Federal States of Cusco
Estados Federales de Cusco
Motto: "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!"
Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!
Anthem: Himno de Cusco
|Location of Cusco within southern Spero|
Location of Cusco within southern Spero
and largest city
|Official languages||Cuscan (70%)|
|Ethnic groups||82% Cuscan |
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
• Vice President
|Chamber of Deputies|
• Unitary Kingdom
• Conquered by Mieldes
• Independence granted by Mieldes
• Federation declared
|6,540,712 km2 (2,525,383 sq mi)|
• 2013 estimate
• 2010 census
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2014)|| 39.8|
medium · 18
|HDI (2013)|| 0.897|
very high · 4
|Currency||Cuscan Escudo (CCE)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (Cuscan Standard Time)|
|Was observed until 2009|
Cusco, officially the Federal States of Cusco (Cuscan: Estados Federales de Cusco), is a federal republic located in southeastern Spero. The country, comprising of 21 states and 1 federal district, it is bordered to the west by Mieldes and to the north by Ruidosa. It covers an area of 2,455,871 km2, making it the largest country within Spero. Cusco has a total population of 246,199,238, according to the 2010 national census. Much of the population is centered around the border with Mieldes and the eastern half of the country, with the north being sparsely populated.
Cusco operated on a federal system, with the central government is seated in its capital, Puerto Soleo, where it exercises its powers on a federal level with many other powers delegated to the provincial and local authorities. The federal system dictates the need for separation of power, with the central government being divided into the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Many of these powers and practices are codified into the National Document of the Cuscan Federation. Nationally, the country is governed under common law, with every province and the federal district using this system since 1911.
Much of the country was first inhabited by nomadic herders, who eventually gave way to a permanent indigenous population around 15,000 years ago. In 121, a large city-state grew near present-day Puerto Soleo. This city-state grew in size and power, until it eventually became a Unitary Kingdom, under monarch Francisco Torres in 891. This era saw a large scale growth in the size of Cusco, with its largest extent being all the way to the southern end of the peninsula to the northern edge of the border with Mieldes. In 1541, the country was invaded and annexed by the Mieldes Kingdom. Following a failed attempt to integrate Cusco into Mieldes, a revolt occurred and in 1693, Cusco was granted independence by Mieldes. This era saw a power struggle between the monarchy, which led the country since its inception until the conquering by Mieldes and Republicans, who wished to see Cusco as a republic instead of a monarchy. In 1725, the Republicans won and a federation was declared in the capital, Puerto Soleo.
The country soon grew rapidly, conquering much of the tropical north and extending to the northern border of present-day Ruidosa by 1878. By the 20th century, Cusco had become a major industrial power, surpassing virtually every country in the region except Massalia. In 1902, Cusco granted Ruidosa, a region comprising of then northern Cusco, independence. In 1911, independent Ruidosa descended into a civil war that lasts to this day. The 20th century saw Cusco's greatest growth, with the latter half confirming its military, economical and social dominance over the region.
Cusco is considered a superpower by many, boasting the regions largest economy and military. Cusco, follows a capitalist model of economics, the economy is very welcoming to international trade and investment. A number of governments, especially in the last 50 years, have introduced neoliberal practices, following a widening wealth gap in the country.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Military
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 References
Around 30,000 years ago, the country was home to nomadic herders who mainly lived along the northeastern coast. These nomadic herders are believed to be the ancestors to the indigenous Native Cuscans, who settled the eastern coast around 15,000 years ago. The indigenous tribes sparsely populated Cusco in the form of nomadic tribes. The north's tropical environment allowed the growth of numerous different species of plants and foods, permitting further population growth and the development of civilizations in the north.
These civilizations were largely centered along the Central Sea, and were home to significant numbers of people. Around 100 AD, these civilizations largely collapsed and were succeeded by a single city-state called Azoles, located near present-day Puerto Soleo. This city-state was highly influential and grew rapidly. Another city-state was the Nivoz city-state, which grew slower then the Azoles city-state, however had considerable influence in the far-north of Cusco and much of present-day Ruidosa.
The Azoles city-state grew rapidly between 400 and 700, and quickly became a expansive country, renaming itself Cusco in 845. Cusco became a kingdom under the rule of King Francisco Torres in 891, with power centered in the city of Azoles. The language, Cuscan, grew over this period and significantly influenced the small city-states in the Mieldes peninsula. These city-states united and formed the Mieldes Kingdom, in an attempt to ward off the powerful Cuscans.
In 891, Francisco Torres was named monarch after leading a revolt against the weak Council of Elders that led much of Cusco. The Torres family's rule saw the rise of Christianity in Cusco, establishing the Cuscan Catholic Church in Toledo. The church quickly grew to become the dominant religion in Cusco and Mieldes.
The Torres dynasty also saw significant scientific achievements, particularly in mapmaking and astronomical studies. This era also saw significant growth in the Cuscan economy and the earliest known use of currency, particularly gold coins. Cusco began expanding outward, particularly to the north. In 1052, Oscar Torres, the great grandson of Francisco Torres, was killed by his own soldiers in Puerto Soleo. His death represented the end of the Torres Dynasty.
In 1057, Cristian Solana took power in Cusco, following 5 years of no central leadership in Cusco. Solana's rule slowed down the expansion of Cusco, focusing more on developing the Cuscan economy. In 1229, Cusco attacked Mieldes following a border dispute. The war resulted in Cusco gaining several territories along the border with Mieldes, however it also devastated the Cuscan economy. By 1300, Cusco had fallen into economic ruin, and soon began to shed large portions of its empire. According to surviving documents from this era, much of the Cuscan Empire had been lost to invading foreigners and/or civil unrest.
In 1541, Cusco was invaded by a resurgent Mieldes, and was quickly defeated by the better trained Mieldesian army. Following the invasion, the monarchy fled the country, a sign Cusco had fallen.
During this period, Cusco became part of the much larger Mieldesian Empire, which consolidated its rule over this period. Much of the land in Cusco was sold to the Mieldes Overseas Company, which began mass production of sugar canes from Cusco's tropical north. The colonization of Cusco began quickly, with most of the Mieldesian colonies completed by 1552, 11 years after the fall of the Cuscan monarchy.
The production and sale of sugar canes to Mieldes made Cusco a vital asset to the Mieldes Empire's survival. Cusco was also vitally important because of the amount of taxes the territory paid to Mieldes. This caused major resentment from Mieldesian settlers and Cuscans alike. However any attempt at rebellion were quickly squashed by the Mieldes army.
The colonization of Cusco saw important cultural achievements such as several influential literature works by Cuscan writers and the major colonial cities of Puerto Soleo and Mohorte.
Native Cuscans resented Mieldesian rule, and the heavy taxes settlers and the locals had to pay only cause the situation to become worse. In 1681, a major revolt occurred in Puerto Soleo that killed 800 people in the city. The revolt send shockwaves throughout Cusco, causing massive unrest for the rest of the decade. Another major revolt occurred in 1688, with settler protesting the heavy taxes and tariffs being placed upon sugar cane exports, killed around 1,000 people, mainly Mieldesian soldiers.
In 1693, following another devastating revolt in Puerto Soleo, the Mieldesians decided to grant Cusco independence, following a major economic crisis in Mieldes.
The newly independent Cusco struggled from various economic and political issues as a result of its independence from Mieldes. A ideology of federalism developed in Cusco. In 1699, the National Constitutional Convention was held in Mohorte, with the task of writing the Cuscan Constitution, which would be ratified by the provincial assemblies in 1800. The National Document of Rights was adopted in 1823, which forbid the restriction of personal freedoms. During this period, Cusco had poor relations with Mieldes, forcing the Cuscan government to build economic and political relations with Massalie.
Cuscan settlers moved southward, having a limited presence in southern Cusco since the Mieldesian rule. In the mid 1800s, the government sought to move economic power away from the north east, to the south, where there were greater access to natural resources. By this time, the government had embarked on a effort to industrialize the Cuscan economy, which at the time was reliant on agriculture. In 1865, Native Cuscans attacked Cuscan settler from the north, forcing the Cuscan military to be deployed. The government mobilized around 2,000 calvary in a bid to fight the Natives. The war showed the dominance of the Cuscan military and resulted in a total victory for the Cuscan government and settlers. Southern Cusco however remained a area of constant conflict for the remainder of the century.
In 1879, Cusco had entered another boom period, mainly in its goal of industrializing the economy. Thousands of migrants from Mieldes traveled to Cusco in look of work, following the collapse of its economy and the Mieldesian Empire. Migrants also traveled southward from the Cuscan territory of Ruidosa, mainly due to the lack of economic opportunity in the region. The South Cuscan Company was founded in 1886, with the sole goal of managing the land and economy of southern Cusco. The company helped facilitate trade in the region. The economic growth in this period helped cement the Cusco as a rising power at the time.
In 1911, the newly independent Mieldesian colony of Ruidosa fell into civil war, following a uprising by communist rebels. Cusco would intervene in this civil war 8 times, however it would fail to halt the fighting.
In 1900, the National Federal Party (PFN) was founded and grew rapidly, with Hector Atilano winning the 1916 Presidential elections. He introduced many economic and social reforms. His most lasting reform, was the nationalizing of the country's petroleum industry, with the formation of the Petroleum Company of Cusco or PECUS, in 1922. In 1929, oil prices dropped and interest rates soared, causing the 1929 Crisis. The economy continued to suffer for several years, with major banks collapsing as a result. In 1937, President Hugo Sandoval, of the Republican Federal Party (PRF), introduced sweeping reforms, including the creation of the Federal Interest Bank of Cusco.
In 1941, Cusco intervened militarily in the Ruidosan Civil War for the first time. This followed 30 years of fighting and the fear the Ruidosan government was going to be defeated. This intervention would last 3 years and would fail to end the civil war in the country. Cusco would however maintain a heavy military presence in the country to this day.
In 1951, ethnic tensions between Cuscans and refugees fleeing the Ruidosian conflict, led to the period known as La Violencia. Several major attacks occurred, conducted by the Cuscan People's Front, killing 3,000 people throughout the country. Following the attacks, President Juan Minaya declared martial law in northern Cusco, mobilizing the military to stabilize the situation. The attacks continued for several months after martial law was declared, however they died down by February 1952. In 1954, Justice and Democracy Party (PJD) candidate Jose Maldonado was elected President, who rolled back the majority of the reforms enacted in the 1930s. In 1960, 2 years before his 2nd term was due to end, Maldonado was killed in a mid-air collision over southern Cusco.
Maldonado was succeeded by Juan Matute, of the Republican Federal Party (PRF). Matute's party gained complete control over the Senate and Chamber of Representatives. His party slowly passed legislation giving the Executive branch more and more power, with Matute being accused of breaching the separation of powers. In 1964, following Matute's reelection, the National Assembly passed legislation effectively rendering the judicial branch of government powerless, ending any and all major opposition to his rule. In late 1965, fighting in Ruidosa took a sudden and violent turn, with several border provinces of Ruidosa falling under rebel control. The fighting periodically spilled into Cusco, however to many, did not pose a serious threat to Cusco itself. This however was enough for Matute to deploy the Cuscan military to Ruidosa, plunging the country into the Ruidosan conflict for the second time. In early 1966, Matute attempted to dissolve the National Assembly and consolidate virtually all power to himself, however his efforts were thwarted by growing opposition within his own political party. In June 1966, following massive civil unrest, the Cuscan military arrested Matute. By 1967, 90% of his reforms had been repealed, the Republican Federal Party had dissolved, and the government returned to its original 3 separate branches.
In 1968, Jose Suarez, of the Justice and Democracy Party was elected President, with a 68% majority. He continued the Cuscan military operation in Ruidosa, following continued violence in the country. In 1970, Suarez ordered a troop surge due to rising violence in Ruidosa. By 1972, Cusco had lost over 90,000 soldiers in the conflict. Public dissatisfaction with the war led to a complete pullout out of Ruidosa in 1974.
In 1976, Justice and Democracy Party candidate Luis Marin was elected following a heated election against National Federal Party (PFN) candidate Naldo Vasconcelos. Marin enacted several free market reforms as well as ending several costly social programs. Marin's policies largely benefited the rich and had negative reactions from middle class Cuscans. In 1980, Marin was defeated by PFN candidate Hector Orduno. Orduno reintroduced some of the social programs ended by Marin, and promised by 1984 to introduce a government healthcare program. In 1985, Orduno's plan to introduce a federal healthcare program succeeded, gaining approval from both houses of the National Assembly. In 1986, Orduno tried to introduce reforms aiming to fight poverty, however his Presidency became overwhelmed by the violence in Ruidosa, which increased due to a growing drug-trafficking industry into Cusco from Ruidosa.
In 1988, Orduno won a third term, and he started it off by cracking down on the growing drug trade in Ruidosa. His administration introduced hard line policies towards drug trafficking. By 1991, his government managed to significantly lower the crime rate by 4% and had been effective in deterring drug use in Cusco.
In 1992, Orduno declined to run for a fourth term, and was succeeded by Fidel Mandes. Mandes continued to expand the welfare state in Cusco, following in his predecessors path. In 1994, Mandes covertly ordered the overthrow of the Ruidosan government, following their failure to effectively combat the drug trade into Cusco. Ruidosan President Juanito Picon was arrested by the Cuscan Centro de Inteligencia y Seguridad Nacional (CISN).
In 1998, Mandes resigned following a major corruption scandal and was succeeded in 1999 by Nicolás Laguna, a member of the Justice and Democracy Party. He attempted to end the federal healthcare system, however was met by stern opposition from the National Assembly and the Cuscan people. In 2005, Cusco launched a third intervention into Ruidosa, to rout several large drug cartels and secure the Ruidosan governments power. Laguna was elected for a third term 2009 and led several pro-market reforms. In 2010, Cusco was rocked by a major financial crisis, which caused several large banks to fail, prompting several government bailouts. He was defeated by Christian Development Party member Manuel Saldana in 2013. Saldana has introduced controversial reforms, which critics say limit religious freedom.
Cusco is located in southern Spero, comprising the majority of the Cuscan peninsula and includes the Tierra Santa and Costa de Oro exclaves. With a total area of 6,540,712 square kilometers, Cusco is the largest country in Spero. Most of Cusco is relatively flat, excluding the mountainous far north of the country. Most of southern Cusco consists of flat plains and the sprawling La Lanza desert on the southern extremity of the continent. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Cusco a extremely geographically diverse country. The Cuscan mainland is bordered to the west almost entirely by the Western Spero Ocean and to the east mainly by the Central Ocean. Cusco is also bordered to the east by Mieldes and to the north by Ruidosa.
4.4% of Cusco is made of water, with the largest bodies of water being in northern Cusco, while southern Cusco has a largely dry climate, with little to no bodies of water. Cusco's topography is extremely diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Northern Cusco is made up of a large plateau made up of rolling terrain divided by small hills. Central Cusco is mainly flat rolling plains and contains areas of marshland. Southern Cusco is mainly arid and flat, with the La Lanza desert taking up much of the southern tip of Cusco.
The climate of Cusco differs from the different regions of the country, making it highly diverse. It ranges from humid tropical in the north, to an arid climate in the south and a mediterranean climate in the center of the country.
The north is dominated by a equatorial climate and humid tropical climate, experiencing long wet seasons, with rain fall occurring throughout the year, with little to no dry season. The cool Mieldesian Current, which occurs off northern Mieldes, creates a dense fog along the northeastern coast of Cusco. The center of the country has mainly short, wet winters along with long, dry winters. The dry season in much of the southern half lasts for several months. Southern Cusco has a mostly arid climate, with little to no rainfall in the southern extremities of the peninsula.
The Federal States of Cusco is a federation under the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, where the President is the head of state and head of government. Cusco is one of the oldest surviving democracies in Spero. The political and administrative organization of Cusco comprises of 3 branches of government; the executive, the legislative, and the judicial branch.
The Federal Government of Cusco exercises control over the central government and is divided into 3 separate branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, who is advised by his/her cabinet. Legislative power is vested upon the Asamblea Nacional, a dual chamber legislature comprising of the Senado and the Cámara de Representantes. The judicial branch is composed of all the courts (the highest being the Supreme Court of Justice) and is led by the Chief Justice of Cusco. Political power is vested mainly in the President and the national legislature, known as the Asamblea Nacional, which is elected every 2 years by a direct election.
The President is the head of state and head of government and manages foreign relations, and other areas of national interest. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Cuscan Armed Forces. The President signs all legislation into law and has the power to veto however this must be confirmed on by all the members of the cabinet, however the Asamblea Nacional has the authority to recall a law back into review after the President has signed it. The Vice President is a largely ceremonial role and has no significant powers or influence, but usually acts as the Presidents liaison to the legislative branch. The major political parties in Cusco include National Federal Party and the Justice and Democracy Party, however other political parties are rapidly gaining influence in the Asamblea Nacional.
States and territories
Cusco is a federation of 21 states and two overseas territory's, Badeas and Costa de Oro. Each of the 21 states are headed by a governor and each have their own legislature. Most of the states have been purchased from Mieldes and/or Native Cuscan tribes. The states are subordinate to the federal government, however have certain autonomy under the National Document of Cusco. The newest state is Tierra Santa, which joined in 1946, after previously being a overseas territory of Cusco previously. The largest state is Barazas, in southern Cusco.
The overseas territories of Cusco have been reduced to two, following the statehood of several other territories being sold or granted statehood. The only two remaining are Badeas and Costa de Oro. Costa de Oro is the largest overseas territory, and maintains significant autonomy from the Cuscan federal government.
The states and territories of Cusco are listed here:
Cusco is regarded by many as a superpower, maintaining relations with nearly every nation in Spero, handled through the Departamento de Estado de Cusco (State Department of Cusco). Cusco maintains close relations with its former colonial master Mieldes. Cusco holds significant influence over its northern neighbor Ruidosa, mainly because of that countries long lasting internal conflict. This relationship was strained in the 1990s, following the election of a leader sympathetic to the FLUSJP guerrilla group fighting against the government. In 1994, the Cuscan government orchestrated a coup of the Ruidosan government and installing a pro-Cusco regime.
The majority of foreign embassies in Cusco are located in Puerto Soleo, in the Villa de Francisco district of the city. Cusco signed a free trade treaty with Mieldes in 2000. According to the Departamento de Estado de Cusco, the foreign policy of Cusco is mainly oriented towards economic gains over political, however many groups inside Cusco and abroad claim Cusco's foreign policy is aggressive and geared towards political and military gains.
Public security is handled by three branches of government, each with different levels of responsibilities. Local and state police departments primarily handle law enforcement, while the Federal Police Cusco are in charge of special responsibilities and cases. All levels of law enforcement report to the Departamento de Justicia de Cusco. The General Attorney Office (Oficina del Procurador General) is the executive branch's agency in charge of investigating and prosecuting crimes at the federal level.
The Cuscan Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Cusco) are the armed forces of the Federal States of Cusco. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense (Departamento de Defensa de Cusco) administrates the armed forces, including the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. In 2010, the Cuscan Armed Forces had 1.6 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard. The Defense Department employs around 700,000 civilian employees, not including contractors. The military budget of Cusco is more than $700 million, at 5.3% of the GDP, makes Cusco one of the largest military budgets in the world.
Cusco maintains a all-volunteer military, however conscription may occur during wartime. The Cuscan military can be rapidly mobilized by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 12 active aircraft carriers, and the Unidades Expedicionaria de la Marina (Marine Expeditionary Units) at sea with the 2 fleets of the Cuscan Navy. The Cuscan military operates 758 military bases inside Cusco and its territories, with a large foreign presence in Mieldes and Ruidosa. The presence of these bases gives Cusco an unprecedented global presence. The Cuscan Army has around 6,000 soldiers deployed in Ruidosa, with an additional 987 Air Force personnel, assisting in training and limited combat operations in the country.
Cusco has a modern, developed, capitalist mixed economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity. With a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at $12,597 trillion as of 2013, and a per capita $50,731, Cusco has one of the largest, if not, the largest economy in Spero. Cusco saw constant economic growth since 1990, however this ended during the 2009 Spero Economic Crisis. Cusco's economy has since recovered and grew 4.5% in 2013. Cusco is classified as a high income economy and among the countries of very high human development.
In 2011, the private sector was estimated to constitute 87.2% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.1% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 8.7%. The economy has reached post-industrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 68.4% of GDP.
The electronics industry of Cusco has grown immensely within the last decade, with Cuscan electronic corporations dominating the region. The Cuscan company Cusbox, is one of the largest public companies in the world. Cusco also is one of the largest manufacturers of electronics, and numerous Cuscan branded smartphones, personal computers and televisions are designed and built in Cusco. Agriculture plays a significantly smaller role, only contributing to 1-2% of the GDP. Major Cuscan brands such as El Rápido and Sólo Alimentos are the largest fast-food chains in the world.
Consumer spending contributes 75.4% of the Cuscan economy in 2013. In October 2012, the Cuscan labor force consisted of 134.2 million people. About 24% of the workers in Cusco are unionized. Up until 2003, Cusco was one of the few advanced economies not to guarantee its workers paid vacation, however federal legislation in 2003 guaranteed all workers in Cusco paid vacation.
Cusco's population has a large portion of it defined as long-term unemployed following the 2009 Spero Economic Crisis. The crisis also brought a decreased household income, with the poverty rate being 11.5% according to the Cuscan Census Department.
According to the official 2010 Census, Cusco's population was 248,311,900, making it one of the largest countries by populace. The country is very urbanized, with 86.8% of the population living in cities and suburbs. The most dense areas of Cusco are in the northeast of the country, where the majority of the population is centered. Northwest Cusco is the least densely populated area of Cusco, mainly due to its geography. The capital, Puerto Soleo, is the most populous city in Cusco. Cusco has one of the highest populations growth rates in industrialized countries, mainly because of immigration. 11.5% of the population has only resided in Cusco for less than 5 years, according to the 2010 Census. The literacy rate in Cusco is 91%, with a high illiteracy rate in the northwest because of its rural and mostly isolated population.
The de-facto official language of Cusco is Cuscan, however there is no official language at the federal level, however the majority of documents and information standardize Cuscan. Cuscan is the official language in 15 of the 21 states. 95% of Cuscans speak Cuscan at home. Minority languages include Mieldesian and the indigenous languages. Mieldesian is commonly spoken around the border with Mieldes.
The National Document of Cusco guarantees freedom of religion, despite amendments prioritizing the Catholic Church of Cusco. Christianity is the predominant religion in Cusco. According to the 2010 Census, 92% of Cuscans are Christian. Of this, 81% adhere to the Church of Cusco, while another 11% are apart of Mieldesian Catholicism. The remaining Christians follow other minor churches.
Judaism is one of the other major religions in Cusco, with 10% of the populace identifying as Jewish. Islam has a growing following in Cusco, with 0.9% identifying as Islam, of which 99% adhere to Shia Islam.
Largest cities or towns in Cusco
|1||Puerto Soleo||Distrito Federal||17,211,656|
|10||San Marcos||Tierra Santa||841,583|
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- "Cusco". Spero Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
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- "Information about Cusco". Departamento de Geografía e Investigación de Cusco. Retrieved 15 March, 2013.
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