Holynia

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Holyn Kingdom

Holynska Kráľovstvo
Flag of
Flag
Coat of arms of
Coat of arms
Anthem: Bože, Zachráň Kráľa! (Hornat)
(English: "God, Save the King!")
Holyne globe.png
Location of Holynia with Spero
Capital
and largest city
Cizekporok
Official languagesHornat
Masov
Recognised regional languagesBogor
Ethnic groups
(2015)
68.3% Hornat
29.4% Masov
2.3% other
Demonym(s)
  • Holynian
  • Holyn
GovernmentConstitutional Monarchy
• King
Mikuláš I
• Prime Minister
Renáta Mišurová
LegislatureNárodná Rada (National Council)
Foundation
• First Holyně Realm
81 BC
• Second Holyně Realm
1052
• Holyně Kingdom
December 1574
• Union of Holyně Socialist States
December 1927
• Republic of Holynia
September 1998
• Second Holyně Kingdom
April 2001
Population
• 2017 estimate
109,230,431
• Density
107.70/km2 (278.9/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.26 trillion
• Per capita
$20,737
HDI (2019)0.901
very high
CurrencyKoruna (HRK)
Calling code+63
Internet TLD.hk

Holynia, also referred to as Holyn, officially the Holyn Kingdom (Hornat and Masov: Holynska Kráľovstvo and Holynska Království), is a sovereign country in southeastern Spero and an overseas territory in Navron. Excluding its overseas territories, Holynia proper covers an area of 1,014,174 square kilometers, with 109,230,431 inhabitants. With the additional territory and population of its overseas holdings, Holynia covers 1,951,365 square kilometers, with a population of 127,332,772 people. Owing to Holynia's highly mountainous topography, the inhabitants of the country are widespread, with a population density of 79 people per square kilometer. Holynia borders six countries, Grola and Movargovina in the north, Stesopol to the northeast, Bogoria to the east, and Elmad and Corvia to the nothwest. The Holyn Sea straddles the southern coastline of Holynia, which flows into the Great Spero Sea. The Kingdom consists of two countries, referred to as Principalities, Hornatyia and Masovia, which is further divided into eight kraj (Regions) and further into 53 counties. One overseas territory in Navron, Skoskie, exists. The capital and largest city of Holynia is Cizekporok, with a population of over 7 million. The country is a constitutional monarchy, with a parliamentary system of government.

Modern day Holynia traces its history back to the Holyně Realm, which encompassed the Duchy of Hornatyia and Duchy of Masovia. The Holyně Realm grew to control territory within modern-day Movargovina, Stesopol, Elmad and Corvia. Eventually internal disputes between the two Duchy's within the Realm led to its collapse c. 120. The Hornatyian Duchy was influential and powerful enough to remain in control of much of the former northern territories of the Holyně Realm. The independent country reformed itself into the Kingdom of Hornatyia and was led by Cizek I. Meanwhile the Masovian monarchy was unstable with numerous rivalries preventing effective rule. The Council of Skrbovice marked the introduction of Catholicism into the former Holyně Realm. In 1052, the Masovian Kingdom finally collapsed with the fall of the Hanák Dynasty, resulting in Hornatyia invading and annexing the Masovian lands and the reestablishment of the Holyně Realm.

In 1310, Holyně was invaded by its northern neighbor the Grolan Empire, this war came to be known as the Catastrophe. The war ended during the Battle of Bavorovská Hill, when the Holynians pushed invading forces back into Grola. The destruction as a result of the war set the Kingdom back several hundred years. The first national legislature, the National Council of Hornatyia and Masovia convened in 1611. The Kingdom began a slow growth, with the economy transforming from outdated medieval economics to capitalism. This period saw the Holyn Kingdom join the other Spero colonial powers, albeit the smallest of them.

In 1801, the 10 Years War began when the Grolan Empire invaded Ivathia, Holynia and Corvia. Holynia, led by Benedikt IV, repelled the invasion during the Battle of Libenov. The Treisburg Conference saw the Grolan Empire split up between Holynia, Ivathia and Corvia. In 1917, Holynia joined the Great Spero War as part of the Eastern Powers. The war ended in a stalemate after two years of conflict.

In 1921, the National Council (Narodna Rada) approved a plan to formally adopt a constitution with civilian leaders. Holynia would transform from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional one. This was devised with the assent of the Royal Family and Kováč II. The Narodna Rada gained significant legislative power and an executive Prime Minister post was created.

The Workers' Party of Holynia, led by Volen Hajek, overthrew the monarchy in 1927, when Kováč II abdicated and fled to Ivathia. A new state, the Union of Holyn Socialist States was proclaimed in late 1927. Kováč II and supporters of the monarchy relocated to the Holyn overseas colony of Soskie in northern Lounada.

The transition to communism was bloody and chaotic, with the country ravaged by famine and chaos. By the 1940s, the country was stable and rapid industrialisation was occurring.

By the late 1980s the economy began to stagnate and after a series of natural disasters, the economy slid into recession. Economic reforms introduced in 1995 failed to revive the sluggish economy. Ethnic and political tensions in Bogoria boiled over into the Bogorian War. The violence in Bogoria and widespread dissaproval of Prusík's reforms saw the Workers' Party fall from power by June 1998.

A new constitution and democratic elections were held in late 1998. The first democratic government was led by Jonáš Široký. In 1999 the Treisberg accords were signed, officially ending the war and granting independence to Bogoria. In 2001, a national referendum approved a new constitution reestablishing the constitutional monarchy and King Daniel II became King of Holynia. The Soskie colony rejoined Holynia in 2002. Holynia became integrated into the global economy in the 2000s.

Holynia is a highly developed country, with an advanced high income economy and high living standards. The country has extremely low unemployment rates, however varying rates of wealth inequality. The country boasts a post-industrial economy, with a growing e-market developing within Holynia. Since 2004, Holynia has seen yearly GDP growth of 4-8 percent, with the economy still growing at rapid rates in 2016. Holynia is a member of the not!UN, Southern Artemia Commerce Initiative, International Trade Commission, and the Global Monetary Fund.

History

Early history

First and Second Holyně Realm

First Holyně Kingdom

Communist Holynia

The continuing crisis in Holynia was exasperated by the 1921 founding of the Holyn Workers Party. Communist leader Volen Hajek founded People's Councils in Bystrica and Uhrov. The councils were formed of popularly elected workers and peasants. The Bystrica people's council rivaled the city council in issuing decrees. Members of the police force in Bystrica declared allegiance to the People's Council. The People's Councils were declared illegal by the monarchy in Cizekporok. Kováč II sent soldiers to Bystrica in an attempt to stop the councils from operating, however these attempts failed. A general strike was declared by coal miners in northern Hornatyia in solidarity with the People's Councils in Bystrica and Uhrov. In an attempt to placate the escalating crisis, the King gave up certain powers to the legislature. The legislature was enlarged and an executive branch was formed, officially ending direct rule by the monarchy. The Workers' Party agreed to participate in the enlarged Narodna Rada. The first election was held in 1923, with the Workers' Party taking the second largest number of seats. Discontent with being in the opposition, the Workers' Party continued to undermine the government.

By 1926, fighting between the Popular Army of the Workers Party and the monarchist army had erupted. The Workers Party exerted control over most of northern Hornatyia and western Masovia, while Kováč II's allies controlled central Hornatyia and all of Bogoria. Heavy fighting centered on the city of Uhrov and the midland region of Hornatyia. Cizekporok was surrounded in October 1924 and King Kováč II was evacuated to the overseas territory of Skoskie which was pro-monarchy. The monarchy and the deposed Holyn government declared an independent state in Skoskie. The war claimed casualties of around 3 million, mainly civilians.

Hajek's government ensued on a campaign of mass nationalisation, seizing land, businesses and industry. Hajek's economic policy heavily favored industry and massive subsidies were granted to rebuild much of Holynia's post war industry. Small private business were permitted to operate and peasants were allowed to sell surplus product on the open market. The state allowed both peasant and collective farms to operate side by side. Hajek's government utilised the SRB to arrest, execute or relocate thousands of peasants whose farms were chosen for collectivization. The large cities of Holynia saw rapid increases in the rate of urbanisation, as peasants relocated seeking employment. By 1930, Holynia's economic output surpassed pre war levels.

The early 1930s saw Hajek centralize control in Cizekporok. A new constitution was adopted in 1931, granting broad powers to the central government in Cizekporok. The Workers' Party was given a constitutional role and political opposition was largely outlawed. Political repression also increased in the 1930s. The SRB forcibly deported tens of thousands of Bogorian civilians to northern Hornatyia to work in coal mines. Internal exile became widespread as Hajek sought to remove political enemies and rivals. By 1935, Hajek's economic policies had managed to reduce unemployment by 25%. Despite the economic growth, rural areas of Holynia faced low standards of living in comparison to the large cities. The 1937 Cizekporok agreement saw Holynia relinquish territorial claims to the former colony of Skoskie. In return both states agreed to mutual diplomatic recognition.

Military vehicles in Utena during the 1957 Bogorian unrest.

Volen Hajek's death in 1941 was followed by an internal power struggle. Jan Kříž emerged as the new leader of Holynia. Kříž emphasized continuing collectivization of farming and growing authoritarian rule. Kříž embarked on a campaign of international communism unseen under Hajek. The 1940s would see the defence budget relative to GDP increase to 25%. Kříž argued that communism would only prevail in Holynia if socialism was spread across the continent. The Salcheny crisis saw the first foreign deployment of Holynian troops in 1947. In 1951, neighboring Movargovina fell into chaos after communist rebels seized control of several cities along the border with Holynia. Holynia launched a military invasion of the country in support of the rebels. The Movargovinan government fell after Holyn soldiers and rebels seized the capital of Goranci. In June 1952, Holynia successfully tested its first nuclear weapon.

Crisis enveloped Holynia during the 1957 Bogorian unrest. Bogor civilians protested after the death of 3 civilians during an arrest by police. The protests descended into mass insurrection when police opened fire on demonstrators in Utena's main square. After 3 days of unrest, the military and police successfully quashed the rebellion after killing almost 400 civilians. Kříž suffered a heart attack in 1958 and the top leadership of the Workers' Party began making plans for his successor. In March 1959, Kříž suffered a stroke during a live Parliamentary meeting and subsequently fell into a coma. Unable to govern, the Politburo voted to remove Kříž from the post of General Secretary. Jiří Liška became the obvious successor once Kříž eventually died in April.

Liška began removing older leaders within the party, promoting a number of younger party members to key posts. In April 1960, Holynia launched its first satellite into space, Satelit-1. The government placed great emphasis on the development of Holynia's space program in the 1960s. In 1962, Liška expressed his ideas for greater availability of consumer goods and a higher quality of life for citizens. The centrally planned economy saw elements of a market economy introduced. Small privately owned businesses were permitted to operate alongside state run businesses. State owned businesses and collective farms gained a degree of autonomy from central planners. These industries were permitted to branch into related and different sectors of the economy at their own will.

Liška's reforms continued in the 1970s, with the introduction of the 1972 constitution, offering a degree of liberalisation to the political process. Liška's death in 1975 saw him succeeded by Kamil Sládek, Liška's agriculture minister. Sládek reversed a number of political reforms introduced under Liška and tightened the authority of the central government. Sládek packed the politburo with several close allies, allowing Sládek to pursue an immense infrastructure campaign. New motorways, airports and railways began to be built across Holynia. Sládek's program was highly popular among the populace, reducing unemployment to almost zero. However, Sládek's government was forced to take foreign loans in order to finance the massive infrastructure program.

Łuków Volcano during its 1989 eruption.

In 1984, unrest erupted in Bogoria following the arrest of Bogorian leader Filip Sieja. The party ordered a massive crackdown, with army, police and SRB units killing an estimated 200 civilians. The region was locked down for months, with rolling power outages, road closures and mass arrests of thousands of civilians. In June 1987, the Vamik Dam burst, sending a massive torrent of water into the Solany valley. 2,000 civilians were killed. In September 1989, the Łuków Volcano erupted along the Bogorian/Hornatyian border. The volcano erupted with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6. The eruption devastated the River Chełm valley and killed an estimated 11,000 civilians, with entire towns and villages being flattened. Hundreds of thousands of civilians were evacuated in both Hornatyia and Bogoria. The Łuków eruption of 1989 is the most destructive volcanic eruption in Holynia's modern history.

Political and economic crisis gripped Holynia following the Łuków Volcano eruption and Vamik Dam disaster. Environment minister Aleš Mach was imprisoned and Energy Minister Melichar Krejčí was executed because of the twin disasters. Protests in Cizekporok demanded the resignation of leader Kamil Sládek, who refused to resign. Holynia's economy fell into a recession soon after the eruption, only exiting in July 1990. A period of hyperinflation from 1990 to 1993 was caused by massive government deficits in response to the crisis. In 1993, Kamil Sládek died and Vlastimil Prusík emerged as the new leader of Holynia. Prusík began a series of economic and political reforms to revive the economy and reduce simmering tensions across Holynia. These reforms led to unintended consequences as economic output was halved and unemployment skyrocketed. Government deficits of 30 percent became common as the government was forced to prop up struggling industries.

Fighting in Bogoria in January 1998.

Rebellion broke out in Bogoria in August 1997 as ethnic Bogorian politicians, military officers and soldiers rebelled. Clashes escalated through the fall of 1997 into full-scale war. Simultaneous unrest spread throughout Holynia as pro-democracy activists demanded free elections. Attempts at political reforms failed and by June 1998, Prusík and the politburo resigned. The Workers' Party was unable to effectively form a new leadership and began to disintegrate. Prusík, in his executive act, appointed Col. General Radek Nedvěd as interim President. Nedvěd formed a unity government of both communist and opposition figures. Jonáš Široký, a former member of central committee, who resigned from the party in 1997 and led pro-democracy protests, became interim Prime Minister.

Second Holyně Kingdom

On 12 September 1998, an interim constitution was adopted by referendum, with national elections to be held on 15 October 1998. Jonáš Široký led the Naša budúcnosť party to victory. Široký's government formed a constitutional committee to finalise a constitution by the year 2000. In November 1998, negotiations began between the monarchy and government of Skoski and the Siroky government. The government began the arduous process of reforming Holynia's communist economy into a capitalist economy. Throughout late 1998 and 1999, the Národná Rada passed a series of legislation outlining the process of privatisation of state companies. In February 1999, the Holyn Royal Family visited Holynia for the first time since 1925. This visit saw a wave of support for reestablishing the monarchy in an official capacity.

Genocide and ethnic conflict escalated in Bogoria as ceasefires collapsed. In late 1999, after economic sanctions placed on it by the Spero Economic Council, the government and Bogorian seperatists agreed to peace, resulting in the Treisburg treaty. An internationally organized independence referendum would be held in Bogoria, meanwhile an Spero Defence Initiative led peacekeeping mission would seperate the Holyn military and Bogor seperatists.

Široký's government pressed ahead with economic reforms, with the first economic reform legislation passed with broad support among the Národná Rada. Opposition grew as the privatisation legislation became widely opposed by trade unions. The austerity measures introduced in 2000, saw budgets for government ministries and agencies slashed. As the government sought to reduce debt, the economy sufferred. Unemployment continued to rise as the government privatised or shut down unprofitable businesses.

In June 2000, legislation was passed for a national referendum on restoring the monarchy and reunion with Skoski. The referendum was held in September 2000 and saw 67% of voters support Holynia becoming a constitutional monarchy. In November 1999, the first draft of the new constitution was unveiled, with the final draft to be adopted by May 2001. Alexandr IV was crowned King of Holynia in a ceremony in Cizekporok on December 7th 2001. The Overseas Territory of Skoskie officially rejoined Holynia the following day.

The return of wealthy and middle class Holyn citizens from self-imposed exile overseas proved beneficial. Holynia, the largest of the post-communist states in Spero, saw an economic boom in 2002. A growing middle class emerged in Holynia as both privitised and state industries raised incomes. GDP growth had returned, coinciding with the end of austerity measures and high inflation.

The liberal Široký government lost both the 2003 vote of no confidence and 2004 parliamentary election and was succeeded by the renewed Workers' Party under Andrej Sedláček. The Workers' Party was now a social-democratic political party, opposed to a revolutionary socialist party. Sedláček ceased the ongoing privatisation of state companies. This saw unemployment stabilise by late 2005. King Alexandr IV died on 14 December 2005 and was suceeded by his heir apperant, Mikuláš I.

A number of large conglomerates, some founded before the revolution, had relocated to Holynia during this period. Sales of state assets and companies saw these conglomerates grow even larger. In response, the new socialist government formed a state run conglomerate known as Holcentrálnyštátnyobchodnýholdingy. All state run companies were "purchased" by Holcentrálnyštátnyobchodnýholdingy at below market rates. This conglomerate was subject to numerous investigations and legal challenges from within the Narodna Rada and by private entities. The Supreme Court found Holcentrálnyštátnyobchodnýholdingy to be an illegal monopoly and was ordered to be broken up. The company spun off portions of its portfolio to abide by the court ruling. A new holding company Holinvestičnéholdingy to both invest in private companies and retain ownership of state businesses.

In 2010, the conservative Civic Renewal Party won the parliamentary elections with Janos Ratkovec becoming Prime Minister. Ratkovec's government oversaw negotiations for a free trade agreement with the Spero Economic Council. In 2015, the Ratkovec government became embroiled in a series of scandals that led to its downfall. Štefan Jahnátek's Workers' Party won the 2015 election. Government oversight of wages was tightened, with the minimun wage in Holynia pegged to inflation levels. Annual minimun wage increases and decreases would be mandated per the legislation.

In 2019, Renáta Mišurová led the National Renewal Party to victory.

Geography

The plains of Masovia.

The majority of Holynia is located in Southern Spero and is called Mainland Holynia, in contrast to Overseas Holynia, the overseas colony and islands that it controls. It is bordered by the Holyn Sea to the southwest and the Great Spero Sea to the southeast. It shares land borders with Elmad and Corvia to the northwest, Grola and Movargovina to the north, Stesopol to the northeast, and Bogoria to the east.

Holynia features vast differences in elevations. Southern Holynia comprises coastal plains which lead to rolling hills of central Masovia. Masovia is made up of flat, fertile prairie land. The Hulín plateau traverses north to south and straddles the Holynia-Bogoria border. The relief of the Hulín plateau is not high, but its rugged nature makes this region notable. The River Obrec seperates Masovia's plains and hills from the dense forested lowlands of Hornatyia. The Obrec highlands are situated just north of the Hornat lowlands, a fertile region of Hornatyia. The Gatihazi mountains form the Holynian portion of the Gatis, a large mountain range system spanning east to west across central Spero. The River Suli flows from the Gatihazi southwest to the Holyn Sea.

The Obrec highlands divide much of central Holynia.

Mountains and rivers

Hornatyia, the northern half of Holynia, literally means "mountainous land". This is evident by 40% of Hornatyia being mountainous. The Gatis flow west to east through northern Holynia. The Gatihazi mountain range is the largest and highest in Holynia. The Gatihazi run from the Hornat-Corvic border along the Hornat-Grola border leading to the Bytca valley. The Gatis to the west of the Bytca valley are primarily made up of granite and to the west of limestone. The Bytca valley seperates the Gatihazi range from the Hornat-Movargovinian border. The Gatihazi's and Holynia's highest point, Králové mountain, lays to the east of Bytca valley. The Gatihazi then pass to the east into Stesopol. The Gatis are major deposits of anthracite and bituminous coal. Other minerals such as iron are also found within the Gatis.

The Obrec highlands are located in southern Hornatyia. The Obrec highlands are surround by dense forests to the south and the rolling hills of the Hornat lowlands. The Obrec highlands peak at 2,000 m. The rugged nature of the Obrec highlands is evidence of their formation during glacier melts.

The River Obrec is the longest river in Holynia. Flowing north to south from the Gatihazi through the Obrec highlands south towards the Great Spero Sea. The River Obrec delta in Masovia is the major confluence of the River Obrec and the Great Spero Sea. The delta is the largest drainage basin in Holynia and one of the largest in Spero.

The River Suli flows from the Gatihazi in northern Hornatyia. It flows to the west of the Obrec highlands, south through the western Masovian plains. Its confluence with the Holyn Sea is located north of Kovtik. The River Suli valley is a major agricultural region of Holynia.

Climate

Politics

The Národná Rada in Cizekporok, is the national legislature in Holynia.
The Supreme Court in Cizekporok, is the chief court of Holynia and is the court of final appeal in Holynia.

Holynia operates as a constitutional monarchy with a hereditary monarch as head of state and a unicameral parliament, the Národná Rada. The current constitution was adopted on 12 September 2005, replacing the 1997 constitution. The constitution of Holynia places primary governance with the Prime Minister and the cabinet, who are appointed by the monarch after recommendation by members of the Národná Rada. The Prime Minister exerts control over all functions of the executive branch and is de-facto the most powerful politician in the country. The Národná Rada is a 210 seat unicameral legislature which is elected every two years using a proportional representation of political parties, resulting in a diverse array of political parties. A Royal Commissioner is elected by the Národná Rada in a secret ballot every year, who is in charge of overseeing the legality of government actions and issues judgments on certain policies. The ruling monarch holds little power, however has the ability to reject a proposed government and the ability to force from office a ruling government using the Royal Commissioner.

Administrative divisions

Holynia is divided into the following order of administrative divisions 2 Principalities , 12 regions (Kraj) and 5 autonomous municipalities. The Principalities are first level administrative divisions. The other first level administrative divion are the autonomous municipalities. Principalities then are divided into regions. Below regions are counties, but these are solely geographical divisions with no governmental power. The Principalities are led by a First Minister, who answers to the Principality Council. The Regional Authorities lead the 12 regions, headed by a Chief Executive. The 5 autonomous municipalities are led by a directly elected Mayor and a City Council. Direct municipalities also have a mayor and City Council but have limited authority compared to autonomous municipalities.

Principality

The two Principalities of Hornatyia and Masovia are by custom led by the respective Prince of Hornatyia and Prince of Masovia. However, the Prince has no legal authority under the constitution. The principality's respective Basic Law acts as the primary governing document of the two principalities. The Principalities share the same form of government. An executive leader, the First Minister, leads a Principality government which has several devolved powers under the constitution. The First Minister answers to and is elected by the Principality Council, a unicameral legislature which has powers granted to it under the constitution. The Principality Council's are elected every 4 years under a proportional representation electoral system.

The Devolved Powers Act of 2003 and Articles 6 through 9 of the 2001 Constitution lay out the details of the authority of the Principalities. The Principality Council can not rule on any matter specifically reserved for the National Council. Under the Constitution, the National Council is the supreme legislative body in Holynia and legislation passed by it, regardless of overlapping Principality laws, takes precedence. The specific powers reserved for the National Council are defence, healthcare and foreign relations.

The Principalities have taxation powers that overlap with the national government. The Principalities have seperate income tax rates on top of national tax rates. They both have local Tax Authorities, the Hornatyian Tax Authority and Masovian Tax Authority. These are only responsible for collecting taxes that the Principalities have authority over. The National Tax Agency does not have the power to collect or advise on principality tax matters. The national government has sole authority on the value added tax, which is nation wide.

Region

Autonomous Municipality

Overseas Territory

The government headquarters and office of the Chief Executive of the Overseas Territory of Skoskie.

The Overseas Territory of Skoskie is the sole Overseas Territory of Holynia. Holynia retains sovereignty over Skoskie but it does not form Holynia proper. Skoskie is not a sovereign state and relies on Holynia for foreign relations and defence. The Holyn monarch is head of state of the Overseas Territory in the capacity as head of state of Holynia, as opposed to head of state of Skoskie. The Skoskie government exercises full legislative powers over its territory in most affairs. Skoskie retains a seperate legal and taxation system from mainland Holynia. This includes a seperate Court of Final Appeal, the Supreme Court of Skoskie. A seperate currency, the Skoskie Koruna, is used in Skoskie. It is the direct descendant of the original Holyn Koruna that was abolished in 1927.

Citizens of Skoskie are classified either as Holyn citizens or Holyn Overseas Citizens. When Skoskie rejoined Holynia in 2001, all citizens of Skoskie became Holyn Overseas Citizens by default. A process of claiming a qualifying connection to Holynia was neccesary to obtain Holyn citizenship. This usually required familial ties to, and/or residency in Holynia prior to 1927. Holyn Overseas Citizenship did not grant the same rights as Holyn citizenship. Holyn citizenship gave the right to abode and free entry in Holynia and Skoskie, while Holyn Overseas Citizenship only granted right to abode and free entry to the Overseas Territory.

The monarch is formally represented by the Governor General of Skoskie, who acts on behalf of the monarchy and issues Royal Assent to all local legislation. Skoskie is led by a Chief Executive, who in turn is elected by the Legislative Council of Skoskie. The Legislative Council is elected every 4 years, using closed party list proportional representation.

Skoskie was formally a Colony of Holynia, founded by the Holyn International Trading Company in 1824, until the Holyn revolution in 1927. From 1927 to 2001, Skoskie was an independent state ruled by the Holyn monarch from 1927 to 1947. In 1947, the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between Skoskie and Holynia meant the Holyn monarch dropped the title of "ruler of Holynia", reverting to "ruler of Skoskie". This lasted until 2001, when Holynia and Skoskie reunited and the Holyn monarchy returned to Holynia proper. Despite some calls for independence, Skoskie again fell under Holyn sovereignty as an Overseas Territory.

Foreign relations

Military

The Royal Holynian Defence Forces serve as Holynia's primary military force, consisting of the Ground Forces, Navy and the Air Force. Additionally the National Police, Coast Guard and the Border Guard are subordinated to military command in wartime. The Defence Forces receives a budget of $101 billion, which is roughly 4.7 percent of the country's GDP. The Defence Forces can call upon 347,192 active personnel, of which 131,245 belong to the Ground Force, 111,314 belong to the Navy and 104,633 belong to the Air Force. The military has relied upon volunteers since the 2001 abolition of conscription. Prior to that, all Holynians that reached the age of 18 were required to perform military service or alternate civil service for a period of at least 6 months.

The Defence Forces fall under the command of the Chief of General Staff who is subordinate to the Minister of Defence. In wartime, Ground Force and Navy command assume respective command of the National Police and the Coast Guard. Defence funding is provided through a annual act of Parliament called the National Defence Allocation Act, which proscribes a budget for the following year. Defence spending was, until 2005, dropping as a result of the fall of communism, however since 2008 the annual budget has grown at least 5% every year. Much of the budget has been spent on modernizing equipment, increasing troop pay, constructing new training and living facilities for servicemen and increasing readiness. Holynia maintains a strong state and private defence industry, dating back to before the communist era. This industry has since expanded with growing exports to foreign nations and a healthy domestic market.

Law enforcement and justice

Holynia has several, sometimes overlapping, law enforcement agencies. The Ministry of Public Security is the overarching public safety agency in Holynia. Its most prolific agency is the National Police of Holynia which handles day to day policing and investigations. Other national level policing agencies are the Immigration Service, which enforces immigration laws and State Security Service, which has counter terrorism and counter intelligence. The Border and Customs Service are also considered police, but have national defence duties as well. Sub national policing agencies include the municipal police services of the Autonomous Municipalities.

Holynia uses a hybrid of both common-law and civil-law principles with two chief courts, the High Court handling civil cases and the Crown Court handling justice, with the Supreme Court existing as the court of last resort, handling both civil and criminal cases. In addition to the civil and justice courts, military courts and special tribunals also exist in Holynia and handle cases brought by the Supreme Prosecutor of the Ministry of Defence. The Principality of Masovia maintains its own justice system, with Principle Court for civil cases and the Crown Court for criminal justice cases, with the Holynian Supreme Court in Cizekporok as its court of last resort. The Masov justice system is formed in a similar hybrid system like the national court system, however it does not accept a "not proven" verdict in criminal trials. Along with this difference, the civil courts do not allow a jury system, with the sole verdict lying in the hands of the judge. The Principality of Hornatyia utilizes the national Holynian court system for both civil and criminal cases. In addition, Masovian courts are beneath the national Holynian courts, thus a verdict issued by a national Holynian court will affect a verdict issued by a Masov court.

Economy

Holynia has a developed, high-income market economy focused on exports of goods, services and resources. The country is a self-described welfare state, with significant state intervention in healthcare and social services, primarily through Holyn Health. It has been described by analysts as having a state capitalist economy stemming from significant government ownership in specific industries. Successive governments have stated Holynia is a free market economy. The Holyn National Bank conducts monetary policy and issues notes and coins of the Holyn Koruna. Holynia has been described as a energy superpower, holding the second largest coal reserves in the world, large coastal oil shale reserves, and significant mineral reserves. Holynia is also a major grain exporter, being the 4th largest grain exporter in the world. Holynia has a labor participation rate of 67.3% and a unemployment rate of 2.73%, both as of 2021.

Holynia inherited a centrally planned economy following the collapse of the Holyn Socialist States in 1998. This economy had been stagnating since the late 1980s, with little to no positive GDP growth. The first attempts at economic reform failed in dramatic fashion. After a depression of almost 2 years, reforms led by economist Ludek Horn returned GDP growth by 2001. In the 2000s, Holynia had the fastest growing economy of all the post-Communist states in Spero. In 2005, Holynia had surpassed its 1993 GDP record. Wages grew immensely, with unemployment reaching a low of 1.2% in 2008. Government reforms and anti-corruption efforts had encouraged increasing foreign investment during this period. In 2009, the service industry was growing at a rate of 4% per year. Holynia became a principal capital investor in southern Spero economies. Holyn funding was responsible for several large infrastructure efforts in neighboring countries.

The financial services sector in Holynia is the largest in central/southern Spero and the fifth largest on the continent. The largest cooperative bank in Holynia, Spořicíbank, is the third largest cooperative bank in Spero. Private banking grew at a rapid pace in the 2000s, surpassing the market share of state run banks. The government has divested the majority of its banking investments since the 2014 banking reform legislation. Vol Group a.s., headquartered in Cizekporok, is one the worlds largest insurance companies.

The Cizekporok Stock Exchange, trading as Cizekporok Exchange, originally started operations in 1851. It ceased operations in 1927 following the communist takeover. A new entity, the Cizekporok Stock Exchange, was granted the heraldy and lineage of the original Cizekporok Stock Exchange, starting trading in 2001. It grew to become the largest stock exchange in Holynia. The Cizekporok Exchange was credited with assisting in the privatization effort of the early 2000s.

Energy

Holynia's energy sector is dominated by Národní Energetika a.s., which is a public company with partial state ownership. NE is responsible for running major power production facilities such as coal plants and hydroelectric facilities. Several regional power companies exist in Holynia. Coal dominates the electricity sector, accounting for 41.2% of all electricity production in 2010. Holynia had a heavy reliance on coal power in the 20th century, which in the 1950s accounted for almost 70% of its power production. Pollution issues in the latter half of the 20th century led to a growing reduction in coal power usage, with hydropower and natural gas facilities being constructed. As of 2020, the Ministry of Energy reported that coal accounted for 37.5% of the electric production, 29.3% hydropower, 12% nuclear power, 7.8% natural gas, 4.3% oil, 3.9% solar power, and the remaining 5.2% was from a mix of other sources.

Transport

File:Holyland railway.jpg
A Class 450 high speed train, which can reach a maximum speed of 300 km/h, travels between Cizekporok and Uhrov.

Holynia maintains a radial road network consisting of 124,713 km of main roads and 11,519 km of motorways, out of a total of 1,119,791 km of paved roads. The motorways are the primary responsibility of the Roadway Directorate, meanwhile main road responsibility are split between the Directorate and local authorities. All non-motorway and main roadways are the responsibility of either local or private entities. Cizekporok maintains the densest road network in the country, along with the longest bypass road in the country. The M1 is the primary motorway between Cizekporok and Bystrica and has the heaviest usage of all motorways in the country. According to the Ministry of Transport, a total of 41 million vehicles were registered in 2012.

Holynia has an extremely dense railway network, with 41,387 km of railway in the country. 35,241 km are electrified at 25 kV AC, with the remaining being non-electrified. The railways fall under the responsibility of the national railway operator, Kráľovskej Holynske železnice (Royal Holynia Railway), which is a private company with the government transport ministry as the sole shareholder. Holynia Railways operates passenger and freight rail services throughout the country. National operator Masovia Rail operates intercity and local passenger services within Masovia. Several private coal companies operate their own private rail lines which connect to the national network. These companies occasionally operate services on the national network under contract by Holynia Railways. Holynia established its first high speed line in 1993 and since then the high speed network has grown to 3,109 km of the national network. Masovia Rail is presently constructing its own high speed line along the coast, utilizing both government and private funding, with service expected to start in 2017.

Demographics

Urbanization

Ethnic groups

Ethnic composition in Holynia as of 2019:

  Hornats (64.3%)
  Masovs (29.4%)
  Bogors (4.2%)
  Others (1.9%)
  Not declared (0.2%)

Language

Religion

Religion in Holynia (2019 census)
Religion Percent
Holyn Catholic Christian
68.5%
Protestant Christian
16.7%
Atheist
8.1%
Muslim
1.2%
Other
4.1%
Not declared
0.5%
No answer
0.9%

Health

Education

Culture