, fam workers, and civil servants. Funded in part by weekly contributions from both employers and employed, it provided weekly payments for unemployed men and women equally.
Taxes rose sharply during the war and never returned to their old levels. A rich man paid 8% of his income in taxes before the war, and about a third afterwards. Much of the money went for the weekly unemployment benefits. About 5% of the national income every year was transferred from the rich to the poor. Many experts argue most people "were enjoying a richer life than any previously known in the history of the world: longer holidays, shorter hours, higher real wages." The Mascyllary economy was lackluster in the 1910s, with sharp declines and high unemployment in heavy industry and coal, especially in Weißern and Warnowen. Exports of coal and steel fell in half by 1920 and the business community was slow to adopt the new labour and management principles. For over a century the shipping industry had dominated world trade, but it remained in the doldrums despite various stimulus efforts by the government. With the very sharp decline in world trade after 1920, its condition became critical. Minister of Finances Niklas Bulgau put Mascylla back on the gold standard in 1917, which many economists blame for the mediocre performance of the economy.
Others point to a variety of factors, including the inflationary effects of the Great War and supply-side shocks caused by reduced working hours after the war. By the mid-1920s, economic performance had stabilised, but the overall situation was disappointing. There also remained a strong economic divide between the east and west of Mascylla during this period, with the east of Mascylla fairly prosperous by the 1920s, while parts of southern Weißern and the industrial west of Mascylla became known as "distressed areas" due to particularly high rates of unemployment and poverty, as well as large-scale destruction caused by the previous war.
Coal was a sick industry; the best seams were being exhausted, raising the cost. Demand fell as oil began replacing coal for fuel, but the consumption of coal couldn't be covered by its production. General hopes had been set for the AN mandate of Višnevas due to its rich coal industry, but the ensuing Crimson Revolution under Artjoms Viliks in Hytekojuznia faded chances of getting the reparations paid. The 1920 general strike was a nine-day nationwide walkout of 800 thousand railwaymen, transport workers, printers, dockers, iron workers and steelworkers supporting the 500 thousand coal miners who had been locked out by the owners. The miners had rejected the owners' demands for longer hours and reduced pay in the face of falling prices. The conservative government had provided a nine-month subsidy in 1921 but that was not enough to turn around a sick industry. To support the miners the Trades Union Congress (TUC), an umbrella organization of all trades unions, called out certain critical unions. The hope was the government would intervene to reorganize and rationalize the industry, and raise the subsidy. The conservative government had stockpiled supplies and essential services continued with middle class volunteers. All three major parties opposed the strike. The general strike itself was largely non-violent, but the miners' lockout continued and there was violence in Adwhin.
It was the only general strike in Mascyllary history, for TUC leaders such as Ernst Benig considered it a mistake. Most historians treat it as a singular event with few long-term consequences, but Martin Puck says it accelerated the movement of working-class voters to the Social Democratic Party, later contributing to the victory in the Mascyllary Revolution. The Handelsunion- und Handelsumgangsakt (Trade Union and Trade Treatment Act) made general strikes illegal and ended the automatic payment of union members to the SDP. That act was largely repealed in 1924. The coal industry, used up the more accessible coal as costs rose output fell from 567 million tons in 1922 to 83 million in 1930. The social democratic government nationalised the mines in 1926 later on.
Mascyllary Revolution (1923–24)
Main article: Mascyllary Revolution
The first acts of revolution were triggered by the incompetent handling of post-war Mascylla by the Mascyllary Supreme Military Command and the government. Instead of obeying their orders to further secure and help rebuild the devastated areas, tired Mascyllary soldiers led a revolt in the army bases of Birchau on 12 May 1923, followed by the Wilhelmshagen mutiny in the first days of June. These events spread the fires of civil unrest across Mascylla and ultimately led to the proclamation of a republic on 23 May 1923. Shortly after, King Lukas III abdicated his throne and tried to flee the country, but was caught and publicly executed in Königsreh.
The revolutionaries, inspired by socialist ideals and values, did not adapt the Hytekojuznik system of a communist government, as the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla (SDP) opposed their structure. The SDP, in compliance with the Centre Party, favoured a national assembly as the basis for a parliamentary democracy instead. Fearing a fully escalated civil war in Mascylla between militant workers and reactionary conservatives, the newly founded SDP-Centre government did not plan to strip the old upper classes and monarchy completely of their powers and privileges. Instead, it opted to integrate them into a new social democratic system. Under this manner, SDP-Centre officials sought contact to the Mascyllary Supreme Military Command. This enabled the opportunity to use the army and nationalist militias such as the Freiheitskorps and the Bund der Maitruppen to quell the communist Proletar uprising by force. This new alliance succeeded in suppressing further uprisings of the left and right in major parts of Mascylla, with the result that the entire country was brought under control by December 1923. Subsequent elections for the Reichsrat were held on 21 January 1924. The revolution ended with the formal introduction of a government and the adoption of the Great Constitution of the Realm on 26 January 1924. The new monarchy was introduced with the coronation of Maximilian I on 5 March.
The post-revolutionary years were a time of hardship, shortages and social instability. This was followed by large-scale public works programmes, economic recovery, Erdaran integration and the gradual re-introduction of a welfare state. Leadership of the new republic was taken by newly inaugurated Maximilian I, who instituted large-scale reforms of the monarchy and helped estbalish a stable democracy. He recovered the royal houses and re-established the constitution, government departments, and household. Her actions and efforts gave her the nickname "the People King".
Immediately after the war, rationing was imposed on many goods, including: cigarettes, textiles, washing powder and coffee. There was severe housing shortages in Mascylla as a result of the war. In the later 1940s, there was mass emigration, especially to Krumlau and Lilienburg. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some 500,000 Mascyllary people to leave the urban areas or the country after the war. Post-war politics saw shifting coalition governments. The 1924 parliamentary elections saw the Social Democratic Party (SDP) emerge as the largest party, just ahead of the Centre Party. The National Democrats experienced a devastating low participation, as nationalistic beliefs were seen as "poisonous" after the turbulent revolution was experienced. Erwin Martinsen formed a new coalition cabinet. The Erdaran states began providing economic assistance as part of the Martinsen Plan in 1926 that injected valuable funds into the economy, fostered modernisation of business, and encouraged economic cooperation. He led four successive cabinets until 1943. His tenure in office of the Prime Minister saw four major political developments: the traumas of decolonisation, economic reconstruction, the re-establishment of the Mascyllary welfare state, and international integration and co-operation, especially against the People's State of Hytekojuznia.
Economic reconstruction and development
Despite the socio-economic problems, this was a period of optimism for many. A baby boom followed the war, as young Mascyllary couples started the families they couldn't previously due to the conflict. They had little taste for a strictly imposed rule-oriented traditional system with its rigid hierarchies, sharp pillarised boundaries and strictly orthodox religious doctrines. The translation of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1927), by Juznik pediatrician Tomas Tijke was a best-seller. His vision of family life as companionate, permissive, enjoyable and even as being fun took hold, and seemed the best way to achieve family happiness in a dawning age of freedom and prosperity.
Wages were kept low and the recovery of consumption to pre-war levels was delayed to permit rapid rebuilding of the infrastructure. In the years after the war, unemployment fell and the economy grew at an astonishing pace, despite the high birth rate. The shattered infrastructure and destroyed cities were rebuilt. A key contribution to the recovery in post-revolution Mascylla came from the Zeschtemann Plan, which provided the country with funds, goods, raw materials and produce. Mascyllary became internationally active again. Mascyllary corporations, particularly Magnall and AGA, became internationally prominent. Business people, scientists, engineers and artists from Mascylla made important international contributions.
Across Erdara the period from 1971-80 marked the end of the booming economy of the 1960s. Mascylla also experienced years of negative growth after that. Unemployment increased steadily, causing rapid growth in social-security expenditures. Inflation reached double digits; government surpluses disappeared. On the positive side, rich iron, copper, and aluminium deposits were developed, providing a current account trade surplus during most of the period. Public deficits were high. According to the long-term economic analysis of Horling and Schmidt, the major gains in the Mascyllary economy were concentrated between 1870-1910 and between 1950–70. Rates were much lower in 1910–1930 and after 1990.
Great Game (1924–1981)
Following the Mascyllary Revolution, most Iraian nations, especially Mascylla itself, regarded the communist states of Arlyon, Dulebia, and People's State of Hytekojuznia seemingly as a potential threat to their sovereignty and democratic values, which were undermined by the communist police state of their opponents. Mascylla, still weakened by economic recession and the recent political overthrows, spearheaded an international pact to achieve long-term sovereignity and protection from the three countries. Military alliances and extensive diplomatic relations were begun to be forged with Iraia's original victors of the Continental War, mainly Lavaria and Krumlau, which refitted Mascylla's economy due to their cooperation, and enabled its military to boost capacities and manpower.
Ernst Lehmann of Hytekojuznia underwhent efforts to re-conciliate relations with Mascylla during his tenure in 1962-1964. These steps culminated in the Langquaid Summit, which intended to establish new trade relations and the opening of the national border, normalizing political affairs at large. Though Lehmann's initial visions weren't fulfilled, they served a symbolic purpose of the yearn for international peace and unity , which, being blocked by the mistrusting nature of the Behrest government in the 60s and its seemingly repressive nature on topics of de-escalating tensions, caused the 1964 Mascyllary student and civil movement.
With the foundation of the Erdaran Union in 1964, a common democratic faction solidified through the Treaty of Lilienburg, the by many politicians referred "Iron Curtain" had already divided the communist nations from those of the original Dreibund. Large defensive installations such as concrete walls, fences, minefields, army stations, and other measurements of border security, aswell as seamines near naval borders between the states had manifested the Iron Curtain as a real construct. Families, which lived on the opposite side of the border, economical ties, traffic connections, trade routes, and other were now separated for decades, contact with people across the Iron Curtain remained virtually impossible, and escape attempts while crossing the border from East to West and retrospectively was largely surpressed by the governments involved. Through the inclusion of nuclear weapons, the conflict now immersed a new dimension of global annihilation through nuclear war, and political relations remained extraordinarly tense. Asymmetrical warfare such as espionage, most prominently Operation Clearsight in the 1950s and the foundation of the DSA, also achieved significant contributions to military intelligence and national security needs.
Contemporary Mascylla (1981–present)
After the signing of the Birchau Treaty of Non-Proliferation in 1981 and the approach to Hytekojuznia, potential menaces to mainland Mascylla appeared considerably reduced. Mascylla began reducing its nuclear capacities, such as ending nuclear weapons research and further construction of nuclear power plants was slowed down, and conscription was abolished following no further need and lack of participation in 2005. Mascyllary intervention in wars and other conflicts decreased in the years following the Great Game, and diplomatic actions were merely cut down to peace negotiations and political representation. However it persued closer relations with the members of the Erdaran Union and the Hallanic Commonwealth in this regard. Cooperation in manners of diplomatic association, a common economy, and joint-military actions in the turn of the century remained an integral part to Mascyllary foreign policy.
The nation has also been rocked by bombings, assassinations, and kidnappings conducted by the Revolutionary Garrison (RG) throughout its activity from 1968 to 1992. Its engagement peaked in summer of 1991, informally known as the "Summer of Knifes", where multiple political figures and businessmen were either murdered or taken hostage. The attacks of July 20 were the deadliest and worst terrorist attacks in Mascyllary history with more than 500 dead. Most notably the Martinsen Center in central Königsreh was bombed, killing 182 members of state parliaments, other politicians, and civilians, effectively crippling the nation's government in a constitutional crisis in August 1991. Mascylla responded by declaring the "War on Mad Dogs" to combat the RG; the subsequent police investigation from 1991 to 2000 was the largest to-date. On 19 March 2000, Prime Minister Michael Meilke was assassinated by a right-wing extremist, having been the second time a Prime Minister had died in office and had fallen victim to an assassination. The rise of extremist terrorism in Mascylla prompted a nation-wide initiative for surveillance and safety measures, with programs for the DSA and the Imperial Police implemented; significant criticism has been raised about its effectiveness and legitimacy however.
Following the end of the Great Game, Mascylla sought to keep the political status quo in Erdaran affairs mainly for ensuring stability. Beginning in January 1986, Mascylla, in coalition with Krumlau and Lavaria as an AN mission, commenced Operation Torchbearer in the worsening political situation in Finstria under the Eisenring regime in order to maintain social coherence. While the offensive was quick in penetrating light resistance, guerilla separatist groups combated the forces until 1988. A new government was established with Mascyllary and AN guidance as soon as national stability was restored.
Although formal disputes ended in 1981, Mascylla did support Juznik forces in the subsequent Hytekojuznik Civil War, and led a joint military campaign in Hytekojuznia. The new republic thus encroached further towards Mascylla and became a member of the Erdaran Union thereafter. Mascylla at the turn of the millenium remained staggering in economic wealth and thus gained long-term political representation in global affairs. More recently, Mascylla took a larger stead in more global affairs, as one of the Permanent Members of the AN Security Council and leading voices of the organization.
Situated in northern Erdara, Mascylla lies east of the Kansic Sea, south of the North Sea and west of the White Sea, thus providing a long coastline, and forms the northern Erdaran peninsula. To the southwest lies the Weißenhaupt mountain group at the shores of Lake Sigismund, and the southeast Lake Delchse. Juznia lies at a large plain in the west and is only divided further south by the Weißenhaupt and Lake Sigismund. Hytekia lies separated on the other side of the lake. Lilienburg shares a hilly and short border with Mascylla, which is traversed by the river Adel, while Krumlau lies unprotected at another great plain. Finstria's border is established through Lake Delchse and the Delchse river following their border to the White Sea. The mountains are remnant of ancient tectonic activity in the region, which defines a great portion of western geography, with various volcanic structures and rare earthquakes occuring.
At 338,424 km2 (103,666 sq mi), Mascylla is the xth-largest country in the world, the xth-largest country entirely in Iraia, and the second-largest in Erdara. The lowest elevation in Mascylla is in the bay of Lake Tunreyer, near Butzow, at −2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level, and the highest point being the Schneespeer at 2,711 m (8,894 ft) above sea level.
Mascylla has twenty-two provinces or Reichsländer, based on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve political or administrative purpose as well, they play an important role in people's self-identity. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, the northern Nordland, the central Flussland and southern Bergland. The densely populated Nordland encompasses around 20% of the country, the most populated area of Flussland up to 30%, and the majorily sparsely area of Bergland with almost 50%. Mascylla also has the Wildenfällen Nature Reserve, one of the largest protected areas in Iraia, totaling 562,772 ha (approx. 5,628 km2) as a part of policies of ecological protection.
Mascylla lies about south of the Arctic Circle. Southern Mascylla is predominantly agricultural and ruralised, with evenly distributed forest coverage across the country, and around 61% of Mascylla's total land area covered with forests. The highest population density is in the Kronlande in central Mascylla, along the eastern coast up to central Thalien, and in the valley of Lake Welber up south, Lake Armsen up north, and Königsreh. Amren, Juren, and Halstein are Mascylla's largest islands; Lake Sigismund, Lake Delchse and Lake Armsen are its largest lakes. Lake Delchse and Lake Armsen are the second and fifth largest lakes in Erdara respectively. Combined with the fourth and fifth largest lakes, Lake Hohner and Lake Spechtern, these lakes take up a significant part of Mascylla's area. Mascylla's extensive waterway availability throughout the central and north was exploited with the building of the Kohnig Canal in the 19th century, shortening the potential distance between the North Sea north of Greishof and Pereuth by using the lake and river network to facilitate the canal, leading up to Flussmund at the White Sea.
Most of Mascylla has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the central area is usually weak and is only manifested through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter. The country can be divided into three types of climate: the northern- and westernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the mid-western part has a subarctic climate due to its elevation.
However, Mascylla is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the canalized warm winds from the south and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of the planet's rotation. Continental north-coasts (to which all of Erdara belongs, as the eastern- and northernmost part of the X continent), are notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e.g. the Mascyllary cities of Pereuth and Ihleburg with each other, the winter in north coast Pereuth is much milder; also, for example, central and northern Mascylla has much milder winters than many parts of Finstria, Rotsir, and Svaldheim.
Because of its high latitude, the length of daylight varies notably. Just a bit south of the Arctic Circle, the sun never really sets for part of each summer, and it never rises really for part of each winter. In the capital, Königsreh, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 10 hours in late December. Mascylla receives between 1,100 and 1,900 hours of sunshine annually. During July there is not much difference in temperature between the north and south of the country. With the exception of in the mountains, the whole country has a July-average temperature within the range of +15.0 °C to +17.5 °C (a difference of 2.5 degrees), while the January-average temperatures vary from freezing point down to below −15 °C along the border with Krumlau and Finstria (a difference of 15 degrees).
The highest temperature ever recorded in Mascylla was 42.7 °C (108.8 °F) in Konreid in 2019, while the coldest temperature ever recorded was −19.2 °C (−2.6 °F) in Rechtlingshausen in 1966. Temperatures expected in Mascylla are heavily influenced by the large Erdaran landmass, as well as continental Iraia and Aussia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Mascylla. That in turn renders most of Mascylla's central areas having warmer summers than almost everywhere in the nearby White Sea, even matching temperatures found along the continental Kansic coast up to southern Hytekia. In winter however the same high-pressure systems sometimes puts the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation from the Kansic Sea which renders the Mascyllary continental climate less severe than that of nearby Rotsir. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudal differences. This is due to the north being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider White Sea and the North Sea air passing over lowland areas from the west.
More recently however, climate change heavily altered temperatures and precipitation in the region, allowing for much hotter and dreyer weather to occur more regularly. Extreme weather is predicted to increase four-fould in the next two decades, and storm weather as well as forest fires, most recently with the Thulba Fire in July of 2019, are regarded as most dangerous for Mascylla. Despite pessimistic prognosis, the Mascyllary government pushes for more eco-friendlier energy and infrastructure alternatives to combat these meteorological phenomena.
Apart from the ice-free Kansic Sea bringing marine air into Mascylla's tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the north of the country due to the abundant cloud cover. By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is that the coldest ever month (January 1987) in Königsreh was also the sunniest January month on record.
The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. When hot continental air hits the country, the long days and short nights frequently bring temperatures up to 30 °C (86 °F) or above even in coastal areas. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Coastal areas can see so-called tropical nights above 20 °C (68 °F) occur due to the moderating sea influence during warmer summers. Summers can be cool, especially in the north of the country. Transitional seasons are normally quite extensive and the four-season climate applies to most of Mascylla's territory, except in parts of Laurenz where some years do not record a meteorological winter or in the high Weißern mountains where polar microclimates exist.
On average, most of Mascylla receives between 500 and 800 mm (20 and 31 in) of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the global average. The north-western and central-eastern part of the country receives more precipitation, between 1,000 and 1,200 mm (39 and 47 in), and some mountain areas in the south are estimated to receive up to 2,000 mm (79 in).
|Record high °C (°F)||6.9
|Average high °C (°F)||4.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||39.2
|Avg. precipitation days||16||12||9||13||8||11||15||16||14||16||17||18||165|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||47||70||163||211||238||253||232||200||167||100||46||33||1,758|
|Source: Agency of Meteorology of the Realm|
The northern and eastern coastlines of the country lie in the North Erdaran Plain, with flat terrain crossed by northward and eastward-flowing watercourses such as the Blaugold, Röhrn, and Dahle. Wetlands and marshy conditions are found close to the Burhurdt border and along the White Sea coast. The central area of the country has many larger glacial lakes dating to the last glacial period around 12,000 years ago. Moving west, central Mascylla features rough and somewhat patternless hilly and mountainous countryside, on three axies moving eastward, some of it formed by ancient volcanic activity, but most created when the last glacial ice fragments carved out the area, as they slided down the plateau. The Mögd valley cuts through the hillside, forming a nautral boundary with Juznia. The central uplands continue south and north as far as Jusland and merge with the Hohnernmountains on the Lake Sigismund shore. Upland regions include the Weißenhaupt, Hohnern and Gelbwald Forest west of the Röhrn, the Kedtel hills north of Wilhelmshagen, the Vogelsberg massif, the Speer and the Eystruner Wald. Around Königsreh, the east-central part of the country is more like the low coastal areas, with sandy soil and river wetlands such as the Blauewald region.
Western Mascylla's landforms are defined by various linear hill and mountain ranges like the two adjacent ranges of the Behrder and Dorathean Alb and the Gelbwald forest along the border between Gothern and Lilienburg. The Weißenhaupt on the central massif and extending to the centre, are the highest mountains.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Erdara. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wolves, wild boars, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Erdaran beaver. The blue cornflower is a famous Mascyllary national symbol.
The 16 national parks in Mascylla include the Jasminen National Park, the Halsteiner Lagoon Area National Park, the Armsen National Park, the Spechtern National Parks, the Hohrest National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Weißenhaupt National Park, the Nieweil National Park, the Gelbwald National Park and the Buchteswärden National Park. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Mascylla, which is believed to be one of the most numerous in Iraia. The Königsreh Zoologischer Park, opened in 1844, is the oldest zoo in Mascylla, and presents the most comprehensive collection of species on the continent.
Mascylla has a considerable south to north distance, which causes large climatic difference, especially during the winter. The related matter of the length and strength of the four seasons plays a role in which plants that naturally can grow at various places. Mascylla is divided in five major vegetation zones. These are the northern deciduous forest zone, the northern coniferous forest zone, the southern coniferous forest zone, or the Taiga, the alpine-birch zone, and the bare mountain zone.
- The northern deciduous forest zone: Also known as the nemoral region, the northern deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also extends into northern Juznia and Krumlau. It has to a certain degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist. The region is characterised by a large wealth of trees and shrubs. The beech are the most dominant tree, but oaks can also form larger forests. Elm formes forests primarily along the coast, due to its need for ease soil, which is suited in sandy areas. Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include hornbeam, elder, hazel, fly honeysuckle, linden (lime), spindle, yew, alder buckthorn, blackthorn, aspen, Erdaran rowan, Mascyllary whitebeam, juniper, Erdaran holly, ivy, dogwood, goat willow, larch, bird cherry, wild cherry, maple, ash, alder along creeks, and in sandy soil birch compete with pine. Spruce is not native but between approximately 1870 and 1980 large areas were planted with it. They tend to grow quickly due to being outside of their native range and smaller to no distances between the tree rings cause poor board quality, sometimes even improving them. Later some spruce trees began to die before reaching optimal height, and many more of the coniferous trees were uprooted during cyclones. During the last 40–50 years large areas of former spruce plantings have been replanted with deciduous forest.
- The northern coniferous forest zone: Also known as the boreo-nemoral region, the northern coniferous forest zone, is delimited by the oak's northern natural limit (limes norrlandicus) and the Spruce's southern natural limit, between the northern deciduous zone and the Taiga farther south. In the northern parts of this zone the coniferous species are found, mainly spruce and pine, mixed with various deciduous trees. Birch grows largely everywhere. The beech's northern boundary crosses this zone. This is however not the case with oak and ash. Although in its natural area, also planted Spruce are common, and such woods are very dense, as the spruces can grow very tight, especially in this vegetation zone's southern areas.
- The southern coniferous forest zone: The southern coniferous forest zone begins south of the natural boundary of the oak. Of deciduous species the birch is the only one of significance. Pine and spruce are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the south and more elevated it gets. In the extreme south and high mountain ranges is it difficult to state the trees forms true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees.
- The alpine-birch forest zone: The alpine-birch zone, in the Mascyllary mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of birch (Betula pubescens or B.tortuosa) can grow. Where this vegetation zone ends no trees grow at all, the bare mountain zone begins. The area makes up a really small area of Mascylla's territory, before south of the mountains, it gets warmer. The order then switches along the border to Tudonia.
Main article: Politics of Mascylla
The Crowned Republic of Mascylla is a federal, parliamentary, constitutional monarchy with a legislative democratic branch. The current political system was established after the conclusion of the Mascyllary Revolution in 1924, with various references to the previous Mascyllary Kingdom founded in 1793. Mascylla's government and political system is operated, controlled, and checked by a fraimwork laid out in the 1924 constitutional documents known as the Krongesetz (Crown Law) and the Große Reichsverfassung (Great Constitution of the Realm). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
Main article: Government of Mascylla
In the Mascyllary government system, citizens are usually subject to three main levels of government: the Crowned, the Federal, and the People's government. The people's government furfills certain, such as the administration of any events or internal affairs inside a state or region. The federal government ensures the observation and infrastructurial and economical administration inside the covenant of states as a whole. They serve as the legislative representative in each state respectively. In allmost all cases, executive and legislative officials of the people's level are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The Crowned Government makes up the real 'government' of Mascylla, being voted upon by all eligible civilians in the country. Though traditionally and de jure the Monarch heads the government, in truth the Prime Minister of Mascylla is responsible for all affairs as a parliamentary democracy.
The crowned government is composed of three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral parliament, made up of the Reichssenat (upper house) and the Reichsrat (lower house), makes federal law, declares a state of war, approves treaties and proposals, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove lower sitting members of the government. Foremost representative of the legislative is Prime Speaker of the Reichsrat (Vorderster Sprecher des Reichsrats) Walther Steintz of the SDP (14 September 2016-present).
- Executive: The Monarch (König or Königin) is the traditional commander-in-chief of the government and of the military, with the Councilman of Defense (Verteidigungskonsul) serving as advisor. Though her political options were extensive before 1924, they have since been largely given over to the office of Prime Minister (Premierminister), serving as de jure head of government. Current queen residing is Dorothea I (23 May 2015-present) and Prime Minister is Thomas Falkner of the RU (12 November 2016-present).
- Judicial: The High National Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Monarch with approval of the parliament, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. Highest judge is currently Lukas Pretschgen (2 August 2011-present).
The cabinet of the government has 12 voting members, all made up of the most important offices of the executive government, including ministers and other government officials. The highest positions include that of the Prime Minister, the Minister of the Realm and the Minister of Defense of the Realm.
The Reichssenat has 163 members with each state having a set representatives in accordance with their respective populations, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Reichssenat seats are up for election every other year. The Mascyllary population minorities without a political entity each also have on senator. The Monarch serves a life-span term and may be superseded in its lifespan if he or she is unable to execute the office, or if he or her heir to the throne reaches the age of 18, so that he can take the office if the monarch wishes to abdicate. If so, the heir will be crowned as Monarch in immediate extent. The Monarch can only be exclusively a female or male from a royal house within Mascylla in person, but is able to originate from a relationship between two members of different houses. The people's governments are structured in roughly the same fashion. The ceremonial Lord (Herr) of each duchy is directly given the birth right. Some high judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the Lords through approval of legislative bodies of the respective duchies, while others are elected by popular vote.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the party system had been dominated by the National Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla and its predecessors. So far two-thirds of all Prime Ministers has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller centre Rehunion and Mascyllary Democratic Party have also played a major role. Since, the right-wing populist Maskillischnationale Volkspartei, formed through the merger of two previous parties, has been a staple in the Mascyllary Reichsrat though they have never been part of the crowned government. Other notable parties include those of the Democratic Party and the People's Party. In the Mascyllary federal election 1924, the center-wing liberal party Rehunion, then under the Centre Party, gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. The original text of the Great Constitution of the Realm establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual houses and royal families. Article One protects the right of the so called Hochlebenden and their subjects collectively. The constitution has been amended 27 times; the first ten amendments, which make up the so called Bills of Falkenhall and the Fourtheenth Amendment form the central basis of Mascyllary individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the constitution, was established by the High Court in a decision handed down by Maximilian I in 1925.
Political parties and elections
Centre (RU and ABP) (148)
Social Democratic Party (SDP) (128)
Democratic Party (MDP) (44)
National Democrats (NDU) (37)
National People's Party (MNVP) (18)
Communist Party (KPM) (12)
People's Party (EIP) (11)
The National Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla have played leading roles in Mascylla politics since 1880, after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. After the 1920s, most governments have been dominated by the National and Social Democrats. Only five general elections since the Mascyllary Revolution — 1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010 — have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Reichsrat to form a government. For over 50 years, Mascylla had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Reichsrat — the Social Democrats, the National Democrats, the Communist Party, the Mascyllary Democratic Party, and the Proletarian Party— before the Centre Party and later the Rehunion became the sixth party in the 1924 election. It was not until elections in 2016 that the Rehunion's candidate for the office of the Prime Minister, Thomas Falkner, was elected to attend that office. On 3 October 2001, Konrad Folln formed a minority government consisting of the Social Democrats and the Rehunion for the first time.
Election turnout in Mascylla has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout (80.11% in 2002, 81.99% in 2006, 84.63% in 2010) and 79.1 in 2016. Mascyllary politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1920s, and has graudually continued to rise, surpassing the other Erdaran countries above-averagely.
Further reading: Police service in Mascylla
Mascylla has a civil law system based on Lilienburgish law with many references to Hesurian law. The Reichsverfassungsgericht (Constitutional Court of the Realm), or otherwise known as the Hohes Gericht (High Court), is the High Mascyllary Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems. Mascylla's high court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Reiches , is specialised for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Court of Justice of the Realm, and for other affairs the courts responsible are the Labour Court of the Realm, the Social Court of the Realm, the Financial Court of the Realm, and the Administrative Court of the Realm. The other system is responsible for affairs between individulas and authorities, the Niederen Administrationsgerichte. They operate under a manner, until the case questions a concern of international security, if a politician is involded, or other, it is directly occupied by the High Court for further investigation.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Straftatsgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The Mascyllary penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the duchies or states.
Acoording to a governmential study in 2016, Mascylla holds low levels of criminality, such as murder, bride seekings, car theft, drug problems, burglary, and corruption, but has above-average of assaults, both sexual and racial, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. The low murder rate as of 2017 measures 0.3 murders every 100,000 residents.
Political administration and divisions
Mascylla comprises twenty federal states and free cities which are collectively referred to as Reichsländer and Reichsstädte respectively. Each state has its own constitution, its own mayor or representative and ceremonial representative, as entitled Lord for males or Fräulein for females. They, jointly with the elected representative, maintain separate responsibilites such as organising health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions, preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services. Three of the states are consisting of just one urban area: The Kronlade with the city capital of Königsreh, occupying the entire area of the municipality, Pereuth with the city of Pereuth, and Flussmund with the city of the same name. The state of Halstein consists of just various islands off the shore of Jusland that are all separated from eachother by the many channels and bays of the White Sea eastwards. All of the states are somewhat related to their historic predecessors before the War administratively.
Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary. For regional administrative purposes four states, namely Adwhin, Aldia, Fohlnern, and Elpsland, consist of a total of 21 Administrative Districts (Herrenländer), though all are also codified as "National Regions" (Reichsregionen). As of 2017 Mascylla was divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 297 rural districts and 104 urban districts. Those districts are governed by a County Governor (Landesgouverneur), appointed by the representative or voted upon in an election.
(31 December 2017)
|4||Eustria||Eystrun||Dorathea||31,125.2 (12,017.5 sq mi)||X|
|5||40px||Falia||Falien||Herzogau||27,379.8 (10,571.4 sq mi)||X|
|10||Holnia||Hohnern||Lannbrück||24,538.5 (9,474.4 sq mi)||X|
|14||Kronlande||Kronlande||Königsreh||1,678.9 (648.2 sq mi)||4,241,386|
|20||Sigismund||Sigismund||Buchenau||941.0 (363.3 sq mi)||X|
Throughout the 19th century, Mascyllary foreign diplomacy was based on the principle of non-alignment and neutrality in wartime. Mascylla's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war. Mascylla's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 18th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the War of the Five Kings in 1793. However, multiple wars with Hytekojuznia largely disoriented Mascyllary foreign policy for open confrontation with the country. However, Mascylla quickly abandoned the concept of neutrality as its strategic position enabled the country regional hegemony and thus a leading power. Having used this opportunity, Mascylla quickly manifested a status of a great power through the victory in the Continental War and the subsequent foundation of the Assembly of Nations with the headquarters in Köpenick as one of its virtual leaders. It is also a member of the Dreibund, Mascylla's principal military alliance with Lavaria and Krumlau, having been a foremost part of foreign military policy.
During the Great Game era, Mascylla combined its policy of continental power and a hih profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence. The function of the Mascyllary military was to deter attack. At the same time, the country maintained relatively close relations with fellow Erdaran countries, which culminated in the Treaty of Lilienburg in 1966 and the foundation of the Erdaran Union. It also led a military compound, a remnant of the Dreibund of the Continental War, and contributed to the confrontation with other communist countries, having achieved nuclear abilities with the Dytika nuclear test in 1950.
Since the Mascyllary Revolution, Mascylla played a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved significantly in international peace efforts and in support to the Third World. As a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Mascylla playing a more active role in Erdaran security co-operation. Though multiply attempting not to, Mascylla had been regarded as one of the world's police men and continues to serve diplomatic importance throughout.
Main article: Reichswehr
Mascylla's military, the Reichswehr, is organised into the Reichsheer (Army and special forces HSK), the Marine (Navy), the Luftheer (Air Force) , the Reichswehrmedizinbasis (Reichswehr Joint Medical Services) and the Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Services) branches. In absolute terms, Mascylla military expenditure is the largest in the world. In 2017, military spending was at Ӄ48.7 billion (US$30.9 billion) in 2018, about 2.0% of the country's GDP, decreased over the manner of several decades after the end of the Great Game. As of 2017, the Reichswehr employed roughly 167,200 service members, including about 22,000 volunteers and 329,700 reservists, placing it among the largest militaries in the world. Reservists are available to the Army and participate in defense exercises and deployment abroad.
Since 1945 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction, with about 36,000 female soldiers currently on active duty. The Mascyllary military is seen as one of the most open military institutions in regard to women, sexual orientation, and LGBT+.
The Mascyllary Ministry of Defence is responsible for the peactime operation of the Reichswehr. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Mascylla in the event of war. In such state of defence, the Monarch in office would become commander-in-chief of the Reichswehr. The role of the Reichswehr is described in the constitution of Mascylla itself as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Constitutional Court of the Realm in 1951 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Mascylla, but also for crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of the country anywhere in the world. As of late 2018, the Mascyllary military has about 1,880 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces.
Mascylla is a permanent member of the Assembly of Nations Security Council, and a recognized nuclear state since 1950. Mascylla hosted, signed, and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty and the Non-Proliferation Treaty through the Birchau Conference in 1981. Mascylla's nuclear deterrence is diversified over all branches of the military. Although it still holds to its nuclear status, since 1981 around half of all nuclear weapons built have been dismantled, and it is likely to continue.
Until 1998, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served seven-month tours of duty; conscientious observers could instead opt for an equal length of time in the Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Rote Urne (Red Jar). Recruiting of male conscriptors had shrunk drastically and many viewed it as seemingly unnecessary, with the result of official suspension of conscription and the replacement by a voluntary service.
Main article: Economy of Mascylla
Mascylla has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a very low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the fourth largest exporter of goods, and has the second largest economy in Erdara which is also the third largest by nominal and GDP per capital. The service sector contributes approximately 61% of the total GDP, including information technology, heavy manufacturing industry with 38%, and foodstuffs production with 1%. Mascylla's engineering sector accounts for 50 percent of output and exports, while telecommunications, consumer electronics, automobile manufacturing, baverage production, and pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Mascylla's mining exports include copper ore, iron ore, platinum, and rare earth elements, the last two of which making up a considerable part of the entire global production of these metals. They represent a noticable part in the national economy and are selled all across the world, most of it going to technology-producing countries such as Ashihara, Tuskval, Lavaria, and Krumlau.
The unemployment rate published by Verona amounts to around 4.1% in January 2015, which is one of the lowest rates in Erdara and Iraia. With 7.2% Mascylla also has one of the lowest youth unemployment rate in all Iraian states. According to the National Labour Observ Mascylla has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.
Trade unions, employers' associations, and collective agreements cover a large share of employees in Mascylla. The high coverage of collective agreements is archieved despite the absence of state mechanisms extending collective agreements to whole industries and sectors. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the rate of coverage is archieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market partners themselfs) over state regulation in Mascylla's industrial relations. When the Mascyllary system was changed in 2007, resulting in considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, a substantial decline in unions density and density of unemployment funds occured. In 2010 Mascylla's income Gini coefficient was the fourth lowest among developed countries, at 0.27 — slightly higher than X — suggesting Mascylla had low income inequality. However, Mascylla's wealth Gini coefficient at 0.853 was the second highest in developed countries, and above Erdaran averages, suggesting high wealth inequality. Even on a disposable income basis, the geographical distribution of Gini coefficient of income inequality varies within different regions and municipalities of Mascylla.
Mascylla is part of a large Erdaran single market in the Erdaran Union which represents dozens of millions of consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among the Erdaran nations and by varioous legislations within the country. Mascylla introduced its currency, the Karning, in 1823, after abolishing separate currencies inbetween its member states. Its monetary affairs are controlled and regulated by the Great Bank of the Crowned Republic, simply said the Central Bank of the country, which is headquarted in Flussmund, the nation's financial capital.
Mascylla maintains trade relations with approximately two dozen countries globally. Mascylla's biggest importers of its products were Krumlau (14.2%), Finstria (11.0%), Lavaria (9.2%), and Juznia (8.3%), while Krumlau, Juznia, Finstria, and Lavaria export most of their products to Mascylla.
Further reading: Notable companies
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, the X, 28 are headquarted in Mascylla. 11 major Mascylla-based companies are included in the MAIX, the prime Mascyllary stock market index which is operated by the Dockfurt and Königsreh Stock Exchanges. Well-known international branches include Magnall, SPCF, Reuthers, AGA, Koldmeier, and Albatross. Mascylla is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. More than 150 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled "hidden champions". Königsreh developed a thriving, cosmopolitan hub for start-up companies and became a leading location for venture funded firms in Erdara.
In terms of structure, the Mascyllary economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector; and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Mascyllary economy. High and medium-high technology manufacturing accounts for 9.9% of the GDP. The vast majority of Mascylla's industry is privately controlled, unlike many other industrialized Western counries, and, in accordance with a historical standard, publicly owned enterprises are of minor importance.
Agriculture and food
Mascylla has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Extensive tracts of fertile land to the south and far west, the application of modern technology, and modern subsidies have combined to make Mascylla a moderate agricultural producer and exporter in Erdara, though it still relies on the agricultural output of fellow Erdaran states, most notably Krumlau. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary Mascyllary agricultural exports. Apple wines and beers are primarily consumed within the country, however beers and other liquor are major exports, being recognized worldwide for their quality. Governmential agriculture subsidies to Mascylla have decreased in recent years but still amounted to Ӄ11.7 billion ($6 billion) in 2007. That same year, Mascylla sold 23.3 billion Karning of transformed agricultural products. Agriculture is a rather significant sector of Mascylla's economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agriculture-food industry made up 4.2% of Mascyllary GDP in 2005.
Although most animal foodstuffs are created by actual animals, an ever-increasing amount of flesh, milk, and eggs are manufactured in laboratories, without any living animal involved. This made Mascylla one of the first in Gaia to widely accept so called "clean meat" within its borders, after regulations by the government introduces it in March 2017.
Main article: Transport in Mascylla
With its north-eastern position in Erdara and Iraia, Mascylla is not considered a serious hub for central Asuran travel, but a key transport connection for Iraia-Rotsir and Aussian trade. It also monitors most traffic and routes to Finstria via its accessible land border. Like its neighbours in Erdara, Mascylla's rail network is among the densest in the world. The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the eighth-largest worlwide in length and is known for the absence of a general speed limit. It measures with a length of 182,707 km and runs all over Mascylla, mostly along costal areas. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway system was finished connecting Eisspeer and Ihleburg on 17 October 2009. Mascylla had right-hand traffic from approximately 1756 and continued to do so well into the 20th century.
Mascylla has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterLandExpress or ILE network of the Gekrönte Bahn serves major Mascyllary cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 370 km/h (230 mph). The Mascyllary railways are subsidised by the crowned government, receiving Ӄ27.0 billion ($11.0 billion) in 2014. The Königsreh metro is the largest underground train system in Mascylla and serves the city of Königsreh via 130 stations, and is privately owned, although most larger companies are still owned and financed by state. Tram lines at major cities are very common, following constructions in the mid 1970s. Most popular tram lines are built on the Christinenstraße in Königsreh and the Buchenallee in Eichlingen, and a new system is planned to be finished in Tilchingen in 2019.
The largest airports include Königsreh–Albert Polschnitz Airport (31.9 million passengers in 2018) 14 km west of Königsreh, Flussmund-Lachsen Airport (10.3 million passengers in 2011), and Königsreh-Stadter Airport (9.6 million passengers), all three hubs of Maskillea Airlines. Other significant airports include Ankstedt-Löchsen and Dockfurt-Leibnitzer. The most used airport for much of the rural far east of the country lie in Finstria. The marine ports of Ankstedt and Dockfurt also are the nation's largest harbours. Ferry connections to various neighbouring countries also establish a separate traffic system, such as ferry lines to coastal cities of Alriika, Finstria, Rotsir, and Juznia, and over Lake Sigismund to Hytekia and Lilienburg. Islands of the state of Halstein receive the most frequent departures, with up to 110 every day. Every coastal city in Mascylla posesses a ferry harbour station.
Mascylla is the sixth most visited country in the world, with a total of 40 million overnights during 2012. This number includes 22.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Mascylla. Königsreh has become the third most visited city destination in Erdara. Additionally, more than 30% of Mascyllary spend their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Elpsland and Schwesien. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over Ӄ43.2 billion ($20.8 billion) to Mascyllary GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of Mascyllary GDP and supports 600 thousand jobs (4.8% of total employment).
Mascylla is well known for its diverse tourist routes, such as the Romantic Road, the Apple Route, the Castle Road, and the Avenue Road. The Mascyllary Timber-Frame Road (Maskillische Fachwerkstraße) connects towns with examples of these structures. Temperate beaches in summer, cultural centers and national parks also make up a sizable portion of the tourists' attention. Mascylla's most-visited landmarks include e.g. Hochkronstein Castle, Ankstedt Cathedral, the historic town of Buchenau, the Victory Gate, Königsreh Reichsrat, Royal Brewing Factory (Hofbräuhaus) Stadtekow, Beergarten Castle, Langquaid Zwinger, Ihleburg Tower, Augusthal Palace and Lorenz Cathedral. The Aklece-Park near Freienburg is Erdara's second most popular theme park resort.
Infrastructure and energy
Main article: Energy in Mascylla
In 2008, Mascylla was the world's sixth-largest consumer of energy, and around half of its primary energy was imported. In 2014, energy supply consisted of: wind power (37.2%), other renewable energies (27.2%), nuclear (9.1%), natural gas (14.5%), coal and lignite (4.9%), and oil or petroleum-based substances (7.1%). The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2030, the currently largest plant active being the Erik Armber Nuclear Power Plant. It also enforces energy conservation, green technologies, emission reduction activities, and aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 90% renewable sources by 2040 too.
Following outages of coal and oil imports during the Continental War and subsequently after, the government strengthened the idea to decrease dependencies on imported fossil fuels, and rather look out for alternatives. Since then, most notably wind and hydroelectric power sources have begun to drastically increase in participation on national energy production. Mascylla committed to the national Eichlingen agreement and many established policies and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management, and the renewable energy commercialisation. The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world, at arounf 65%; the country's total greenhouses gas emissions being one of the lowest in Erdara. The Mascyllary energy transition (Energiewende) is a recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Science and technology
Main article: Mascyllary spaceflight
In the late 18th century Mascylla's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from Cardia and Hallania. In 1839, the Royal Mascyllary Academy of Sciences was founded following the decisive Pereuth Conference, a meeting between the country's most respected, renowned, and important scientists and explorers, with people such as Carl Linnder and Joseph Görche as early members. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands; Gustav Dalen founded AGA, and established the technological basis for complex machines. Alfred Kamretz invented kerosine, made important contributions to theories of gravity and space-time, and instituted the Little Scientific Revolution in Mascylla. Larsen Magnall started the company bearing his name, Magnall, still one of the largest telecommunications companies in the world. Johnas Wenströmer was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with famous inventor Karl Gerlach credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
Famous Mascyllary scientists on the turn to the 20th century include the mathematician and physicists Heinrich Eichberg, Werner Hollern, who is famous for his discovery of x-rays, named Hollern rays after him, and virologists Nielsen Schrödter and Anna Sophie. Though Mascylla produced a large output of scientific works, various had also been misused for military purposes, such as chlorine gas during the Continental War or advanced propulsion technologies for military jet aircraft.
Mascylla was the second country to achieve nuclear capability and has the fourth largest nuclear arsenal in the world. It has also been a civilian nuclear technology leader during the Great Game. It also deployed a space agency, named the Mascyllary Aerial and Orbital Agency or MAOA for short, being introduced in the first half of the Great Game, in 1962. Founded to research missile technology, it became a steady leader in space exploration, mainly to contribute to superior technological advancement against Hytekojuznia, and to boost means of military retaliations in case of war. Mascyllary astronauts conducted a series of manned missions, beginning with the second human in space, Lukas Brennzer, being lanuched in 1963 aboard Pionier 3. Through the merger of Erdaran national space agencies in 1966, the Erdaran Union founded the Joint Erdaran Space Agency, with Mascylla being the second-largest financial contributor, close behind Krumlau. 197X, it landed X on the Moon. Furthermore, it launched the space station Ceithe in June 1987. It advanced biological, technological, and scientific knowledge of the nation and Gaia, and remained one of the first multi-modular space stations and earliest attempts of international space cooperation in history.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Mascyllary inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Heinz Wallenberg. More recently Heinrich Lanst invented the Automatic Identification System, and physicists Michael Bieser and Burghardt Steinborn made significant contributions to information processing and nano technology.
A large portion of the Mascyllary economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Mascylla have their origins in the ingenuity of Mascyllary inventors. Mascyllary inventors held 47,112 patents worldwide in 2014, according to the Mascyllary Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only four other countries hold more patents than Mascylla. Combined, the public and the private sector in Mascylla allocate over 3.5% of GDP to research & development per year, making Mascylla's investment in research and development as a percentage of GDP the second-highest in the world. For several decades the Mascyllary government has prioritised scientific and R&D activities. As a percentage of GDP, the Mascyllary government spends the most of any nation on research and development. Mascylla tops other Erdaran countries in the number of published scientific works per capita.
|Source: Measure Mascylla|
The total resident population of Mascylla was 38,972,039 on 31 March 2017. The population exceeded 20 million for the first time on approximately 12 August 1874 and 30 million in the spring of 1951, according to Measure Mascylla. The population density is 115.1 people per km² (298.2 per square mile) and it is substantially higher in the north, south, and central than in the far west and east. About 75% of the population live in urban areas. The capital city Königsreh has a municipal population of about 3.23 million (with 4.31 million in the urban area and 6.0 million in the metropolitan area). The first- and third-largest cities are Flussmund and Langquaid respectively. Greater Flussmund counts over four million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Laurenz Bay, along the central eastern coast. Greater Lannbrück and Augusthal also include millions of inhabitants. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Therunder-Welsbach, Adwhin, the coast around Lake Sigismund, the plains surrounding Augusthal, and Greater Lensrau-Weidenau.
The Bergland, which covers approximately 40% of the Mascyllary territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometre). The mountains and most of the remote areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of Jusland, as well as northern Aldia and Tudonia.
Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 0.9 million Mascyllary, a tenth of the country's population, emigrated to Cardia and Hallania, and most of them to nations in neighbouring positions. There are more than 3 million people of foreign background living in Mascylla according to a 2016 census, while most emigrated Mascyllary live in Krumlau (about 0.97 million strong). There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Measure Mascylla, around 2,681,647 (16.9%) inhabitants of Mascylla were of a foreign background in 2017, defined as being born abroad or born in Mascylla with at least one parent born abroad. The most common countries of origin were Juznia (5.60%), Finstria (4.7%), Krumlau (3.2%), Dulebia (2.0%), Rotsir (1.9%), and Hytekia (0.9%).
Mascylla is a highly urbanised country, with highly populous cluster of cities and urban areas inbetween vast rural areas of low population density. Most metropolitan regions are centered along the coastline or the central river and lake systems. Most notably, around a quarter of the population alone live in the Kronlande, Eystrun, and Folnhern alone, making them the densest populated areas in the country. The largest city of Mascylla is Flussmund, making up a population of more than four million people, followed by the nation's capital, Königsreh, and the city of Langquaid, comprising each about a million inhabitants.
Largest cities or towns in Mascylla
Crowned Demographical Agency of Mascylla
|Rank||State or free city||Pop.||Rank||State or free city||Pop.|
Historically, indigenous Mascyllary people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 8th century: the Therunder, Kammen, Warnons, and others. Therunder people are estimated to potentially be the oldest ethnic group in Mascylla. A 2006 genetic study shows that more than 50% of Mascylla's gene pool contains Erdaran Y chromosomes. Another 2005 genetic analysis indicates that "about 75% of the traceable ancestors of the modern Mascyllary population had arrived in the Mascyllary Basin by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the Mascyllary Neolithic Age or Stone Age, and that the Mascyllary broadly share a common ancestry with the Cardian people.
Migration from Erdaran neighbouring states since 1981 has resulted in growth in these population groups, although some of this migration has been temporary. Since the 1990s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with migrants to Mascylla coming from a much wider range of countries than previous waves, which tended to involve larger numbers of migrants coming from a relatively small number of countries. Largest minority grouos in Mascylla are: Juznik, Finstrian, Krumlavian, Dulebian, Rotsir, and Hytek.
Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in Mascyllary national statistics, which were first introduced in the 1991 census, involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. In 2011, 87.2% of the Mascyllary population identified themselves as white, meaning 12.8% of the population identify themselves as of one of number of ethnic minority groups. In the 2001 census, this figure was 7.9% of the country's population. Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in Mascylla, data on the Other White group is not available for Mascylla as a whole, but in the Kronlande and Eystrun this was the fastest growing group between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, increasing by 377,417 (1.8 percentage points). Amongst groups for which comparable data is available for all parts of the federal level, the Other Cataian category increased from 0.4 to 1.4% of the population between 2001 and 2011, while the Mixed category rose from 1.2% to 2%. Ethnic diversity varies significantly across Mascylla. 30.4% of Königsreh's population and 37.4% of Flussmund's was estimated to be non-white in 2005, whereas less than 5% of the populations of Weißern and Schwechsien were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2001 census. In 2016, 31.4% of primary and 27.9% of secondary pupils at state schools in Mascylla were members of an ethnic minority. The 1991 census was the first national census to have a question on ethnic group. In the 1991 country census 94.1% of people reported themselves as being White Mascyllary, White Asuran or White Other with 5.9% of people reporting themselves as coming from other minority groups.
Before the 12th century, Mascyllary adhered to local denominations of pagan faith, worshiping nature gods, with its centre at the langquaid Temple. With the Ragucin Empire invading Mascylla, it opted to convert the country to Cathartic Ditanery and its variants. After reformations made by King Lukas II in the 1860's, religious freedom was finally manifested in the country, allowing every religion to be believed on, including ones with no connection to Iraian religions, making Mascylla one of the earliest countries in Asura to do so; a variety of religions became widespread. Adoption of this law meant the abolishing of a state religion, finally ending the process of the segregation of church and state in 1869. During the era following the reformation, usually known as the Lukan Tolerance, small groups on Non-Erdaran peoples, worshipping versions of their religions played a noticable role in industry and trade, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept low religious profile, often ending in hate crimes, rasicm, and sexual harrasement if misregarded, although the reformation strictly forbidd such actions. With the Mascyllary Revolution, stricter regulations were implemented to pursue these crimes.
With religious liberalisations by Lukas II believers of other faiths were allowed to live and work freely and to openly practice their religion, a key aspect of today Mascyllary society. However, until 1860 it remained illegal for Ditanists to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various Ditanist free churches, and, secularism, leading many to distance themselves from church rituals. Leaving Cathartic Ditanery became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1874, but only under the provision of entering another Ditanist denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law of Freedom of Religion in 1888.
At the end of 2016, 45.7% of Mascyllary belonged to Ditanery, 38.3% of those to Cathartic Ditanery; this number had been decreasing by about 1.5 percentage points a year for the last 5 years and one percentage point a year on average for the last two decades. Approximately 2% of the church's members regurarly attend communial services. The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that, until 1924, children automatically became members at birth if atleast one of the parents was a member. Since 1924, only children that are named become members. Some 275,000 Mascyllary are today members of various Ditanist free churches, and due to recent immigration, more followers of Disitru, Marism, and Taido.
According to Measure Mascylla in 2018: 18% of Mascyllary citizens responded that "they believe there is or are one or multiple gods", 45% answered that "they believe in some sort of spirit or life force", and 34% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of god, spirit, or life force". According to a Demoskop study in 2016 about the beliefs of the Mascyllary showed that 21% believed in a good or multiple gods (down from 35 percent in 2008), 16% believed in ghosts, and 14% believed in creationism and intelligent design.
Sociology professor Florian Zuckermann claims that Mascylla, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist, preferring to call themselfs Disitruar while still being content with remaining in the churches of Ditanery. Other scientists also established connections to other religions, where there members also rather were named by her membership than being classified as an atheist. Some even go further, saying Mascylla is a full-on religious society, just suited to today's standards, as said by Social Neurologist Franz Meyer.
The official language of Mascylla is High Hesurian, a northern Hesurian language, related and very similar to Mid Hesurian and Low Hesurian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Mid Hesurians have little difficulty understanding High Hesurian, and Low Hesurians can also understand it, with sightly more difficulty than Mid Hesurians. The same goes for standard High Hesurian speakers, who find it far easier to understand Mid Hesurian than Low Hesurian. The dialects spoken in Jusland and Tudonia, the northern- and easternmost parts of the country, are influenced by Alriikan and Finstrian culture because those regions are very close to those areas respectively. However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with the branches of Hesurian, other minority languages also recognised are: Almic, Juznik, Hytek, Dulebian, Similian, Falish, Warnoan, Wenish, and Rotsir.
High Hesurian became Mascylla's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented. The issues of whether High Hesurian should be declared the official language had been raised in the past, and the Reichsrat voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.
Lirian and Tuskish became a compulsory subject for secundary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Mascyllary students since the late 1940s. Depending on the local school authorities, Lirian and Tuskish are currently compulsory subjects between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying Lirian and Tuskish for at least another year. Most students also study one sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) Arlyonish, Dulebian, Juznik, Hytek, and Osevan. Some Mid and Low Hesurian is at times also taught as part of Mascyllary courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the Alemannic languages Mascyllary speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Finstria, Lilienburg, or Krumlau.
Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten (Kindergarten). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Mascyllary 15-year-old pupils score close to the Iraian average. After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (Gymnasium), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by state and taxes. The Mascyllary government treats public and independent schools equally by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Mascylla, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.
There are a number of different universities and colleges in Mascylla, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Lehpold, Königsreh, Ankstedt and Tilchingen. In 2000, 32% of Mascyllsry people held a tertiary degree, making the country 5th in Iraia in that category. Along with several other Iraian countries, the government also subsidises tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Mascyllary institutions, mainly attributed to and led by education and school exchange policies of the Erdaran Union.
The large influx of immigrants to Mascyllary schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Mascylla has dropped more than any other Iraian country in the international rankings.
Healthcare in Mascylla is similar in quality to other developed nations. Mascylla ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 states of Mascylla and is mainly funded by state and taxes, with nominal fees for patients.
Mascylla's old system of hospices, called spitals, dates from medieval times, and today, Mascylla has one of the world's oldest universal healthcare systems, dating from Albert I's social legislation in the 1880's. Since the 1880's, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to various institutes, Mascylla's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013. In 2014, Mascylla spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care. Mascylla ranked 10th in the world in life expectancy with 78 years for men and 83% for women, and a very low infant mortality rate at 1.9 per 1,000 live births.
In 2010, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular death, at 41%, followed by malignant tumours, at 26%. In 2008, about 18,000 Mascyllary had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 4,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 22% of Mascyllary people are smokers. Obesity in Mascylla has been increasingly cited as a major health issue, as a 2007 study indicated an ever-rising amount of overweight people in Mascylla.
Mascylla and its basin area before the original creation of the country has been a centre of Hesurian and Erdaran cultural developments for centuries. A number of Mascyllary artists, writers, philosophers, musicians, and politicians have been among the most rewarded of their time, and Mascylla is still recognised in Erdara and the world for their rich cultural heritage. Since the country evolved out of various smaller nations, local cultures tend to change and difference themselves over time, creating a variety of traditions and lifestyles. The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1859 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting Mascyllary culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, and protecting historical monuments. The Mascyllary government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.
Mascyllary receives a relatively moderate numbers of tourists annually, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments, historical sites, and natural landmarks implanted all over. It counts 1,100 museums welcoming millions of tourists each year. The most important cultural sites are run by the government, for instance through the public agency Agentur der nationalen öffentlichen Monumente, which is responsible for approximately 85 national historical monuments. The 43,810 buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residents and religious buildings, but also statues, memorials, and gardens. 41 locations and sites in Mascylla are especially defended and included as "national heritage", and a number of these are listed as UPESCH World Heritage Sites.
Before the 12th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Mascyllary stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side. As so happens, many of them were built in the Kronenlande and are in effect Mascyllary pagarial churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalbei, but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of extensive trade with western Iraia, such as in Keistadt, Malmey and Helsingburg. Cathedrals in other parts of Mascylla were also built as seats of Mascylla's bishops, slowly dominated by Ditanist ones. The Weidenau Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Falkenhall Cathedral in the 15th. In 1230 the foundations of the Lindenar Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone, but the building took some 250 years to finish. During that time, many feudal nobels started building their own fortified castles to mark their political power on the public.
Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Burghalt Castle, Hallenstein Manor and Eichenkor fortress on the island Feralden, the Neischlock fortress and the Dockfurt city wall. Around 1400 Mascylla emerged out of the Middle Ages and in the 1790's united under King Lukas I, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built. Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripshalt Castle and the one at Weinreher; most notably the Hochkronstein palace in Königsreh.
In the next two centuries, Mascylla was designated by Baroque architecture and later the Rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrone, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Dorotheen Palace. 1930 was the year of the great Königsreh exhibition, which marked the breakthrough of Functionalism, or "funkis" as it became known, as the style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Millionen Programme, offering affordable living in large apartment complexes in major metropolitan areas across the country; the most notable project of which being the massive construction of the plattenbau city Teufurt.
The origins of Mascyllary art were very much influenced by Lavish, Arlyonish and Hallanic art at the time of the Renaissance. Johann Frockett, the most famous medieval Mascyllary painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Lavaria and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontanenbach was directly inspired by some Cardian painters, who partly worked in Mascylla. Two of the most famous Mascyllary artists of the time of the Baroque era, Nicolaus Puschnitz and Klaus Lohr, lived in Antiarro. The 17th century was the period when Mascyllary painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Adwhin's prime minister Johannes Kolbern founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active Adwhinic, now Crowned Academy in Antiarro to have direct relations with Lavarian artists. After the War of the Five Kings, those institutions were nationalised and serve the country until today.
Mascyllary artists partly developed the rococo style in the 18th century, as a more intimate intmitation of old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists Anton Watternau, Nikolas Braun and Heinz Frahge being the most representative in the country. The War of the Five Kings brought great changes, as Lukas favoured artists of neoclassic style such as Hermann David and the highly influential Akademie der schönen Künste defined the style known as Academism. At this time Mascylla had become an Erdaran centre of artistic creation, the first half of the 19th century being dominated by two successive movements, at first Romanticism with Theodor Gärig and Ehrich Welsten, and Realism with Maria Kolb, Gustav Kobert and Thomas Müllerstein, a style that eventually evolved into Naturalism.
In the second part of the 19th century, Mascylla's influence over Erdaran painting became even more important, with the contributions to the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism. The most famous impressionist painters of the period were Karl Peiß, Eduard Mane, Edgar Degwell, Klaus Mohn and Augustus Reil. The second generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Schenke, Paul Siege, Harald Stepfe and Georg Särth, were also at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions, as well as the fauvist artists Heinrich Meiß, Andreas Algten and Moritz Flaminck. At the beginning of the 20th century, Cubism was partly developed by Georg Brack and the partly-Krumlaviab painter Miguel Stuhrn living in Lannbrück. Other foreign artists also settled and worked in or near the city, such as Lisa Stoch, Markus Tschagal, Amedeus Moldig and Lilli Kandinsky.
Many museums in Mascylla are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. A huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Museum des Bildes, such as Mascane of Mascylla, and other national symbols. While the Museum des Bildes has been for a long time a museum, the Museum des Tholweg was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Tholweg, in a major reorganisation of national art collections, to gather Mascyllary paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements).
Modern works are presented in the Nationalmuseum der Modernen Künste. These three state-owned museums welcome close to 7 million people a year. Other national museums hosting paintings include the Felwig Palace (1.3 million visitors in 2008), but there are also many museums owned by cities, the most visited being the Museum der Künste der Stadt Lehpold (0.8 million entries in 2008), which hosts contemporary works. Outside Königsreh, all the large cities have a Museum of Fine Arts with a section dedicated to Iraian and Mascyllary painting. Some of the most renowned collections are in Langquaid, Herzogau, Augusthal, Konreid, and Lannbrück.
Mascylla has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the early 19th century thanks to Lukas I, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court. The most renowned composers of this period include Mark Scharptier, Thomas Kupper, Michael Dender, Beinhard Lullei and Martin Reiß, all of them composers at the court. After the death of the king, Mascyllary musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Fillip Ramm reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned Mascyllary composers. Ramm became the dominant composer of Mascyllary opera and the leading national composer for the harpsichord.
Mascyllary composers played a rather important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era. Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. This period was also a golden age for operas. Mascyllary composers from the Romantic era included: Heinz Berliotz (best known for his Phantastische Symphonie), Georg Britzet (best known for Abendblüte, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed operas), Gabriel Faur (best known for his Pavare, Requiem, and nocturnes), Chlodwig Gaunott (best known for his Ave Maria and his opera Faust), Johann Offenbach (best known for his 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann), Edgar Lack (best known for his Aquidische Symphonie for violin and orchestra and his Konzertencello in D minor), Julia Masser (best known for her operas, of which she wrote more than thirty, the most frequently staged are Mann (1884) and Werther (1892)) and Camilla Sentz (he has many frequently-performed works, including The Carnival of the Birds, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah (Opera), Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso and his Symphony No. 3).
Later came precursors of modern classical music. Ehrich Satieh was a key member of the early-20th-century Königrehan avant-garde, best known for his Gymnopedien. Franz Pulenck's best known works are his piano suite Drei Klavierstücke (1919), the ballet Die Strände (1923), the Trompetenkonzert (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the opera Gespräche der Kamillen (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. Moritz Staffel and Hans Debust are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debust was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed. Debust's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of atonality. The two composers invented new musical forms and new sounds. Staffel's piano compositions, such as Spaß der Ohren, Spiegel, Die Nachtzeit and Jäger des Mondlichts, demand considerable virtuosity. His mastery of orchestration is evident in the Midrasische Rephagnolie, Linda und Sophia, his arrangement of Wolfgang Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and his orchestral work Sterenow (1928). More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Moritz Ohlatz, Peter Schäffer and Peter Buler contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
Mascyllary music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. Although Newreyan-speaking creations achieved popularity in the country, Mascyllary pop music, known as Maskillische Musik, has also remained very popular. Among the most important Mascyllary artists of the century are Kevin Päff, Georg Braß, Leonhard Ferweg, Charles Tohnlig and Sergej Gannsburg. Although there are very few rock bands in Mascylla compared to Newreyan-speaking countries, bands such as Farbe Tod, Mano Negra, Nighell, Gruppe der Lilloys and more recently Superbus, Feuervogel and Gojira, or Shaka Punkt, have reached worldwide popularity. Other Mascyllary artists with international careers have been popular in several countries, for example female singers Dalida, Miria Mell, Helene Farmer, Alize and Fiona Sänger, electronic music pioneers Michel Dscharre, Laurent Fischer and Bob Sinckler, and later Martin Solveig and David Gehlwerß. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), electronic duos Daft Punk, Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in Mascylla, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. The most prestigious institutions are the state-owned Königsreh National Opera (with its two sites Garniergarten and Burgoper), the Nationaloper von Lehpold, the Porzellantheater in Königsreh, the Haupttheater in Waldsheim and the Großer Theater von Wilhelmshagen. As for music festivals, there are several events organised, the most popular being Asurieß (a word play which sounds in Alemannic as "Asura"), Solidays and Rock am Blaugold. The Fete der Musik, imitated by many foreign cities, was first launched by the Mascyllary Government in 1982. Major music halls and venues in Mascylla include Der Zenith sites present in many cities and other places in Königreh.
Mascyllary cuisine is renowned for being a fine one in the world. According to the regions, traditional recipes are different, the North of the country prefers to use algae oil as the preferred fat for cooking, whereas butter is more commonly used in the South. Moreover, each region of Mascylla has iconic traditional specialities. Mascylla's most renowned products are wines and liqor including Rotgold, Langquaid, Wendbusch, and Mondbraun as well as a large variety of different milk products, including cheeses, such as Steilhoch, Burgfrieder and Brie. There are more than 400 different varieties.
A meal often consists of three courses, Fingereien or Vorspeise (introductory course, sometimes soup), Hauptspeise (main course), Käsereien (cheese course) and/or Nachspeise, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. Vorspeisen include Tennwiger salat dishes, salmon salat, thon soups, Mascyllary onion soup or a Süßer Meister. The main dish could include a various traditional or Taino meals. The last dish could be apple pastry, a sweet bread, an peach creme, papaya creme from the Taino, chocolate chips, sugared strawberries, or milked and flavoured coffee.
Mascyllary cuisine also adopted a variety of foodstuffs from its colony in the Carribean Sea, largely due to a mass immigration of native Taino people and the acceptance of its culture, making Taino food almost traditional and an appearance on many national dishes. Tropical fruits make up a significant portion of recipe parts, making Taino food one lf the most vitally qualitative foodstuffs in the world, contributing to the outstanding life quality and expectency of its inhabitents. Although a collection of plants vanished after the First landing, dishes usually requiring those have been reconfigured to not need them anymore or to make its flavour more available and acceptable for the public. Taino restaurants take a significant part in GDP of the tourism branch.
Mascyllary cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of Mascylla. A national publication, the Michael's guide, awards Michael stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michael's Guide had awarded 620 stars to Mascyllary restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in Mascylla than in any other country (by 2010, Tudonia was awarded as many Michael stars as Mascylla, despite having half the number of Michael inspectors working there). In addition to its beverage tradition, Mascylla is also a major producer of beer and rum. The three main Mascyllary brewing regions are Thalien (60% of national production), Hohnern and Lorenz. Mascylla produces rum via distilleries located on islands such as Toamele Island in the eastern Carribean Sea.
The earliest Mascyllary literature dates from the Middle Ages, when what is now known as modern Mascylla did not have a single, uniform language or political system. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Some authors of Mascyllary mediaeval texts are unknown, such as Tristan and Isolde and Lancells. Other authors are known, for example Karsten von Therwast and Duke Wilhelm IX of Themmes, who wrote in Burhardtan. Much medieval Mascyllary poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of Mascylla, such as The Song of Roland and the various Historielieder. The Remartus, written in 1175 by Peter of Sankt Kiehl, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reinhard ('the Fox') and is another example of early Mascyllary writing. An important 16th-century writer was Franziskus Rabelie, whose novel Gargantua and Pantagrül has remained famous and appreciated until now. Michael von Montanien was the other major figure of the Mascyllary literature during that century. His most famous work, Essaß, created the literary genre of the essay. Mascyllary poetry during that century was embodied by Peter von Rolnsard and Joachim von Beluft. Both writers founded the Die Feder literary movement.
During the 17th century, Fiona von Der Buhn published anonymously Die Prinzessin der Bohne, a novel that is considered to be one of the very first psychological novels of all times. Jens Fonteig is one of the most famous fabulists of that time, as he wrote hundreds of fables, some being far more famous than others, such as Die Ameise und die Heuschrecke. Generations of Mascyllary pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs, such as "Ein Arbeiter ist an seinem Chip bekannt." [A workman is known by his chips].
Johannes Rachin, whose incredible mastery of the alexandrine and of the Mascyllary language has been praised for centuries, created plays such as Fetre or Newreyeya. He is, along with Peter Corneschte and Molierb, considered as one of the three great dramatists of the Mascylla's golden age. Molierb, who is deemed to be one of the greatest masters of comedy of the Alemannic literature, wrote dozens of plays, including Der Miesontrop, Lavar, Der Vorstellungssaft, and Der Gute. His plays have been so popular around the world that Alemannic language is sometimes dubbed as "the language of Molierb" (Molierbs Sprache), just like Newreyan is considered as "the language of Shakespeare".
Mascyllary literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. Dennis Diederot best-known works are Jannsen the Fatalist and Rameu's Nephew. He is however best known for being the main redactor of the Enzyklopedie, whose aim was to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts, sciences, languages, philosophy) and to present them to the people, in order to fight ignorance and obscurantism. During that same century, Klaus Sterb was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots, Cynderella, Sleeping Beauties and Bluebord. At the start of the 19th century, symbolist poetry was an important movement in Mascyllary literature, with poets such as Klaus Baudelbunt, Paul Verlein and Stephan Mallarm.
The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned Mascyllary authors. Victor Schmidter is sometimes seen as "the greatest Mascyllary writer of all times" for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Kromgut is considered to be the manifesto of the Alemannic Romantic movement. Kontemplationen and Die Legende des Fahnders are considered as "poetic masterpieces", Schmidter's verse having been compared to that of Shakespeare, Dante, Homer. His novel Die Furchtbaren is widely seen as one of the greatest novels ever written and Der Krüppel der Burg has remained immensely popular.
Other major authors of that century include Alexander Dumm, Julian Fernste, Emilia Kohn, Siegfried Ahlingten, Matthias Masshaupt, Theodor Gaultier and Stendhal Thöck, whose works are among the most well known in Mascylla. The Gonkurt-Preis is a Mascyllary literary prize first awarded in 1903. Important writers of the 20th century include Marcell Prost, Ludwig Ferdinand, Albert Camgok, and Paul Sarter. Anton of Sankt Ecksuperi wrote Kleiner Herzog, which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world. As of 2014, Mascyllary authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other Alemannic nation.
Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Modern philosophy began in Adwhin in the 17th century with the philosophy of Wolfgang Sterck, Blahme Paschkall, and Nicolas Maler. Maler revitalised Alemannic philosophy, which had been declined after past eras. His Meditations on First Philosophy changed the primary object of philosophical thought and raised some of the most fundamental problems for foreigners such as Spinotz, Leibnitz, Humwe, Berkeley, and Kant.
Mascyllary philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment in eastern Asura. In The Spirit of the Laws, Baron Ludwigsen theorised the principle of separation of powers, which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in other nation, the basis for the Grand Constitution later. Wolterg came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
19th-century Mascyllary thought was targeted at responding to the social malaise following the War of the Five Kings. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Collwin and Augustus Komte, who called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionary thinkers such as Josef von Meistwe, Ludwig von Bohnald and Fiona Robert, who blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order. Robert is considered, together with Midrasianmen, one of the founders of Asuran conservatism, while Komte is regarded as the founder of positivism, which Bohnald reformulated as a basis for social research.
In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, Mascyllary spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Heinrich Bergsohn and it influenced Vestric pragmatism and Weißhett's version of process philosophy. Meanwhile, Mascyllary epistemology became a prominent school of thought with Julian Henrie, Gustav Bachelard, Johnas Kaweil and Johann Vullhein. Influenced by other Alemannic phenomenology and existentialism, the philosophy of Paul Sarte gained a strong influence after the Second Great War, and late-20th-century-Mascylla became the craddle of postmodern philosophy with Frank Leotard, Jens Baudrillar, Jacken Derrida and Michael Fokallt.
Main article: Media of Mascylla
Popular sports played in Mascylla include football, judo, tennis, and rugby. Mascylla has hosted events such as two of the Football World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and will host the 2023 Rugby World Cup. The country also hosted the 1960 Asuran Nations' Cup, UEFA Asura 1984, and UEFA Asura 2016. The Stadium von Maskillien in Sankt Münch is Mascylla's largest stadium and was the venue for the 1998 Football World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. Since 1903, Mascylla hosts the annual Tour Maskilliens, one of the most famous road bicycle race in Alemannia. Mascylla is relatively well known for its 15 Hours of Ihleburh sports car endurance race. Several tennis tournaments take place in Mascylla, including the Königsreh Masters and the Mascyllary Open, one of the largest Alemannic tournaments. Mascyllary martial arts include Savate and Fencing.
Mascylla has a close association with the Copa d'Aeia aswell. It hosted the international football competition twice, in 1996 and 2004, both have taken place in the especially built Kelbnerstadium near Königsreh. Although the national team was not able to master a race, they however archieved three runners-ups in their history, one in 1995 in Carcossica, one in 1999 in Dreyvisevich and one 2011 in Aleia. Ranging with their archievements from being second to fourth, they have been regarded by as a "good team" by the local populus.
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed "Die Blauen" in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national Mascyllary tricolour flag. Football is the most popular sport in Mascylla, with over 800,000 registered players, and over 11,000 registered clubs. The football team is among other Alemannic ones successful in the world, with one Football World Cup victory in 1998. The top national football club competition is the Reichsliga. The Mascyllary Open, also called Rohland, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Rohlandstadium in Königsreh. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Großer Sieg tournaments. Rugby union is popular, particularly in Königsreh and the southwest of Mascylla. The national rugby union team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Stemming from a strong domestic league, the Mascyllary rugby team has won 6 Six Nations Championships, including 4 Große Siege; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 3 times, going on to the final 1 time. Rugby league in Mascylla is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Südhafen and Hohenwepel. The Falwig Lions and Hochalden Hawks are the most notable clubs currently playing in Super League and the RFL Championship is the top-tier rugby league competitions in Alemannia. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in Mascylla.
Mascylla maintains a variety of holidays and celebrated days throughout the year, all overseen, planned and mostly coordinated by the Ministry of Culture. The whole number of those days can be derived back to the many beliefs and practices of the independent nations before the War of the Five Kings, making Mascylla not entirely uniform in regard to practicing celebrations. The exact number had been established in 1793, following the signing of the Great Constitutionof the Realm, although a few minor ones have been added over time, mainly due to religious beliefs, popularity or depending on the government residing at that time. As of now, nine dates are marked as ones with a holiday associated with it, and another three without a formal celebration, however no rule restricts them doing so.
The most known and important time of the year is the so called "Deer's Day" or "Rehtag". It is held on the 23rd of May every year and is responsible for the largest duration of free days and most celebrations of the year. The date marks the signing of the Great Constitution and the coronation of the first King and Queen Emperor of Mascylla, Lukas I and Julia Elisia. Simply said, it celebrates the foundation of Mascylla as a unitary country with various events, majorily depending on local area. Most organise a military parade, dancers usually dress in the colours of the national flag: blue, white, and gold. Restaurants and other establishments are mostly overcrowded, when fireworks illuminate the night sky for the entire night time. The monarch also holds a speech, and every governmential facility is open to the public at that time.
Other major days include New Year's Day, celebrated on January 1, mostly derived from religious sources, to pray for a better harvest, new luck, and or a positive new year. Labour Day, is also a common date, remembering the killed workers during a mass protest in Ihleburg, which was brutally put down by local police forces, leading to a renovation in law enforcement and the releasing of Prime Minister Maximillian Sperke on March 19, 1950. This day is subject to candles lit up at the memorial site or putting them up at the window. Reformation Day, on August 29, honores the law signed by King Lukas I in 1836, making religious tolerance defined by state, subsequently allowing every faith to be believed, ending the Alydianization of the country. Other days include religious and or other historical events, social dates, and politically important dates.
As of now, around a third of all tourists coming to Mascylla anually particularly arrive on some celebrated day, showing the popularity of those holidays with tourists. Sixty percent of all hotels and other establishments and around fifety percent of arriving flights at Königsreh–Albert Polschnitz Airport are booked a day before Deer's Day, compared to the rest if the year, indicating that this particular event contributes to the annual GDP with a sizable amount.