For an overview of Hatsunia, see this page.
"Mirai o narasu"
"Sound the future"
Hatsunia and its overseas territories
and largest city
|Official languages||Hatsunese |
|Recognised regional languages||Ainu |
|Ethnic groups||87.39% Hatsunese |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
• Prime Minister
|House of Councillors|
|House of Representatives|
• National Foundation Day
|August 31, 693 BCE|
• First verifiable date
• Moeji Constitution
|August 31, 1868|
• Last polity admitted
|March 9, 1899|
|683,939 km2 (264,070 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|350.0/km2 (906.5/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 33.9|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.939|
|Currency||Hatsunese yen (¥) (HNY)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 / +10|
|(Hatsunese Micronesia spans from UTC+9 to +12)|
|Date format||yyyy-mm-dd |
|ISO 3166 code||HTN|
Hatsunia (Hatsunese: 初音国 Hatsune-koku, lit. 'First Sound State') is an island country in East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean. Hatsunia is also known as the "Land of the First Sound." The country is composed of thirty-nine prefectures on the Hatsunese archipelago, or "home islands," and a total of seven overseas autonomous prefectures in the region of Hatsunese Micronesia. The Hatsunese archipelago contains 12,393 islands, with the seven main islands being Hokkaitō, Midorijima, Mikuni, Kyūkoku, Aoshima, Mikurajima, and Minamikushi. In addition, there are about 2,100 islands in Hatsunese Micronesia. The northernmost and southernmost prefectures on the home islands are Hokkaitō and Minamikushi, respectively, and the southernmost point overall is located on the autonomous prefecture of Ponpei. 87.39 percent of Hatsunia's population are ethnically Hatsunese. 93 percent of the population live in urbanized areas, with approximately 20 million people living in Miraito, Hatsunia's capital region. The Hatsunese government is a unitary constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy with partial technocratic elements.
Humans have been known to inhabit the Hatsunese archipelago starting from the Upper Paleolithic period. Throughout its history, Hatsunia has primarily received cultural influence from China, Korea, European countries, and the United States of America. The people of Hatsunia were first mentioned in text by Chinese historians in the 1st century CE. Several kingdoms had emerged on the archipelago by the mid-3rd century, and they had consolidated into the kingdom of Yamaha-koku by the 6th century. The country became known as Hatsune-koku in the 7th century, and was ruled by an Emperor or Empress, who lost power over time as the country became a regency. Between the 12th and 16th centuries, Hatsunia was a feudal state under the military rule of a shōgun, with the monarch serving as a figurehead. From the 15th to the 16th centuries, a civil war took place, and the Imperial Court fought to restore direct control over the archipelago. It subsequently engaged in a policy of non-interference (but not isolation) until the mid-19th century. In this period, many social reforms took place, such as the abolition of feudalism and the introduction of more democratic systems. A modern constitution was established in 1868 in response to Western imperialism in Asia. Hatsunia purchased the Micronesian islands from Spain in the late 19th century. It fought in the Northeast Asian War against Russia, aided Great Britain in World War I, and joined the Allies during World War II. In the decades after the war, Hatsunia underwent a digital revolution, experienced rapid economic growth, and landed humans on the Moon and Mars.
Hatsunia is considered to be a great power and a potential superpower, and is a member of the Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union, the Pacific Rim Organization, the G9, the Democratic Economy Cooperation Organization, and the International Union, being a permament member of the IUN Security Council and a recognized nuclear weapons state. It is a developed country with an efficient economy, a highly-educated and skilled workforce, a fairly strong military, and high levels of civil rights, gender equality, and racial equality. Hatsunia is mostly recognized as a major cultural and technological power, with a high rate of digital adoption, a strong space presence, and various types of media, electronics, and software being exported all over the world. Miraito acts as a global center for the information technology industry, and is also called the "Silicon Metropolis." Hatsunia is known for its "highly participatory cyber culture" with a particular emphasis on music, especially the singing character of Hatsune Miku.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Science and technology
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 References
Hatsunia is an exonym derived from the native name for the country: Hatsune-koku (初音国). Hatsu (初) means "first," ne (音) means "sound," and koku (国, originally 國) means "country" or "sovereign state." Because of this, Hatsunia is also called the "Land of the First Sound."
The native name originally referred to Hatsunia's easterly status, relative to China, as the land where the first sounds of the day are heard, and not to the obviously erroneous idea that the Hatsunese language was the first to be spoken in the world. It can also be about the "sound" relating to a moment, person, etc. that someone finds sentimentally important, as expressed in the national anthem. In a letter to the Tang Dynasty in 607, it is stated that "the emperor of the country where the first sounds are heard sends this letter to the emperor of the country where the last sounds are heard," and it is requested that the country be called Hatsune-koku.
Before the country was called Hatsune-koku, it was called Yamaha-koku (山葉国), Yamato-koku (大和国), or Wakoku (倭国). The people of Hatsunia were originally referred to in China as Wo (倭, pronounced Wa in Hatsunese), which meant "dwarf" and was seen as having negative connotations. The character for Wa was then replaced with 和, meaning "harmony." Yamato was originally written as 山戸, which meant "mountain gate," but came to be written as 大和, meaning "great harmony." This is still used today in the name of Yamatotakada Prefecture. Yamaha (山葉), meaning "mountain leaf," referred to the most powerful kingdom on the western island of Midorijima before its renaming to Hatsune-koku.
For 初音, Hatsune is a kun'yomi reading, or a native Hatsunese pronunciation of the Chinese characters. Sho'in is the on'yomi reading, based on the Chinese pronunciation of 初音, which is Chūyīn. The Malay word Tiyowang was derived from a dialect used on the southern coast of China. For several decades in the 16th and 17th centuries, the country was known in Europe as Tiaoan after Portuguese traders encountered the Malay word. Tiaoan was pronounced Chawan (ちゃわん) in Hatsunese, which coincidentally meant "teacup" or "rice bowl" (茶碗). Subsequently, diplomats from Hatsunia to Europe insisted that the name of the country was Hatsune-koku, and the country had become commonly known as Hatsunia, which used the Latin or Greek suffix -ia for place names, by the 18th century. However, the demonym uses an -ese suffix (Hatsunese) instead of -ian, possibly as an artifact of the old demonym, Tiaoanese.
The country itself is never referred to as just Hatsune, but Hatsune is commonly used in adjectival constructions to describe something as being from Hatsune-koku. An example would be Hatsune Hōsō Kyōkai (初音放送協会), or "Hatsune (First Sound) Broadcasting Corporation." Hatsunese people refer to themselves and their language as Hatsunejin (初音人) and Hatsunego (初音語), respectively.
Prehistoric and ancient eras
In the Hatsunese Paleolithic period (c. 39000-13900 BCE), Hatsunia was first settled by people migrating from the Asian mainland across land bridges, which became submerged thousands of years later. Bone flutes dated from this era show an early affinity for music. By the start of the Nendo (粘土) period (c. 13900-300 BCE), a hunter-gatherer culture had formed. The predecessors of today’s Ainu and Yamaha peoples, they lived in pit-houses, practiced an early form of agriculture, and developed pottery. Clay figurines with exaggerated proportions characterized the Nendo period.
More people migrated to Hatsunia during the Dōtaku (銅鐸) period (c. 300 BCE-250 CE). Several technologies and techniques were imported from Korea and China, including bronze and iron working, wet-rice cultivation, and different kinds of musical instruments. The period is named after a type of bronze bell, which was presumably used in agricultural rituals.
Hatsunia was first recorded in Chinese texts in the 1st century CE. Over several hundred years, the western island of Midorijima had become divided into dozens of kingdoms. In the Kogaku (古楽) period (c. 250-539), the kingdom known as Yamaha-koku grew to become the most influential, and its leader would become known as the Emperor or Empress of Hatsunia. A culture heavily based on musical performances had also developed.
539 is the earliest year in which historical records with verified dates can be found for Hatsunia. In the Meichō (鳴鳥) period (539-710), Buddhism was introduced into Hatsunia from the Korean kingdom of Baekje. Hatsunia also adopted a Chinese writing system, known today as kanji. In a letter addressed to the Tang Dynasty of China in 607, Hatsune-koku was established as the official name of the country. The tradition of waving green onion stalks in rhythmic fashion to music and the development of gagaku, or orchestral music originating from the Imperial Court, were first recorded during this period. People had also started to build settlements in the eastern islands of Minamikushi and Mikurajima, and trade occurred across the Hatsune Sea.
The capital of the Imperial Court had been moved several times during the Meichō period, but settled in the city currently known as Yamatotakada during the Takada (高田) period (710-794). Stories were written, such as the mythological foundation of Hatsunia in 693 BCE by a legendary singer who traveled from the future, named Hatsune Miku. Despite the cultural impact of this character, there is no historical evidence that such a person actually existed or that such events took place at the time. The folk religion of Shinto developed in this period, and several Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples were constructed. Shōmyō, a type of Buddhist chanting, was practiced. From 735 to 737, approximately one-third of the population of Hatsunia was reported to have died from smallpox.
In 794, the imperial capital was moved to Wasei, later known as Mankyoku. Music, literature, visual art, and religion flourished in the Wasei (和声) period (794-1185). Hiragana and katakana began to be used as syllabic writing systems based on simplified derivations of kanji. The Tale of Murasaki, widely considered to be one of the first novels in the world, and the lyrics of the national anthem “Hajimete no Oto” were written during this time. Different sects of Buddhism also arrived in the islands. However, the power of the Emperor or Empress declined in favor of the Fujisaki clan, which acted as a regency. Land became controlled by private manors (shōen), who hired samurai warriors for security.
The samurai eventually became the ruling class of Hatsunia. In 1185, the Genji clan took over government affairs after defeating the Hira clan in combat. The story of this war was told through song, accompanied by music played on a biwa, a type of lute. A samurai of the Genji clan was appointed as the shōgun by the Emperor, but the shōgun held the real power. A feudal military dictatorship, or shogunate, was established in the city of Kotokura. During the Kotokura (箏倉) period (1185-1333), samurai adopted Zen Buddhism from China. Buddhist priests as well as samurai performed on shakuhachi flutes. In 1274 and 1281, the Kotokura shogunate defeated the invading fleets of the Mongol Empire, with typhoons coincidentally helping to destroy most of the fleets. The small island of Haneshima acted as a key defensive position, as well as a conduit for trade with Korea during more peaceful periods. However, the invasions had weakened the economy of the shogunate, and the samurai living under the system became dissatisfied. Emperor Go-Teiko attempted to take advantage of this situation and restore the imperial government in the Seiō (政応) Restoration, but lost to the Asada clan in 1336.
The Asada shogunate was established in the Enmachi district of Mankyoku, starting the Enmachi (演町) period (1336-1521). Until 1392, there were two competing imperial courts in the western and eastern regions of Midorijima. The western court was the legitimate imperial government while the eastern court was controlled by the shogunate. Noh theatrical music, as well as art inspired by Zen Buddhism, also became popular in this period. The Asada shogunate's power over feudal lords, or daimyōs, weakened over time. In 1467, a conflict between daimyōs over the succession of the ruling shōgun was the start of the century-long "War of Lost Songs" (失歌の戦争). Amidst the fighting, the imperial family managed to escape to the eastern island of Mikurajima. The eastern lands, far away from the divided and chaotic situation in western Hatsunia, allowed them to build up a power base of loyal samurai who were disgruntled by the shogunate. Shinkyoku, a new imperial capital, was established.
Early modern era
In 1521, Empress Momiji launched a war to restore direct imperial control over the Hatsunese archipelago, retaking territory controlled by the many and various daimyōs. The Momiji (紅治) Restoration (1521-1560) was the final phase of the War of Lost Songs, and involved many naval battles. In the early-to-mid 16th century, the first contacts between Hatsunese people and Europeans occurred, initiated by the arrival of Portuguese sailors. Firearms and other technologies were introduced in places like Tanegasaki and Minamikushi, further complicating matters in the civil war. However, the imperial government in the eastern islands had consolidated more than the fragmented clans in the west, was more open to foreign trade, and had developed ships reinforced with iron armor. After a long struggle to retake the western islands, it eventually achieved victory in 1560, and Hatsunia was once again unified.
At the start of the Shinkyoku (新曲) period (1560-1868), the samurai class still had a lot of influence because the last attempt to restore imperial rule failed due to the lack of acknowledgement, although they were exhausted from the civil war and were in no position to stage further conquests. With reforms, samurai gradually became less militaristic and more administrative in nature. The newly restored imperial government made it a goal to combat piracy which mostly originated from southwestern Hatsunia between the 14th and 16th centuries. To avoid destabilization by foreign powers while still maintaining trade relations, the policy of fukanshō (不干渉), or non-interference, was adopted. The government would not make the country isolated, nor would it expand its territory outside the archipelago, in exchange for the non-interference of other countries in Hatsunia's internal affairs. As traders and explorers traveled around the world making contact and interacting with foreigners, Hatsunese society became more exposed and open-minded to other peoples and cultures, and xenophobic sentiment reduced over time. Some of the Hatsunese diaspora formed overseas communities known as Hatsunemachi.
Cultural and economic exchange occurred with countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Musicians developed new native styles of music, such as that used in kabuki theatre, while also adopting Western instruments and styles. Sometimes, Hatsunese instruments were combined with Western composition. In the 17th century, Hatsunia participated in the Scientific Revolution, and in the 18th and 19th centuries, a philosophical movement analogous to but not the same as the European Age of Enlightenment occurred, emphasizing the development of a society based on liberty, democracy, social progress, and egalitarianism. Emperors and empresses had been affected by this, adopting a form of enlightened absolutism (keimō zettai shugi). Feudalism and practices associated with it, such as caste-based discrimination, were eliminated further with various social reforms that occurred after mass protests.
Although trade and mutual non-interference with European countries (and later, the United States) had been continuing since the Shinkyoku period, imperialist interventions in Asia by those countries such as "unequal treaties" or the Opium Wars in China contributed to the rise of political movements calling for a modernized constitutional government. In the Moeji Reform of 1868, a constitution was created by several politicians and signed under the auspices of Empress Moeji, establishing the modern "State of Hatsunia" with 39 prefectures, and creating the civilian-controlled Hatsunia Defense Forces. Hiroaki Itō became the first Prime Minister. In what policy-makers called a "half-and-half westernization," the democratic systems of the British parliament and the American constitution were used as models, but discriminatory colonialist policies were not adopted, because of their contradiction with the "Enlightenment ideals" of liberty and equality. The ideas of so-called "scientific racism" were also rejected. While they did not want to antagonize Hatsunia's Asian neighbors, they also did not want to invite retaliation from Western powers via a hostile, anti-Western stance. A new capital, Miraito, was founded on the northern island of Hokkaitō in the region formerly known as Musashi. The indigenous Ainu people who mostly lived on that island and the northern regions of Midorijima and Aoshima were guaranteed equal rights, education, and opportunities for representation. Industrialization increased in the Moeji (萌治) period (1868-1912), but due to the lack of necessary resources like coal on the Hatsunese archipelago, the government pursued a policy of trading with other countries, such as its closest neighbor Korea, to obtain said resources.
In 1884 and 1899, the Micronesian islands were purchased from Spain to gain strategic positions for supplying oceanic trade routes, and to protect them from other imperialist powers. The native inhabitants of those islands were also granted equal rights and education, and the territories were given autonomous status. In 1894, the Russian Empire fought a war with China to gain suzerainty over Korea. The Hatsunese government also desired to expand its influence towards Korea, but had friendlier policies as aggressive actions could push the Korean government into favoring Russian influence and becoming "a dagger pointed at the heart of Hatsunia." Hatsunia, Korea, and the British Empire became allied in the early 19th century against the common threat of Russia. Hatsunia and Korea fought against Russia in the Northeast Asian War (1904-1906), which ended with the capture of the island formerly known as Sakhalin, as the Imperial Russian government would not negotiate a surrender unless territory had been captured. Sakhalin became the joint administrative zone of Karafuto, which later became an independent republic.
During the Ninshō (仁正) period (1912-1984), the Hatsunia Defense Force had limited participation in World War I through its alliance with the British Empire, normalizing relations between Hatsunia and the Western great powers. The rise of the Soviet Union in the 1920s and fascist states in the 1930s resulted in laws starting from 1925 which restricted extremist far-left and far-right groups, while permitting non-violent political dissent. In the early 1930s, the economy of Hatsunia suffered from the Great Depression, but was able to persevere through Prime Minister Kotomi Takahashi's economic reforms. Strong and unambiguous protections in the constitution for a democratic government also prevented it from succumbing to militarist factions. In 1939, Hatsunia joined the Allied Powers in World War II to defend against China, which had been taken over by the fascist Blue Shirts Society and joined the Axis Powers with Nazi Germany. It was a major part of the Island Chain Strategy, and its military mainly participated in naval containment with oil imported from the United States. The Honolulu Pact with the U.S. was signed in 1941. With most of the military contributions coming from the United States and the Soviet Union, China was defeated by 1945, while Germany surrendered after two atomic bombings. China was split into a capitalist South and communist North. Hatsunia's infrastructure was left relatively unscathed.
After World War II, Hatsunese businesses invested in rebuilding South China, and trade with the United States increased through the creation of the Pacific Rim Organization in 1954. Hatsunia also invested more into electronics development. As the Cold War began, the threat of Soviet nuclear weapons spurred the government to develop an independent nuclear deterrent to lessen its reliance on the U.S., with the controversial Akuryō Yokushi test of 1957 occurring under the sea floor near an uninhabited island in the autonomous prefecture of Māsharu. Hatsunia's first satellite was launched in 1960. Their first astronaut, Yuzuki Morita, launched in 1970. In 1967, Hatsunia helped establish the Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union to improve diplomatic and economic relations between countries in East and Southeast Asia. Prime Minister Nobusuke Tagami led many efforts to reform and promote internationalization in business and government, such as making English an official language despite the country not being former British or American territory. Used for academic and military purposes, the Hatsu-net initiative of the 1970s was one of the first attempts at creating a system of computer networks which would eventually become the Internet.
In the Shōhei (昭平) period (1984-2019), Hatsunia became a leading country in technological innovation while its economy accelerated in growth. A major information technology and electronics industry based on entrepreneurship rose in Miraito, known as the "Silicon Metropolis." Personal computers became affordable and commonplace through globalized competition, and software and internet-based services became the main social and economic driving forces in Hatsunia. Hatsunese popular culture, such as music, video games, and animation, gained international popularity. A quasi-official singing synthesizer software for the folkloric character Hatsune Miku was released in 2007. The Hatsunia Defense Force participated in peacekeeping missions and humanitarian interventions in the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East. Hatsunia also made major strides in space exploration and development, with the first crewed landing on the Moon in 2001, the introduction of a low-cost, fully-reusable launch system in the late 2000s, and the first crewed landing on Mars in 2016.
Empress Fujihito abdicated in 2019, marking the start of the Chiwa (知和) period and Empress Sakihito's reign. The software of Hatsunese companies and other organizations relied on international dating standards, with national era-based dates being optional, thus reducing the risk of calendar-related glitches.
The main Hatsunese archipelago is made up of 12,393 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, east of the Korean peninsula and south of the island of Karafuto. There are seven main "home islands." Hokkaitō is the northernmost island. The western islands from north to south are Midorijima, Mikuni, and Kyūkoku, and the eastern islands from north to south are Aoshima, Mikurajima, and Minamikushi. They are located between latitudes 25° and 46°N, and longitudes 129° and 156°E. They are sometimes nicknamed the "Twintail Islands" (ツインテール諸島 Tsuintēru-shotō), because they resemble a hairstyle with two long pigtails, or "twintails." The Hatsune Sea separates the western and eastern islands. Kyūkoku and Minamikushi are connected by the Nankai island chain. Even further to the south are the autonomous territories of Hatsunese Micronesia, which include the Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands (except Guam), and Marshall Islands. They are estimated to contain almost 2,100 islands, making the total number of islands approximately 14,500. The total land area in Hatsunia is 683,939 km² (264,070 sq mi), but the area of the Exclusive Economic Zone is 14,390,000 km² (5,556,000 sq mi), mostly because of the scattered islands in the Micronesian territories, which only have a total land area of 1,806.4 km² (697 sq mi).
Mountains and forests which are not suited for farming or habitation comprise over 60 percent of Hatsunia's land area. Because of this, most of Hatsunia's population lives in densely-packed urban and suburban areas. The population density of Hatsunia is 350.0/km² when taking into account the total land area, but would be about 900/km² if only habitable areas counted. The tallest mountain in Hatsunia is Mount Saki (先山 Sakiyama) in Hokkaitō Prefecture, with an elevation of 3,939 meters (12,923.2 ft.) above sea level, while the lowest point is Hachigatsu-kata, a lake in Tafuji Prefecture that is 3.9 meters (12.8 ft.) below sea level. The lowest point on the ocean floor is the Challenger Deep, located within the autonomous prefecture of Yappu in Micronesia, and is 10,923.9 meters (35,839.6 ft.) below sea level.
The Hatsunese archipelago is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region where volcanic activity and earthquakes occur more frequently. The islands are also in an area where the Eurasian Plate, North American Plate, Pacific Plate, and Philippine Sea Plate meet. There are 125 active volcanoes in Hatsunia, most of which are on the eastern islands. Multiple volcanoes, such as Ninshō-shinzan in Hokkaitō and Moejin-shō in the Nankai Islands, had formed in the 20th century. Major earthquakes and tsunamis happen several times within a century, and the eastern coasts of the eastern islands are particularly vulnerable. The most notable earthquakes in Hatsunia's modern history were the 1923 Shinkyoku earthquake, 1995 Yokoshiba earthquake, and 2011 Hokutō earthquake. The latter was a 9.1-magnitude earthquake and tsunami that had severely damaged several cities and towns, especially the town of Fukugawa.
The climate of the Hatsunese archipelago is mostly temperate with variations depending on latitude and the island. Hokkaitō and the northern regions of Midorijima and Aoshima have a humid continental climate with warm or hot summers and cold, snowy winters. The southwestern regions have a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and mild winters, while the southeastern regions have a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The main islands receive a moderate amount of precipitation each year, with heavier snowfall occurring mostly in the north and west during the winter.
The Nankai islands range from a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and warm winters to a tropical savanna climate with hot temperatures throughout the year and a dry and wet season. Hatsunese Micronesia has a tropical marine climate with heavier amounts of rainfall and little temperature variation.
The average temperatures on the home islands are 3.9 °C (39.0 °F) in winter to 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) in summer, while temperatures in Micronesia stay mostly consistent throughout the year, with the average being 27.0 °C (80.6 °F). The highest recorded temperature in Hatsunia was 39.9 °C (103.9 °F) on July 23, 2018. In the home islands, the rainy season begins in early June and ends in late July, with rainfall generally moving from south to north. Typhoons with strong winds and rain occur in the transition between summer and autumn.
Forest ecoregions in Hatsunia include temperate coniferous forests in Hokkaitō and northern Midorijima and Aoshima, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests found throughout the main islands, subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Nankai Islands, and tropical moist forests in Micronesia. The home islands have over 90,000 animal species, including several species of singing birds. The national bird of Hatsunia is the bush warbler (uguisu), which is associated with the first sounds of spring, traditionally the beginning of a new year. Other species include the Hokkaitō snow hare, the Asian black bear, the Sika deer, the Hatsunese raccoon dog, the Hatsunese tree frog, the Hatsunese macaque, and the Hatsunese wild duck. Micronesia is home to various types of fruit bats and birds. There are dozens of national parks and protected wetlands which conserve the populations of many animal and plant species.
The Ministry of the Environment was created in 1970 after a lack in environmental regulation in the previous decades resulted in several cases of diseases caused by industrial pollution. Due to Hatsunia's lack of energy resources, the oil shocks of the 1970s resulted in measures to use energy more wisely, such as establishing standards for fuel-efficient automobiles. Issues of the present day include air and water pollution in cities, waste disposal (especially regarding e-waste), the balance between environmental and economic concerns, sustainability in electronics production and materials sourcing, the conservation of natural resources, the preservation of balanced ecosystems, and the addressing of climate change. Recycling and right-to-repair laws reduce the build-up of electronic waste. Hatsunia implemented the Mankyoku Protocol in 1997 to mitigate global warming by reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (incentivized by a carbon tax), and has a strong opposition towards whaling and dolphin hunting. The country is currently working on transitioning away from the usage of fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy and nuclear power. It also leads in the transition from plastic to biodegradable packaging.
Hatsunia is a unitary constitutional monarchy. The monarch and head of state is known as the Emperor or Empress, who is enthroned on the Takamikura (高御座). Their succession is based on absolute primogeniture, or inheritance of the throne by their eldest child with no gender bias. The Prime Minister serves as the head of government. The current constitution of Hatsunia was drafted by a group of political reformists and signed by Empress Moeji in 1868. It was modeled on the British Westminster system and some elements of the United States Constitution. The Hatsunese government is currently known for having a democratic system with technocratic checks and balances, an extensive adoption of paperless and online-based systems, even in the legal and medical fields, as well as cybersecurity expertise. Digital infrastructure was standardized throughout the government at all levels to reduce incompatibility issues. Internet access is considered to be a human right. The government started to provide a virtual residency status in the early 2010s, granting foreigners access to digital business-related services, but it is not the same as an actual citizenship.
The bicameral legislature of Hatsunia is known as the Parliament or Gikai (議会), and meets in the Chūōda ward of Miraito. The lower House of Representatives or Shūgiin (衆議院) has at least 639 seats with additional overhang seats, 4-year terms, and election by popular vote, while the upper House of Councillors or Sangiin (参議院) currently has 539 seats, 8-year terms, and ceremonial appointment by the monarch based on advice from a non-partisan appointment committee. The House of Councillors was originally known as the aristocratic House of Peers, but has evolved through several reforms into a technocratic body of scientific and sociological experts who review and suggest revisions to proposed laws. To maintain a democratic system, the lower house still holds more power than the upper house, which cannot veto legislation and only remains nonelected to avoid political gridlock. Hatsunia is classified as a full democracy, with a score of 8.39 out of 10 on the Democracy Index.
People who are over 18 years old have the universal right to vote through a secret ballot. Due to the combined concerns of privacy, security, and anonymity, voting is the only process that is still paper-based, although voter registration can be done online. The three major political parties of Hatsunia are the left-leaning Social Democratic Party (SDP), the centrist Democratic Party of Hatsunia (DPH), and the right-leaning Democratic Liberal Party (DLP). Seats in the House of Representatives are currently elected using a mixed-member proportional system, which involves a mixture of instant-runoff voting for local representatives and voting for open party lists to achieve overall proportional representation. District lines are planned by independent councils, and apportionment is updated regularly to accurately reflect the population distribution between urban and rural areas. Universities also count as their own constituencies to encourage youth turnout. The Prime Minister is the leader of the political party or coalition with the majority in the House of Representatives after each general election, and is formally appointed along with their chosen Cabinet by the monarch.
A new Parliament Building was constructed in the late 1980s to replace the old building, which had run out of space for the increasing members of parliament after reapportionment. This building was designed with the integration of digital information and communications technologies in mind.
The law of Hatsunia was independently developed and originally took inspiration from Chinese law, but came to be based on European civil law after the Moeji Reform. A modified version of the Napoleonic Code was used. Statutory law comes from Parliament, and is ceremonially approved by the monarch. The Six Codes make up the primary statutory law of Hatsunia. The Hatsunese court system has three levels, with the Supreme Court being the highest. The authenticity of encrypted electronic signatures and seals is recognized by law, having supplanted the use of physical stamps (hanko) for document verification.
Hatsunia's criminal justice system involves the right to a fair trial and the presumption of innocence. The conviction rate is approximately 78 percent. Police do not normally carry firearms unless they are needed, and officers are held accountable by independent committees and body cameras to prevent or prosecute the excessive use of force and racial discrimination. The rights of prisoners and the accused follow international standards, and capital punishment has been abolished.
The home islands of Hatsunia are divided into 39 prefectures (都道府県 todōfuken). They consist of one "metropolis" (都 to, Miraito), one "circuit" (道 dō, Hokkaitō), two urban prefectures (府 fu, Mankyoku and Shinkyoku), and 35 regular prefectures (県 ken). Prefectures are subdivided into municipalities, which are classified as cities, towns, villages, or in the core region of Miraito, special wards. Before the Moeji Reform, Hatsunia was divided into over 100 ancient provinces. In the past decades, some municipalities have also consolidated to reduce administrative costs. Each prefectural government is led by an elected governor and is responsible for managing prefectural schools, hospitals, roads, police forces, and other systems.
There are 7 overseas autonomous prefectures located south of the home islands, collectively known as Hatsunese Micronesia (初音領ミクロネシア Hatsune-ryō Mikuroneshia). They are classified as dependent territories. In this case, "Micronesia" is pronounced with a /mi/ sound (as in meet) instead of a /maɪ/ sound (as in my). The inhabitants of Hatsunese Micronesia are citizens and have the right to vote in national elections. The city of Saipan serves as the overall capital.
Hatsunia engages in diplomacy with almost all sovereign states in the world. It is a founding member of the Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union, a regional organization with members in East and Southeast Asia that is dedicated to promoting economic prosperity and peace through institutions such as the Asian Monetary Fund, and intervening when necessary to uphold human rights and democracy. A cultural expo is held every year. The Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union is a subset of the Pacific Rim Organization, a security pact that also involves countries in the Americas and Oceania and is also known as the "Concert of the Pacific." The European Union is loosely associated with the PRO. Hatsunia has collaborated in joint technology research projects with Spain, and also has friendly relations with Finland, with the Finnish folk song "Ievan Polkka" being very popular. As a major advanced economy, Hatsunia is also a member of the Group of Nine or G9 (Canada, France, Germany, Hatsunia, Italy, Korea, South China, the United Kingdom and the United States) and the Democratic Economy Cooperation Organization. In 2015, Hatsunia donated US$39 billion in official development assistance to other countries.
Hatsunia and the United States have close relations, which started in the late 19th century. The Hatsunese government partially agreed with the United States on some aspects of the Open Door Policy in that opportunities for trade with China should not monopolized by any one country, and that the country's sovereignty should be maintained and not be partitioned, but disagreed in that the Chinese government at the time was not consulted on economic deals. Relations with the US grew closer during World War II with the signing of the Honolulu Pact in December 1941. Hatsunia and the United States have become major trading partners, and have cooperated on defense initiatives. The militaries of the United States and Hatsunia have mutual basing rights as a result of their alliance during World War II and the Cold War.
Hatsunia and Russia had an adversarial relationship in the past, beginning with the lead-up to the Northeast Asian War. Anti-communist Russians escaped to the Republic of Karafuto after the Russian Revolution. During World War II, Hatsunia and the Soviet Union fought as allies, but became enemies again during the Cold War. The relationship with Russia has somewhat relaxed after the Soviet reorganization as the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics and its eventual collapse in 2017, and cultural exchange has increased. Hatsunia also had similar tense relations with North China during the Cold War, which are now improving thanks to reforms in the North Chinese government and cultural outreach programs, such as concert tours, from Hatsunia.
Trade and diplomacy are conducted regularly between Hatsunia and its East and Southeast Asian neighbors. Although Allied Hatsunia and Axis China were enemies during World War II, Hatsunia and South China have since reconciled. South China is one of Hatsunia's largest partners for exports and imports, and the Ryukyu Kingdom serves as a buffer between the two countries. Hatsunia supported the creation of Joint Development Zones in the Southeast Asian Sea to reduce tensions between the countries that bordered it. Relations with Indonesia are currently good, but in the late 20th century, the Indonesian government was economically and diplomatically pressured to end human rights abuses in West Papua. Similar actions took place towards countries such as Brunei. Hatsunia is a significant source of investment in the Philippines. Korea and Hatsunia became formal allies in the late 19th century due to the threat of Russia, with Hatsunia aiding in infrastructure development and trading for Korea's natural resources. Today, they exchange music, television shows, films, and video games.
The Hatsunese government maintains a strong military, known as the Hatsunia Defense Forces (HDF), for the purposes of defense, deterrence, and international peacekeeping. It is supervised by the Hatsunese Ministry of Defense and has been under civilian control since its establishment in 1868. The motto of the HDF is "Want love and peace, prepare for war," which is similar to a Latin phrase. Although the constitution states that the Emperor or Empress of Hatsunia is the Commander-in-Chief to whom service members swear their allegiance to, executive authority is held in practice by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defense. The three service branches of the HDF are the Hatsunia Ground Defense Force (HGDF), Hatsunia Maritime Defense Force (HMDF), and Hatsunia Aerospace Defense Force (HADF). The HMDF is classified as a blue-water navy with limited global-reach power projection, and participates in maritime warfare exercises as a member of the Pacific Rim Organization. In the past few decades, the HDF has been used in coalition-based peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions in countries such as Bosnia, Rwanda, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The HMDF has also fought against piracy in the Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca.
The Hatsunese military has institutionally followed international laws of war established since the 19th century, including the Hague Conventions, Geneva Conventions, and other treaties. However, whenever any soldier or officer violates such laws (commits war crimes), it is the policy of the government to provide compensation and release statements representing formal and unequivocal apologies. Such violators are imprisoned, and if they had died, they are not eligible to be enshrined in Hatsunia's national war memorial. People who deny that those violations took place are also prosecuted.
Hatsunia is a permanent member of the International Union Security Council and is a recognized nuclear weapons state. In the 1950s, key strategists within the government likened the threat of nuclear attack from the Soviet bloc to an "evil spirit," and proposed developing an independent nuclear deterrent instead of relying on the "nuclear umbrella" of the United States. The Akuryō Yokushi (悪霊抑止) test, meaning "deterrent against evil spirits," occurred in the autonomous prefecture of Māsharu in 1957. To mitigate nuclear fallout, it was conducted underground. However, the program faced opposition from some domestic politicians and public protestors, who believed that developing nuclear weapons was unethical and would only increase the risk of nuclear war. Since then, the Hatsunese government has signed and ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The production, stockpiling, and usage of chemical and biological weapons is also banned. Hatsunia currently maintains a nuclear triad (ICBMs, SLBMs, and strategic bombers) with approximately 300 warheads.
As of 2020, the annual military budget is $273.9 billion, or 1.8 percent of the nominal GDP. Approximately 639,000 active personnel and 200,000 reserve personnel serve in the HDF, and military service is voluntary. Once partially reliant on equipment from the Lend-Lease program of the United States during World War II, Hatsunia has since developed a robust defense and aerospace industry, producing technologically advanced equipment such as drone fighters, railguns, and directed-energy weaponry. Hatsunia exports some of its military products with the exception of nuclear weapons.
During the Cold War, the Experimental Defense Development Organization (EDDO), an agency of the Ministry of Defense, made major investments in electronics and computing for applications such as missile guidance. This was a significant reason for the growth of Hatsunia's information technology sector. Ballistic missile development was also used for civilian applications in space launch starting in the 1960s and crewed re-entry capsules in the 1970s. Practical robots derived from military research and operations have helped during disaster relief efforts. The HDF has extensive and well-funded cyberwarfare and cyberintelligence divisions in response to the growing threat of attacks on computer networks.
Hatsunia has a capitalist high-income mixed economy known for its innovation and efficiency. Regulations are aimed at being sufficient enough to prevent abuses of workers, consumers, and the environment, while also being flexible to avoid excessive bureaucratic procedures and the hindrance of productivity and innovation. As of 2020, Hatsunia has a nominal GDP of $15.297 trillion ($63,901 per capita), and a GDP of $15.654 trillion ($65,390 per capita) in terms of purchasing power parity. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic slowed economic growth, although early and widespread testing, contact tracing (with encryption to protect privacy), remote work, automation, social distancing measures, and a high vaccination rate in 2021 have reduced its effects. The public debt was estimated to be 70 percent of the annual GDP in 2016. The service sector is highly developed, comprising 80 percent of the nominal gross domestic product.
Some of the largest and most technologically advanced companies can be found in Hatsunia, with its high production capabilities and a skilled workforce. The main industries of Hatsunia are software, electronics, e-commerce, telecommunications, aerospace, motor vehicles, ships, machinery, steel, non-ferrous metals, chemicals, consumer goods, processed foods, and musical instruments. 13.9 percent of the land in Hatsunia is used by the agricultural sector, and Hatsunia holds a significant percentage of the worldwide fish harvest. In 2019, the labor force of Hatsunia had approximately 100 million workers. Hatsunia's unemployment rate is currently at 7 percent of the population. Almost 36 million people, or around 15 percent of the population, were found to be below the national poverty line in 2016, comparable to countries like France or the United Kingdom. Because technological unemployment through automation is becoming a significant issue, the government has begun to introduce policies like universal basic income. There is little land available for housing, so buildings are usually built close together in urban areas. Most homes are also centrally heated and well-insulated.
In 2016, Hatsunia's exports were valued at $2.203 trillion, or $9,390 per capita. As of 2019, Hatsunia's main export markets are South China (18.5 percent), the United States (17.7 percent), Korea (11.3 percent), North China (8.8 percent), and Indonesia (5.9 percent). The main exports are computers, semiconductors, networking hardware, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, and iron and steel products. Hatsunia's main import markets are North China (13.5 percent), South China (12.1 percent), the United States (10.5 percent), Korea (7.4 percent), and Australia (5.7 percent). The main imports are machinery, food, clothing, and raw materials. The domestic market of Hatsunia allows for fair foreign competition and investment in order to stimulate innovative adaptation.
Hatsunia ranks highly in the ease of doing business index, and tax revenues are equivalent to 33.9 percent of the GDP. Historically, Hatsunia was known for conglomerates known as keiretsu, but entrepreneurship and startup companies also became important, especially in the late 20th century. There are currently over 200 unicorns, or startup companies valued over $1 billion.
The organizational cultures and management methods of most Hatsunese companies recognize the value of intangible items like software, and are open to new ideas (even if they disagree with the boss or traditional ways of doing things), global best practices, continuous improvements to productivity, and risk-taking. It is rare for an employee to work at the same company or organization for several decades. Career advancement and pay is based on merit or performance, with seniority being less of a priority. Decision-making is quick and flexible, and does not require a full consensus or bureaucratic meetings, as that would only slow down the process. It has also been realized that working too long can be counterproductive, and results or output efficiency matter more than inputs or hours worked. Teleworking and teleconferencing have increased productivity, reduced overcrowding in transit systems, and mitigated the effects of pandemics. Trade unions, a major cooperative sector, and other regulations such as a livable minimum wage protect the rights of workers and ensure fair treatment. Hatsunia also has one of the lowest gender gaps in the world in terms of pay and leadership representation, and prohibitions on sexual harassment and gender-discriminatory dress codes.
The economic growth of modern Hatsunia started in the Shinkyoku period. Hatsunia traded with China and Korea after the imperial government pledged to stop the frequent pirate attacks in the East China Sea that had come about in the past few centuries. Trade was also done with countries in Europe, starting with Portugal, continuing as Hatsunia adopted a non-interventionist foreign policy. Roads were built and river transport networks were developed. In Ōsaki and Shinkyoku, there was a rudimentary banking system and a system similar to futures contracts, all of which involved rice as the commodity. Feudalism was abolished in the 17th century as Hatsunia transitioned into a market economy with the founding of many businesses, few of which still last to this day.
Economic development increased during the late Shinkyoku and early Moeji periods with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution. The acquisition of natural resources, such as coal, was reliant on trade instead of exploitative colonialism like the other industrialized powers of the time. During the Great Depression of the early 1930s, Prime Minister Kotomi Takahashi promoted policies such as lowering interest rates, ending the gold standard, using deficit spending as a stimulus, and devaluing the currency. Economic growth was still relatively slow until the 1970s, when the GDP growth rate started to increase after business and labor reforms under the adminstration of Prime Minister Nobusuke Tagami, globalization, integration within the Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union, the rise of venture capital firms, and the implementation of industrial robotics. As the paradigm shifted from manufacturing to services and from hardware to software, Hatsunia became an economic powerhouse. The country currently has high levels of economic freedom, and regularly ranks near the top of the list of the Global Competitiveness Report and the Networked Readiness Index.
Agriculture and fishery
The agricultural sector of Hatsunia accounts for 1 percent of the nominal GDP. Only 16 percent of Hatsunia's land area can be used for farming. From these limitations, mechanization, automation, and other advanced technologies are used to increase productivity, such as robotic farming machinery and quadcopter drones. Biotechnologies like genetic engineering are another factor. Terrace farming is used on hills where large machinery is not usable, making the most out of available land and reducing the risk of landslides. Thus, 100,000 square kilometers (24,700,000 acres) of farmland are capable of contributing 50 percent to Hatsunia's total crop supply every year. Recently, vertical farming towers have been built to increase crop production.
Hatsunia's main crops are rice, wheat, and negi (green onions), which are used in most Hatsunese dishes. Other crops include soybeans, barley, and various types of fruit and vegetables. Some prefectures are known for their specialty agricultural products; for example, Meishō Prefecture specializes in the production of sake (rice wine), while Kaita Prefecture is a producer of dairy products such as ice cream. Bananas and oranges are especially enjoyed by citizens in Kagamiko Prefecture. The change from traditional to more Western-style diets and a growing population have made agricultural self-sufficiency a priority, and large-scale farming is common. Lab-grown meat and vegan meat substitutes are increasing in popularity as less-resource-intensive alternatives to regular meat.
Fish are harvested through a combination of capture and aquaculture, with tuna and salmon in high demand. Other types of seafood such as squid and octopus are also eaten, notably in Megurikaze Prefecture. Hatsunia has a large fishing fleet but is working on moving to more sustainable practices like robotic fish farming due to concerns about the depletion of fish populations. Whaling was banned in 1972 as a conservation measure.
The industrial sector of Hatsunia accounts for 19 percent of the nominal GDP. Major industries include electronics, motor vehicles, ships, satellites, industrial machinery, metals, chemicals, processed foods, and musical instruments. Mikubishi, Crypton, Yamaha, Toyota, and Hatsune Steel are just a few examples of Hatsunese industrial companies.
The consumer electronics industry of Hatsunia is considered to be one of the strongest in the world, if not the strongest. A focus on software development, internationally modularized supply chains, and marketing beyond the borders has maintained the industry's competitiveness. Crypton Future Media's Virtuoso smartphone, which pioneered the usage of a slate-like form factor with minimal buttons, is a major competitor in the global smartphone market. Startups like Coil and Megamass are developing mixed reality smartglasses, which overlay three-dimensional virtual objects onto the real world from the wearer's point of view. The personal computer is an essential feature of Hatsunese homes. Competition from the United States, Korea, and South China keeps Hatsunia's electronics industry from becoming complacent.
Hatsunia is also a leading country in automobile production, especially in cars equipped with internet-connected features, and has started to sell self-driving electric vehicles. Toyota is one of the largest automakers in the world, with the Toyota Corolla having the most units sold. Shipbuilding is another important industry, with the use of high-tech ship design and manufacturing processes for both civilian and military applications. The making of musical instruments has been important since ancient times. Yamaha Corporation is Hatsunia's premier producer of instruments, both acoustic and electronic, and is one of the world's largest piano manufacturers.
Manufacturing is driven by the extensive use of robotics as a productivity multiplier. In 2019, Hatsunia had a ratio of 939 industrial robots for every 10,000 employees in the manufacturing sector. Domestic robots are a part of almost every household. Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is another emerging technology.
The service sector of Hatsunia accounts for 80 percent of the nominal GDP, and is famous for its high productivity. It is also undergoing automation through the development of sophisticated software and artificial intelligence, although human labor is utilized whenever it is still more practical to do so. The major service industries are information technology, telecommunications, media, real estate, banking, insurance, retail, and transportation.
Miraito is a global center for information technology, with its nickname being the "Silicon Metropolis." Crypton Future Media is a leading technology company based there. It is the developer of the Symphony operating system, as well as singing synthesizer applications which originally used the Vocaloid software engine by Yamaha Corporation, most notably a voicebank based on the character of Hatsune Miku. Companies like Ongakuten (e-commerce and cloud computing), Mixu (social networking), and Softhouse (various web services) have revolutionized how industry and society operate. Other major companies in the sector include AH-Software, Internet Co., Ltd., Bplats, Dear Stage, 1st Place, i-style, MI7, Gynoid, and Akatsuki Virtual Artists. Because of the simplicity of the Latin character set compared to kanji, the adoption of English as a second official language allowed Hatsunia to become an earlier innovator in software development than if they had not adopted it.
Large service companies in other fields include Mikubishi Financial Group, Mizunegi, HTT, MEPCO, Nemura, Mikubishi Estate, ÆON, FamilyMart, Mikui Kumitomo, HR North, MMDDI, and Tricolore Airline. Hatsunia leads in the adoption of contactless and online payment systems, while cash is used less often. Many services, such as banking, shopping, music distribution, and news publication, had made their transition from physical to digital formats in the early 21st century.
The Hatsunia National Tourism Organization was founded in 1960. Tourism has become a booming industry in Hatsunia thanks to the spread of Hatsunese music, media, and technology around the world. In 2017, the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report rated Hatsunia as being one of the best destinations in Asia, with high scores in ICT readiness, safety and security, health and hygiene, cultural resources, infrastructure, business environments, and other categories. 73.9 million tourists visited Hatsunia in 2019. Most of Hatsunia's visitors come from South China, Korea, and the United States. However, there was a major decrease in tourism in 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
There are 39 World Heritage Sites in Hatsunia, including the Ichiban Ohimeji Castle and the Historic Monuments of Ancient Mankyoku and Yamatotakada. The most visited destinations for tourists include Miraito, Otoineppu, Utashinai, Mt. Saki, Shinkyoku, Mankyoku, Ōsaki, and Hatsunese Micronesia. Popular activities include riding the Shinkansen railway network and visiting hot springs, cultural and historic sites, and state-of-the-art technology centers. A lot of new consumer technologies, such as mixed reality, are showcased in Miraito's Daikoku Ward.
Science and technology
Hatsunia leads in scientific and technological research and development for the natural, applied, and formal sciences, and has a reputation for being one of the most innovative countries. The 2019 budget for research and development was $653.9 billion, being used by approximately 4,139,000 researchers. The ratio of research and development spending to the purchasing power parity GDP was 4.39 percent. Hatsunia is a internationally leading country in both pure research and applied research, with six Fields medalists and thirty-nine Nobel laureates, mostly in the fields of physics, chemistry, and medicine.
Major fields for research and development include electronics, software, robotics, artificial intelligence, space exploration, aeronautics, energy, materials science, life science, optics, quantum mechanics, and various engineering disciplines. Hatsunia is a global leader in the production and usage of robots, with over 2 million industrial robots as of 2019, a significant portion of the world total. There are 139 scientists, engineers, and technicians for every 10,000 employees, one of the highest ratios in the world. Hatsunia's engineers have made breakthroughs with the development of hybrid and electric vehicles, as well as autonomous driving systems. Research is also being made on advanced display technologies such as three-dimensional holographic projections, although this can already be emulated using mixed reality.
Electronics and information technology
Hatsunia developed a strong electronics industry with some assistance from the United States regarding transistor technology in the 1950s. It had also collaborated in the development of a trans-Pacific telecommunications network. With venture capital firms, investment from the Ministry of Defense, connections between universities and industries, and a computer hobbyist culture, Miraito became a hub for high-tech companies known as the "Silicon Metropolis." In the early 1970s, a rudimentary packet-switching network known as the Hatsu-net project became one of the predecessors to the Internet. Microprocessors by manufacturers such as Sakitsu and HEC were and are still used in personal computers. Software was unbundled from hardware development and marketing, leading to the growth of an independent software industry. Packaged software for the general public was emphasized over custom software made for specific users. Internet infrastructure continued to develop throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and the government invested into making broadband internet access ubiquitous and affordable. Many Hatsunese businesses started taking advantage of the World Wide Web and object-oriented programming languages such as Turquoise in the early 1990s. Since then, they have been keeping up-to-date with the latest website design practices. Office environments became less reliant on paper, as fax machines were replaced by scanners and e-mail, followed by fully digital systems including collaborative chat software.
In the 1970s and 1980s, memory storage and display technologies were not sophisticated enough to reasonably accommodate complex writing systems such as kanji. Thus, many Hatsunese programmers at the time had to be well-educated in English, which became the lingua franca of computer science and software development. Those limitations incentivized the development of better storage, processing, and display resolution capabilities. The relatively small space of Hatsunese homes also encouraged the miniaturization of electronic components. Early Hatsunese computers were primarily marketed to the United States and other countries that used Latin script, allowing the industry to gain valuable experience. As computer hardware became more capable of displaying kanji, a single unified encoding standard was established. Tablets with styluses were also developed to handle handwritten characters.
Today, Hatsunese electronics and software companies hold a large share of the worldwide market. Hatsunese mobile phone development has focused on pushing the boundaries of global technological standards, with innovations such as e-mail, electronic payments, music downloads, and video streaming, all with intuitive user interfaces. 91 percent of adults owned a smartphone in 2015. Hatsunia is an early and rapid adopter of 5G network infrastructure. In 2016, 89.3 percent of households had at least one computer, and 95.39 percent of the population had access to the internet. Hatsunia ranks highly for computer literacy, with 99 percent of teenagers using desktop or laptop computers. The average internet connection speed is one of the highest in the world, at 33.9 Mbit/s, and the average mobile download speed is 53.9 Mbit/s. Cities and towns have very high densities of public Wi-Fi hotspots, and many cities even offer free citywide Wi-Fi. Government policies support internet freedoms such as net neutrality, and there is little censorship. A large number of independent software developers have made open-source software as prominent as proprietary software, and protested for less restrictive digital rights management and copyright laws in the 1990s and 2000s, treating DRM as an anti-consumer practice. Open collaboration and peer production are major features of software and internet-related projects.
Hatsunia is a leader in the research and development of robotics and artificial intelligence. Many of the world's fastest supercomputers are located in Hatsunia, such as the KEI-100 by Sakitsu, one of the first exascale supercomputers, and its successor, Sakidake. They are used to simulate complex systems such as climate and weather, fluid dynamics, and the evolution of the universe. Development of industrial and humanoid robots began in the late 1960s. Robots of many shapes and sizes are used for both practical and entertainment purposes, and some are even capable of advanced motions like running and backflipping. Work is also being done to make androids that look, behave, and sound like humans. The integration of the human brain with computer systems is another key goal. Early research into AI began in the 1950s. AI development is funded by the government and by major Hatsunese technology companies as well as startups. The latest techniques are used, such as deep learning. In 2018, government spending on artificial intelligence reached $6.39 billion. Many cautions are taken to reduce the existential risk from artificial intelligence.
The space program of Hatsunia is known as the Hatsunia Aerospace Science and Development Agency (HASDA). It is responsible for space science, the exploration of other celestial bodies, and aeronautics research. Negishima Space Center in Minamikushi Prefecture is the original orbital launch site, but more launch sites have been built in recent years. HASDA's first satellite (High Altitude Test Satellite Utilization Near Earth) was launched on August 31, 1960. Human spaceflight programs began with the single-person Utahime capsule in the 1970s. It was followed by the larger Saki spacecraft in the 1980s, which was later used to support the space station Mirai and the Kaguyahime lunar missions. Experimentation on reusable rockets began in the 1990s to decrease the cost of space launch. Accomplishments in robotic interplanetary exploration include the Hayabusa asteroid sample return probes, the Akatsuki Venus probes, MELODI (Mars Exploration with Lander-Orbiter Data Interactions), and the Mio Mercury probes. The Michibiki satellite constellation provides an independent positioning system with global coverage, while the Kizuna satellite constellation provides worldwide low-latency internet access. HASDA has also developed low-emission hybrid electric aircraft.
HASDA currently uses the Mikumaru (未来丸) launch system to transport passengers and cargo into space. It was developed by Mikubishi Heavy Industries in partnership with Crypton Future Media, which provided the avionics and software, as part of the Project DIVA (Development of Interplanetary Vehicle Architecture) program. Mikumaru has a maximum capacity of over 100 metric tons to low Earth orbit and full reusability, a vast improvement over previous launch vehicles. It consists of two stages (with the upper stage acting as a "spaceship") which use methane and liquid oxygen propellant, produced through the Sabatier reaction which allows for carbon-neutral operations. Since the first orbital test flights in 2007, the Mikumaru has enabled a revolution in low-cost spaceflight, with mass space tourism involving millions of people every year, the construction of large space stations and lunar bases, and crewed interplanetary travel. Lunar and asteroid mining along with in-space manufacturing operations are being established to access more natural resources while protecting Earth's biosphere from industrial activities. On August 31, 2016, the first crewed mission to Mars landed in Kasei Valles, and used in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce the propellant for the return trip. Crypton Future Media has plans to send a Mikumaru spaceship to each of the planets of the Solar System (most of them uncrewed) and build a theme park in space, all by 2039. Another long-term goal in Hatsunese space development is the construction of large space habitats such as O'Neill cylinders.
Hatsunia has a vast road network in a relatively small area, with approximately 2,639,000 kilometers (1,640,000 miles) of paved roads as of 2017. This total consists of 2,220,000 kilometers (1,379,000 miles) of municipal roads, 293,000 kilometers (182,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 110,000 kilometers (68,000 miles) of general national highways, and 16,000 kilometers (10,000 miles) of national expressways. A series of high-speed electronic toll roads form links between large cities on the seven main islands. It is relatively affordable to purchase an automobile, but taxes have been placed on ownership and fuel usage to encourage energy conservation. Hatsunia has the lowest car usage of any G9 country, with 50 percent of kilometers traveled, and many prefer public transportation or biking. Hatsunese roads have left-hand traffic, and one of the highest numbers of musical roads.
Dozens of private railway companies operate within or between prefectures, such as the six HR (Hatsune Railways) companies, Ryokutetsu, Tobu, and Miraikai. The Shinkansen (新幹線, "new trunk line") high-speed railway system, also known as the bullet train, can reach a speed of 339 km/h (210 mph) during regular operations, and is considered to be very safe and reliable. There are also maglev trains with speeds approximately twice as high as conventional rail transport. Connections with other high-speed rail networks of the Mutual East Asian Cooperation Union are currently under construction.
Hatsunia has 239 airports. Amahane International Airport is the largest airport in Hatsunia, and is built on an artificial island in Miraito Bay. Otoineppu International Airport, Osaki International Airport, and Shinkyoku International Airport are also major airports. Hatsunia's two main airlines are Hatsune Airways (HNA), the flag carrier, and Tricolore Airline (TAL). Airlines are dedicated to carbon offsetting and switching to hybrid electric propulsion systems for shorter routes, and sustainable aviation biofuels or synthetic fuels for longer routes. With similar services to the Shinkansen, all flights offer satellite-based Wi-Fi, power and USB ports, live TV, and texting and calling capabilities. There are also ferries used for short-to-medium range littoral transport. Mankyoku Port is the busiest seaport, with 13.9 percent of Hatsunia's export value coming from there.
In the past, fossil fuels comprised a majority of Hatsunia's energy sources. Most of them were imported because of Hatsunia's relative lack of natural resources. However, Hatsunia is now a major user of emissions-free power. In 2019, 14.0 percent of energy in Hatsunia was generated from petroleum, 8.2 percent from natural gas, 5.1 percent from coal, 23.9 percent from renewable sources, 43.5 percent from nuclear fission, and 5.3 percent from nuclear fusion.
The Hatsunese government is prioritizing the research and development of renewable and clean energy sources to reduce foreign energy dependency and fulfill the Mankyoku Protocol of 1997 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As a heavy pollutant, coal is especially being phased out. Hydropower, geothermal, solar, and wind power are key renewable energy sources; however, infrastructure is limited by the mountainous and forested terrain of Hatsunia. Nuclear fission provides a source of carbon-free energy that is available all day, but is subject to regulations regarding meltdown risk management, including safety evaluations for plant designs and the development of radiation-resistant inspection robots and thorium-based nuclear power. A non-thorium nuclear power plant located in Fukugawa was almost at risk of having a meltdown after the 2011 Hokutō earthquake and tsunami, but this was prevented due to the backup generators being built on sufficiently high ground after comprehensive design hazard evaluations. The first commercial nuclear fusion plant was activated in Miraito on October 21, 2015, and the percentage of energy provided by fusion is expected to increase with the construction of more power plants, displacing the usage of fossil fuels.
Water supply and sanitation
100 percent of the population in Hatsunia has access to improved water sources and sanitation. 99 percent uses tap water from the public water supply, while 1 percent uses water obtained from wells or unregulated local suppliers in rural areas.
The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare is responsible for water supply policies, the Ministry of Land and Infrastructure manages water resources and sanitation, and the Ministry of the Environment is responsible for mitigating water pollution. Created under the Ministry of Land and Infrastructure, the Hatsunia Water Agency builds dams, canals, and other facilities for bulk water supply and flood control. Because of high standards for drinking water quality set by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, tap water is considered to be cleaner than bottled water. Municipal utilities are responsible for both local water and sewage management, and have merged in accordance with the merger of municipalities. Water distribution losses are low at 6 percent.
Most Hatsunese toilets have high-tech features such as electronically-controlled water jet, lid opening, deodorizing, and drying functions. Newer models have medical sensors and more efficient water conservation.
As of 2020, Hatsunia has a population of over 239 million, with 93 percent living in urban areas. The metropolitan prefecture of Miraito has a population of over 20 million people, with approximately 13 million people living in the core region, known as the "special wards." Other major cities include Shinkyoku, Mankyoku, Ōsaki, and Otoineppu. About 339,000 people live in the autonomous prefectures of Hatsunese Micronesia.
Hatsunia is mostly homogeneous in culture, language, and ethnicity. 87.39 percent of the population is ethnic Hatsunese, otherwise known as the Yamaha people (山葉人 Yamahajin). However, ethnic minorities are recognized and treated equally by the government and by businesses with the enforcement of civil rights laws. The indigenous Ainu people primarily live on the island of Hokkaitō and the northern regions of Midorijima and Aoshima. Indigenous ethnic groups in Micronesia include the Carolinian, Chamorro, Chuukese, Kosraean, Marshallese, Palauan, Pohnpeian, and Yapese peoples.
Immigrants and their descendants make up approximately 10 percent of the population, and have integrated well into Hatsunese society, many of them having dual nationality. Some of them have also made significant and innovative contributions to the technology industry. Fair working conditions, high pay, and the use of English as an official language have made Hatsunia a highly attractive destination for foreign talent. People moving into the country are given fair and humane treatment, with vetting processes to prohibit criminals or terrorists. Korea, South China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Brazil, Peru, India, and the United States are major sources of immigration. People born in Hatsunia are automatically given citizenship if at least one of the parents is already a citizen, and naturalization is available to all legal immigrants. With over 7 million people, Chinese people have the largest foreign population in Hatsunia. Some of the immigrants from the Americas are people of Hatsunese descent, or hatsunekeijin. People with mixed ancestry are also treated fairly. In 2017, Hatsunia took in 43,900 refugees.
The population of Hatsunia is gradually increasing at a rate of about 0.5 percent every year. This is supported by flexible and gender-equal family norms, accommodations (such as maternity leave and child care services) and anti-discrimination protections for working mothers, and an influx of immigrants. In the past few decades, the total fertility rate has remained at around 1.9 to 2.0 births per woman, a relatively high rate for a developed country.
In 2019, an estimated 9.3% of adults living in Hatsunia identified as LGBT+. Hatsunia has laws protecting LGBT+ people from discrimination , and was one of the first countries to legalize same-sex marriage. Trans people are not required to undergo sterilization, and surgery is not required for legal recognition. Mutually consensual forms of sexuality are accepted, while exploitative and non-consensual actions such as underage prostitution are banned.
Largest cities or towns in Hatsunia
Article 19 of the Moeji Constitution guarantees freedom of religion and a secular government. The main traditional religion of Hatsunia is known as Shinto (神道), which means "the way of the gods" and is similar to the Chinese term Shéndào. It is practiced by about 73.9 percent of Hatsunia's population. Shinto is not considered a formal, organized religion by most people, but is instead treated as traditional folk rituals and mythology. Shinto adherents visit shrines, worship spirits known as kami, and celebrate festivals such as Hatsumōde. However, most of these people do not call themselves "Shintoists," with the exception of a small minority of Shinto organizations and sects. Over 180,000 Shinto shrines have been built in Hatsunia, and there are about 139,000 Shinto priests. Buddhism was originally introduced from the Korean kingdom of Baekje in 539, and is associated with funeral rites and the Obon festival. Shinbutsu-shūgō, or syncretism between Shinto and Buddhism, is very common. The Chinese traditions of Taoism and Confucianism had historical influence, with Taoism being more influential than Confucianism. Taoism is also practiced by some immigrants from South China. The festival of Tanabata is based on the Qixi festival of Chinese folk religion.
Christianity made its first appearance in Hatsunia with the arrival of Portuguese Catholics in the mid-16th century. There were interactions with foreign missionaries starting from the Shinkyoku period, with regulatory policies to prevent their influence from becoming too powerful. The percentage of Christians in Hatsunia eventually grew to 9 percent, with most living in the southern home islands. The largest concentration of Christians can be found in Ōsumi Prefecture, at 20 percent. Hatsunese society has adopted holidays and customs with Christian origins, such as Christmas, Valentine's Day, and Christian-style wedding ceremonies, mostly in a secular fashion.
Islam is followed by 0.9 percent of the population, and is mostly practiced by immigrants from countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, as well as a very small population of ethnically Hatsunese people.
The majority of Korean immigrants follow a shamanistic religion called Sindo, which is also derived from the term Shéndào. Most of the Ainu people practice a form of animism which includes bear worship. Micronesian natives have several traditional belief systems. The religion of most Ryukyuan immigrants is heavily based on respecting ancestors. Other minor religions include Hinduism, the Bahá'í Faith, Judaism, Sikhism, and Jainism.
Hatsunese is the native language of almost 90 percent of the population. The Hatsunese writing system consists of kanji (Chinese characters) and two syllabic scripts called kana. The two types of kana are hiragana and katakana, which are derived from Chinese cursive script and fragments of kanji, respectively. Latin script (rōmaji) and Arabic numerals are also commonly used. The increasing reliance on keyboards and keypads for kanji input (through the conversion of kana or rōmaji) has resulted in the phenomenon known as character amnesia. English became an official language in 1967 for diplomatic and economic purposes. It was crucial in Hatsunia's information technology revolution, as software developers could learn the latest methods and collaborate with other developers around the world without having to wait for translations.
The government of Hatsunia has made accommodations for minority languages. The Ainu language is kept alive through awareness and education programs. Ryukyuan languages are considered Hatsunic languages, but the Ainu language is not. Micronesia has many locally official languages. Areas with relatively high percentages of Koreans, Chinese people, or Ryukyuans use their respective languages in official signage and documentation.
In the years leading up to the Moeji Reform of 1868, a formal education system was established. Today, early education is available with child care services and preschools for children from ages 1 to 5. Compulsory education consists of six years of primary (elementary) school and six years of secondary (high) school, lasting from ages 6 to 18. After graduating from high school, people have the option to attend a university for at least two or four years, or some other institution of higher education. A school year in Hatsunia lasts 195 days, and is divided into three terms. The first term lasts from early September to mid-December, the second term lasts from early January to late March, and the third term lasts from mid-April to late July. This benefits the intercultural exchange of students, talent, and ideas as the start of the school year is synchronized with many other countries. There are also breaks in the middle of each term. Western-style uniforms are used by most high schools. Some students like to express their individuality by making modifications to their uniforms, or even dyeing their hair (of any color). Uniforms also do not have any gender-based restrictions. Laws and school policies protect students from bullying, and are designed to be inclusive of minority groups.
Education in Hatsunia was a key factor in its economic rise starting in the 1970s, and the success of its information technology industry. Attention is given to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects as well as liberal arts and business education. Prominent courses involve software engineering, computer science, or music composition. Teaching methods encourage critical thinking and creative solutions to problems, and are careful not to put too much academic pressure on students. Digital literacy is emphasized, and schools are equipped with up-to-date personal computers and software. Tablets, mobile devices, interactive whiteboards, and virtual reality have become popular as educational tools. Online learning is also a major option for students. English education that emphasizes English phonemes is considered important for participation in a globalized digital economy. Senior students provide guidance to junior students when collaborating on projects, but aren't treated as being always right; this relationship also applies in the workplace.
The public education budget accounts for 5.39 percent of the GDP. In the Programme for International Student Assessment, the average student in Hatsunia scored 539 for reading literacy, mathematics, and science in 2017. 53.9 percent of adults between the ages of 25 and 64 had attained tertiary education. 73.9 percent of adults aged 25-34 have a bachelor's degree. The University of Miraito and Mankyoku University are the two most renowned universities in Hatsunia.
Hatsunia has a high-quality universal health care system. Almost 8.7 percent of the GDP (PPP), or $5,390 per capita, was spent on health care in 2019. Medical fees are regulated to prevent them from becoming too expensive for patients. All citizens are required to have health insurance. The national health insurance system follows a single-payer model to reduce administrative costs and provide job flexbility, and also ensures coverage for the elderly. People are able to choose the doctors and hospitals they want to receive service from, but they need to provide proof of medical necessity.
The health care system had went through multiple reforms. The first health insurance plan was established near the beginning of the Ninshō period (1912-1984), and health coverage became universal after the end of World War II.
Physical and mental health care use the latest in reliable practices and technologies. Hatsunia is a leader in survival rates for cancers and cardiovascular diseases, and has a very low rate of dementia. Smoking in public areas is illegal. Face masks are commonly worn to prevent the spread of diseases. Each patient has their own electronic health record, which is standardized throughout the entire country. Many patients make use of connected health technologies to communicate with and receive information from health care professionals. Robots are increasingly being utilized for surgical procedures, and artificial intelligence is being used to create personalized medicine. In 2017, government agencies and private companies invested $103.9 billion in the research and development of biomedical technologies. The most prestigious medical school and research facility are located in Senritsuchi in Utagawa Prefecture.
The average life expectancy is 83.9 years for people born between 2010 and 2015. The female and male life expectancies are 87 and 80.7 years, respectively. For every 1000 people, there are 3.39 doctors and 11.39 nurses.
Music has been central to Hatsunese culture since the Dōtaku period (c. 300 BCE-250 CE), although there has been archeological evidence for an earlier musical culture in the form of paleolithic bone flutes. The Hatsunese word for music is ongaku (音楽), which combines the kanji for "sound" (音) with the kanji for "comfort" or "enjoyment" (楽). During the Dōtaku period, musical instruments were brought in from modern-day China and Korea, including zithers, lutes, fiddles, flutes, pipes, and percussive instruments. The period itself is named after a bronze bell. These were thought to be used in rituals and festivals. Instruments were later made indigenously, such as the koto, biwa, and taiko. With the rise of the kingdom of Yamaha-koku, gagaku (雅楽), or elegant music from the imperial court, was developed. Shōmyō (声明) is a Buddhist chant practiced soon after the introduction of Buddhism in Hatsunia. Kagura (神楽) is a type of Shinto music and theatrical dance. Honkyoku (本曲) were pieces of music played on shakuhachi flutes by Zen Buddhist monks starting in the 13th cenutry. Noh (能) is a form of musical drama from the 14th century. Most traditional Hatsunese music uses a pentatonic scale. The Ainu people have their own musical traditions, including upopo (short songs) and yukar (epic songs).
After the War of Lost Songs in the 16th century, many instruments were imported from Europe, like violins, pianos, and brass instruments. Traditional instruments such as the shamisen, based on the Chinese sanxian, were also developed. The shamisen was used in jōruri (浄瑠璃) narrative music as well as the nagauta (長唄) music in kabuki (歌舞伎) theatrical dramas. The Western styles of Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Romantic music were adopted as time went on, especially after the Moeji Reform. The current national anthem, "Hajimete no Oto," came to have a Western-style composition. In the 20th century, the term min'yō (民謡) was coined to describe traditional folk songs. Genres like jazz, rock, and pop were imported from the United States. Today, Hatsunia has one of the largest markets for music in the world, especially for digital formats. It is promoted online without international restrictions. Hatsunese scientists and engineers lead the research and development on sound synthesis technology, and many songs are composed using computer software, known as Desktop Music (DTM). The most popular genres in Hatsunia involve electronic music, such as electropop, techno, trance, house, and future bass. Famous composers also write songs in other genres and styles that appeal to international markets. Karaoke singing is the most popular recreational activity.
Hatsunia is home to the singing character, Hatsune Miku (初音ミク, Miku Hatsune in Western name order), whose name means "the first sound from the future." Miku is the nanori (name) reading for mirai (未来). According to Hatsunese legendary folklore from the 8th century with no actual basis in historical fact, she was originally from the future but traveled back to the past and founded Hatsunia on August 31, 693 BCE. Described as having a blue-green hair color (青緑色 or 浅葱色), her character has lasted throughout the centuries and has been interpreted in many ways by different people. In the Information Age, she is often depicted as wearing a "futuristic outfit resembling a school uniform." On August 31, 2007 (National Year 2700), the character received a voice by Crypton Future Media using the Vocaloid software engine by Yamaha Corporation. It was based on samples from voice actress Saki Fujita. Anyone who wants to make songs featuring her voice can purchase the software, which has multilingual support and has been updated many times over the years. As a "collaboratively constructed cyber celebrity with a growing user community," she has millions of songs in a wide variety of genres, as well as lots of music videos and fan-made art. Most of these songs are made by independent producers and not corporations. Songs and illustrations inspire others to make new content in what is known as the "chain of creation" (創作の連鎖 sōsaku no rensa), also translated as peer production. Miku has even performed at concerts, including overseas tours, as an animated projection on glass. Hatsune Miku is the most important cultural icon of Hatsunia, but is not considered to be a character that belongs exclusively to the Hatsunese people. Crypton Future Media also made voicebanks based on other legendary singers: Meiko, Kaito, Kagamine Rin and Len, and Megurine Luka.
Etiquette and philosophy
The code for social behavior in Hatsunia has been developed and modified over thousands of years with influence from cultures in Asia, Europe, and North America.
Politeness is very important in Hatsunese culture. Similar to other cultures in East Asia, bowing is performed as a greeting and as a gesture of respect. Communication is done tactfully. During a meal, it is customary to show gratitude towards those who prepared the meal. Eating or drinking while walking is seen as inconsiderate. There are rules and taboos regarding the use of chopsticks for eating, as they are also used in funeral rites. Mortality is accepted in a calm manner. Cherry blossoms blooming in the spring and falling off a week later symbolize the beauty and impermanence of life. Cleanliness is also viewed as important. Shoes are taken off before entering someone's house to avoid dirtying the floor, and it is common for people to work together in cleaning up public areas. Bathing is treated as a form of relaxation, and people clean their bodies before entering the bath.
There is an emphasis on balancing the needs of the group or society as a whole with the needs of individual people, including those who stand out by differing from the norm. Organizational culture focuses on team efforts while also recognizing the talents and new ideas of individuals. Elders and superiors are respected for wisdom and experience, but are not unquestionable or blindly followed. There are notions of social hierarchies and group harmony, but they are not strictly adhered to, so that people can speak up about problems to be addressed like bullying and power harassment, and suggestions for systematic improvement can be given by someone who is younger or subordinate. Traditions are valued unless they are detrimental to societal well-being or efficiency. It is also a virtue for people to admit and learn from their own mistakes. Failure on a risky business undertaking is tolerated as long as one is willing to try again. Expressions of national pride are accepted, but jingoism is not.
Hatsunese philosophical thought has been recorded since the Meichō period (539-710), and was influenced by Chinese, Indian, and Western philosophy. Animism has been important in Hatsunese religious philosophy since ancient times, as evidenced by artifacts and records. Although Shinto isn't exactly an animistic religion, a major tenet is that all natural things and phenomena have a spirit or kami (神). Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism were introduced from China in the Meichō period, and have had an effect on government, society, art, and views on the human mind and the nature of reality. However, the strict patriarchal, hierarchal, and gerontocratic aspects of Confucianism were rejected or not emphasized. Western philosophy was imported during the Shinkyoku period. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the ideals of natural rights and human rights led to the development of the modern Hatsunese government, and were not considered to be inherently "Western" concepts. The creation of music is used as a symbol for the importance of the collective and the individual, whether it is many people playing instruments or singing together in harmony, or one person playing an instrument, singing, or composing.
Traditional Hatsunese architecture was influenced by architecture from China and other Asian countries. The primary building material was wood, with roofs made of tiling or thatch. Wooden columns supported a large and curved gable or hip roof with deep eaves. Interior spaces were divided by paper walls; sliding panels functioned as doors and could be used to reconfigure a space for various purposes. Sitting was done on the floor or on a cushion.
Raised-floor grain storehouses were built in the ancient era. The first Buddhist temples were constructed in the late 6th century using complex wood construction methods. In the 8th century, the layout of the ancient capital of Takada (now Yamatotakada) was inspired by the grid streets of Chang'an in China during the Sui and Tang dynasties. As buildings became larger, the distances between columns became standardized. During the feudal era, the design and arrangement of buildings and gardens continued to evolve, diverging from the Chinese style. Minimalist design elements were inspired by the tea ceremony and intended to be the opposite of extravagance. Castles made of wood and stone were built during the War of Lost Songs and the early Shinkyoku period. The most famous example is the Ichiban Ohimeji Castle in Himeyo Prefecture.
Western architectural styles slowly began to be introduced in Hatsunia in the 17th and 18th centuries. Adoption of these styles accelerated in the mid-19th century, the time of the Moeji Reform. Modernist, high-tech, and futurist architecture became prevalent over the course of the 20th century. Today, architecture in Hatsunia is known for innovative techniques, such as ecological design and the use of information and communications technologies.
The rapid growth of the information technology and tourism industries in Miraito, coupled with limited land space, have resulted in a housing crisis. Efforts to construct more high-density housing are currently in progress, with taller structures incentivized by the higher land prices. The 839-meter-tall Millennium Tower, the 1000-meter-tall Sky City, and the 1580-meter-tall Sky Mile Tower (exactly 1000 times as tall as Hatsune Miku) were also constructed as parts of the Neo Miraito urban development project, and became homes to tens of thousands of people. There is also a pyramid-shaped arcology being constructed in Miraito Bay to handle the growing population. This "Mega-City Pyramid" is designed to house 1 million people, utilize carbon nanotubes and robotics for construction and maintenance, and be powered by photovoltaic cells and algae.
Early forms of Hatsunese art include clay pottery and figurines in the Nendo period (c. 13900-300 BCE). Bronzeware and painting were first introduced in the 3rd century BCE. Over the course of Hatsunia's history, art was based on Hatsunese aesthetics with varying foreign influences. Buddhism became a major influence on art starting in the 6th century. Painting and sculpting techniques were further refined in the feudal era. Other traditional art forms include origami (paper folding) and ikebana (flower arranging).
In the 19th century, Hatsunese and European art significantly influenced each other. Hatsunese ukiyo-e woodblock prints were imported into Europe in a phenomenon known as Hatsunism, which was also an inspiration for the development of Impressionist art. Renowned ukiyo-e artists include Hiroyuki Utagawa and Hokusan, the latter being known for the Thirty-nine Views of Mount Saki. Hatsunese comic books, or manga, and the aesthetic of cuteness (kawaii) became popular in the 20th century, although it is frowned upon if it is used to promote gender roles. Ongakuten Kitajima was the first to refer to the term "manga" in the sense of a comic. Artists have been heavily involved in the creation of video games since the 1970s. In the Information Age, creators of visual art and music tend to use digital tools and engage in collaboration.
Hatsunese animated works are known as anime, although the term is used within Hatsunia to refer to all animation regardless of the country of origin. Its development is closely related to that of manga comics. The first commercially produced animation in Hatsunia was released in 1917. Many animated movies and television shows from Hatsunia have achieved international popularity and critical acclaim, including science fiction titles that involve mecha, outer space, or cyberspace. Popular directors of anime include Shun Mizusaki, Otoha Tenjin, and Masamune Tomita. Tomita is known for creating the long-running Mobile Suit Zaku franchise, originally about the conflict between the spaceborne Federal Republic of Shion and the Terran Sphere. Starting in the 1980s and 1990s, animators have taken advantage of computers to make the production process more efficient.
Films were first produced in Hatsunia in 1897, and the Hatsunese film industry subsequently became one of the largest in the world. Popular genres include science fiction and jidaigeki (period dramas). Miraito Story, The Thirty-Nine Samurai, and Rajomon are considered by prominent film critics to be some of the best films of all time. Famous film directors include Akemi Kuroshima, Kunimitsu Mizukawa, Yasufumi Oku, and Shusaku Imamichi. With the rise of the Hatsunese economy, film budgets and box office earnings have also increased. Several Hatsunese films have been the recipients of major international film awards.
The first major works of Hatsunese writing were created in the Takada period (710-794) after the borrowing of the Chinese writing system. The Kodaiki and the Hatsune Shoki contain a combination of mythological and historical records regarding Hatsunia. The Mankashū is a compilation of thousands of poems in various forms and sizes. The syllabic writing systems of hiragana and katakana (together known as kana) were invented in the early Wasei period (794-1185). The Tale of Princess Kaguya is the earliest known prose narrative in Hatsunia, and is considered to be a prototypical example of science fiction due to its extraterrestrial plot elements. The founding myth of Hatsunia also involves time travel. The Pillow Diary by Kiyota no Natsuko poetically describes her experiences and observations in the Imperial Court during the late 10th century. The Tale of Murasaki by Fujisaki no Tomiko is one of the first novels in the world.
In the Shinkyoku period, the creation of literary works shifted from the upper class to the lower and middle classes as education levels increased. Azumatsuru was a merchant and prominent writer of ukiyozōshi, a genre depicting the pleasure-seeking urban lifestyle of the period. Many people who lived in cities attended kabuki plays, such as Hoshitsune Senbon Zakura. Mikan was famous for her participation in haikai collaborative linked verse poetry reminiscent of the Wasei period, as well as her expeditions around the world described poetically in her journal, titled Sekai no Michi. The short but well-known form of the haiku was based on the opening verses of haikai poetry. European writing styles started to influence literature in Hatsunia, while scientific books from Europe were translated into Hatsunese. After the Moeji Reform of 1868, Saku Natsume and Tarō Morikubo wrote many classic novels. More authors rose to fame in the modern era, such as Ryūsei Akihara, Jōtarō Takumi, Haruka Mutsumi, Manami Yoshikuni, Yasumichi Kuwahara, and Kikue Otomiya. A few of them have been awarded Nobel Prizes. In recent decades, light novels and mobile phone novels have become more popular. Most people in Hatsunia use a mobile device or an e-book reader for reading.
In traditional Hatsunese cuisine, Hatsunese rice or noodles make up the main component of a meal, and are the staple of the Hatsunese diet. This is complemented with (usually three) main or side dishes known as okazu, which can consist of vegetables, seafood, tofu, or meat, as well as one of two types of soup: miso (fermented soybean paste) or suimono (clear). The structure of a meal was influenced by yūsoku, shōjin, and honzen cuisine from the Imperial Court, Buddhist temples, and samurai households, respectively. Ingredients are checked for their quality, and the different parts of each meal are placed in separate bowls or plates. Kaiseki is a meal involving multiple courses, carefully prepared with ingredients of the highest quality. Throughout history, foods varied depending on the season. Different areas of Hatsunia specialize in various ingredients and ways of preparation, which may include food that was originally imported. In the Shinkyoku period (1560-1868), ingredients like red meat and bread began to be used more often. Curry was imported from India, and has become a popular dish.
Wagashi refers to traditional Hatsunese confections, typically made with glutinous rice (mochigome), red bean paste, or fruits. Western-style desserts (yōgashi) like strawberry shortcake and egg pudding are also highly demanded. Moeji Seika is a snack food company mostly known for their chocolate. Vegetable juice is a very popular and nutritious beverage for most Hatsunese people along with green tea, which is also used as a flavor for ice cream and other desserts and snack foods. Alcoholic beverages brewed in Hatsunia include sake (fermented rice wine) and beer. The Ozeki Corporation produces the most sake. The most famous brands of beer are Otoineppu and Asane.
The vegetable known as the negi (ネギ, green onion) is an important symbol of Hatsunese culture, and is featured in almost any Hatsunese dish, as well as the Hatsunese flag. The Imperial Seal of Hatsunia depicts the flowering portion of the negi plant. There is a cultural phenomenon dating back at least to the Meichō period (539-710), in which people would wave or spin a negi stalk in rhythm to music. This was also performed in a ritual at sunrise to signify the first sounds of the day. Negi is grown throughout Hatsunia, and there are many local varieties. It is an essential ingredient in soups and dishes such as negiyaki (a negi pancake), negichāhan (negi with fried rice), negisoba (negi with buckwheat noodles), negigyōza (negi dumplings), and negimaki (marinated rolls of tuna with negi, with beef or chicken being recent substitutes). Negi can also be steamed, boiled, grilled, or pickled.
Holidays and festivals
The Hatsunese government currently recognizes 20 public holidays, which are regulated by the Public Holiday Law of 1870 and subsequent laws passed by Parliament. In 1970, the Happy Monday System was put into place, relocating certain holidays to Monday to create extended weekends.
The two most celebrated national holidays in Hatsunia are on August 31 and March 9. August 31 is National Foundation Day, Constitution Day, and the birthday of the character of Hatsune Miku. March 9 is celebrated as "Miku Day" (ミクの日 Miku no Hi) because the numbers 3 and 9 can be read in Hatsunese as "mi" and "ku," respectively. They can also be read as "san-kyu", which sounds like "thank you". Megurine Day on January 30, Kaito Day on February 17, Meiko Day on November 5, and Kagamine Day on December 27 celebrate the birthdays of other legendary singers in Hatsunese folklore. The other holidays are New Year's Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, Twintail Day on February 2, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Children's Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Ninshō Day on August 30, The Empress's Birthday on September 10 (previously October 19), Respect for the Aged Day on the third Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox Day on September 22 or 23, Moeji Day on October 10, Sports Day on the second Monday of October, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23.
Yearly festivals in Hatsunia are known as matsuri (祭). They can involve traditional or modern culture, and be nationwide or local. Some festivals occur on fixed dates while others are not as specified, and can vary depending on the region. Certain festivals, such as Hanamatsuri (not to be confused with Hanami) and Obon, are based on traditional religious holidays. When visiting a festival, one can find live performances, games, and booths selling food and souvenirs. Many festivals are supported by Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, but some festivals are non-religious in nature. They can also involve parades with ornate floats, which are planned by neighborhoods or towns. The kami of a local Shinto shrine is transported on a palanquin known as a mikoshi, which is treated as a portable shrine.
One of the most famous festivals in Hatsunia is the Snow Festival. It is held in February in the areas of Hatsunia that regularly receive snow at this time of the year, especially on the island of Hokkaitō. Many snow and ice sculptures are built in towns and cities during this festival. The largest observances can be found in Miraito and Otoineppu. A special variation of the Hatsune Miku character called "Snow Miku" (雪ミク Yuki Miku) represents this event along with her rabbit Yukine (雪音), and has a different appearance every year.
The internet became the most important source for information and entertainment in Hatsunia in the early 21st century. People in Hatsunia spend an average of 10 hours and 39 minutes on the internet every day. In order to stay relevant with evolving technologies, older mass media formats like television, radio, newspapers, and magazines have largely adapted to digital or online distribution methods, which are accessible through desktop and laptop computers, smartphones, tablets, and smart TVs. Most people use online video streaming services such as Niconico or Ongakuten Video to watch user-generated content, music videos, television series, and movies. Video websites have kept up-to-date in terms of playback resolution, bandwidth, and navigation interfaces. Hatsunia is the birthplace of the "v-creator" or "virtual content creator" phenomenon in which people use virtual avatars when producing pre-recorded videos or livestreams. In 2018, premium on-demand streaming services had a subscription rate of 63.9 percent. Mixu is the most popular social networking website in Hatsunia, with 73.9 percent of the population being users.
The six primary broadcasting networks are HHK (public broadcasting), TV Asane (TVA), TV Miraito Network (MXN), Hatsune Television (HTV), Miraito Broadcasting System (MBS), and Saki Network System (SNS). There is also News 39, a network dedicated to uplifting news. Many television networks started off as radio stations. Programming usually consists of music programs, serial dramas, comedies, news reports, and documentaries. Satellite television broadcasting was developed in the 1970s by HASDA. Digital television emerged in the 1990s and became standard in the early 2000s. A 2017 HHK survey concluded that 78 percent of people in Hatsunia watch television shows on a daily basis, with the average viewing time being 239 minutes per day, mostly streamed online.
There are 139 news publishers in Hatsunia, but the main five are the Asane Shimbun, Hibi Shimbun, Sanku Shimbun, Shokei Shimbun, and Yomikubari Shimbun. Freedom of the press and objective journalism are upheld. Every household has a news subscription, usually for the digital edition. The shift from printed to digital news articles has resulted in reduced production and distribution costs for publishers. Articles written prior to the advent of the internet are also being archived through digitization. An average of 27 minutes per day are spent reading news articles.
The traditional sports of Hatsunia are martial arts like judo, kendo, and sumo. Karate was introduced by immigrants from the Ryukyu Kingdom. In the 19th century, many sports were imported from the United States and European countries, which became part of school athletics programs. Professional sporting organizations were established in the 20th century.
Miraito was the site of the 1964 Summer Olympics, and was expected to host it again in the summer of 2020. However, these plans have been cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic and popular demand. The Winter Olympics were held in Otoineppu in 1972 and Utayama in 1998. The Basketball World Championship was hosted in 2006, and the Women's Volleyball World Championship was hosted five times in 1967, 1998, 2006, 2010, and 2018. Hatsunia's national rugby team has had over a dozen victories in the Asia Rugby Championship. The Rugby World Cup was hosted by Hatsunia in 2019.
The most popular professional spectator sports include baseball, motorsports, association football, and e-sports. Hatsune Professional Baseball is the most important baseball league in Hatsunia and was founded in 1920. The Hatsunese national baseball team won the World Baseball Classic in 2006 and 2009. Super GT and Formula Hatsune are the premier motorsport events, with predecessors dating back to the 1970s. Most of these races currently use electric vehicles. Association football has had strong support since the founding of the Hatsunia Professional Football League in 1927. Hatsunia is the host of the Intercontinental Cup. The 2002 FIFA World Cup was simultaneously hosted by Hatsunia and Korea as a symbol of friendship. The national football team of Hatsunia had won the Asian Cup in 1992, 2000, 2004, and 2011, and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. Winter sports such as snowboarding, skiing, and figure skating are also popular.
Hatsunia has one of the largest video game industries in the world. In the 1970s and 1980s, Hatsunese arcade video games were considered to be in a golden age as they became an international phenomenon of popular culture and technology. After the release of 8-bit video game consoles and their successors, as well as home computers like the PC-3900 series, Hatsunia became a worldwide leader in video game development. This status would continue for decades to come, even with significant competition from foreign video game companies emerging at the dawn of the 21st century.
In 2018, the Hatsunese video game industry had a total revenue of $43.9 billion, with PC, console, mobile, and arcade games accounting for $15.0 billion, $13.1 billion, $10.3 billion, and $5.5 billion, respectively. PC games have become the largest portion of the industry after the introduction of digital distribution services in the early 2000s. The proliferation of internet cafés in the 1990s was another factor. Hatsunia also has one of the biggest markets for console and mobile games. Rhythm games like the Project DIVA series are the most popular, but games in other categories including action-adventure, shooting, role-playing, platforming, fighting, sandbox, simulation, strategy, and sports are also played often. One of the best-selling video games from Hatsunia is Mine the World, an open-world sandbox game initially released in 2008.
There is a significant professional competitive gaming scene in the country. Entire stadiums can be dedicated to e-sporting events, with high-profile players earning over $100,000 per year and being watched by millions of people.
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