Leptis Magna-class aircraft carrier

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Leptis Magna-class aircraft carrier
LeptisMagnaNew.png
Class leader CVN-144 Leptis Magna
Class overview
Name: Leptis Magna-class aircraft carrier
Builders: list error: <br /> list (help)
Dar-es-Salaam Navy Yard
Mehmud-Tabnit Lagos Shipyards
Mehmud-Tabnit Oran Shipbuilders
Philosir Industries Dakar Yards
Kure Naval Arsenal
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
Utsuho Marine Technologies
Operators: list error: <br /> list (help)
 Carthage
GensokyoRepublicFlag.png Gensokyo Republic
GozenFlag.png Japan
Preceded by: Hannibal Barca-class aircraft carrier
Subclasses: Leptis Magna-class (export variant)
Cost: NSD$6.8 billion (FY2014)
In commission: 2 March 2010
Planned: 164
Building: 18
Completed: 36
Active: 36
General characteristics
Type: Aircraft carrier
Displacement: 116,500 tonnes (114,660 long tons)
Length: list error: <br /> list (help)
335.6 m (1,100 ft) (waterline)
361.5 m (1,190 ft) (overall)
Beam: list error: <br /> list (help)
41 m (135 ft) (waterline)
82 m (269 ft) (flight deck)
Draft: list error: <br /> list (help)
11.1 m (36.4 ft) (max navigational)
12.3 m (40.3 ft) (max)
Installed power: list error: <br /> list (help)
2 × IDOS Power Systems NCV4-C1S PWR (870 MWt, 320 MWe)
1 × United Nigerian PR-1400 gas turbine (100 MW)
Propulsion: list error: <br /> list (help)
4 × United Nigerian permanent magnet motors
4 × 4 m (13 ft) 7-bladed V7SN integrated motor-propulsors (320,000 shp, 240 MW)
2 × 7 m (23 ft) Voith Schneider propellers (40,000 shp, 30 MW)
Speed: list error: <br /> list (help)
34.5 kn (64.9 km/h) (max)
24 kn (44 km/h) (cruise)
Range: 50 year projected service life
Complement: list error: <br /> list (help)
Ship's company: 1,600
Air wing: 2,200
Mission personnel: Up to 400
Max berth capacity: 5,000
Sensors and
processing systems:
list error: <br /> list (help)
SW/ETS-971 X/S-band multifunction radar
SW/ETN-975 X-band navigation radar
SW/ETI-848 multi-spectal IRST
SW/ETC-1750 air control radar
SW/ETB-1772 landing aid radar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
list error: <br /> list (help)
2 × SR/EWS-654(AM1) electronic warfare suite
2 × Mark 40 Integrated Countermeasure Dispenser
Mark 111 missile decoy
SR/ENS-670 torpedo decoy
SSI-725 torpedo interceptor
Armament:
  • Missiles
  • Guns
    • 2 × 76 mm (3 in)/70 Mark 22 Rev. 3
    • 4 × 15.5 mm CRA-334 autocannon
  • Torpedoes
    • 2 × 400 mm Mark 37 integrated torpedo tubes
Armor: list error: <br /> list (help)
30 mm spaced steel box around magazines and engines
70 mm kevlar over magazines, engines, and bunkers
Aircraft carried: Up to 100 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters
Aviation facilities: list error: <br /> list (help)
4 × EMALS
4 × Deck-edge elevator (3 starboard, 1 port)
2-level hangar with 2 centerline elevators to hangar deck

The Leptis Magna-class is a class of nuclear aircraft carriers designed and operated by the Punic Navy. The class was designed as part of the NP21 program to replace the existing Hannibal Barca-class aircraft carriers in service and maintain Carthaginian power projection capability. The class is the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier design commissioned by the Punic Navy following the Hannibal Barca-class, with preceding classes such as the Syphax-class utilizing conventional oil-fired steam turbines for power. Due to their intended role, the class is considered a fleet carrier and is expected to provide air defense and strike capability for its accompanying battle group.

The Leptis Magna-class was designed as part of the NP21 program to incorporate lessons learned during the Northern and Pacific Wars and was considered a key centerpiece of the program. Navy projects and proposals to replace or substantially overhaul the Hannibal Barca-class encountered little support until the approval of the Leptis Magna-class and the new design incorporates a number of common features with other NP21 warships, including the NCV4-series reactor plant and the SW/ETS-971 multifunction radar system. The class is also designed to reduce manpower requirements and support costs, making the carrier force more economical to operate in the face of potential future budget cuts.

History

The Syphax-class is the last conventionally-powered fleet carrier class in the Punic Navy.
Artist's concept for the Hannibal Barca-class aircraft carrier.
CVN-95 Ashtartyaton Arvad underway in the Atlantic Ocean.
Class leader CRS Leptis Magna before launch.

The Leptis Magna-class is a product of the Naval Power in the 21st Century (NP21) program, designed to address perceived shortcomings in the previous Hannibal Barca-class nuclear aircraft carrier. Commissioned in 1972, the Hannibal Barca-class served in the Northern War alongside the conventionally-powered Syphax-class supercarriers and the smaller Libya-class fleet carriers, providing invaluable support to Ctsesiphon Pact operations against UEF-controlled Iceland and Greenland as well as against UEF attacks in the Iberian campaign. Despite several attacks directed against the carriers by European and Venetian air and naval assets, only one carrier, the Libya-class CRS Songhay was lost in action throughout the course of the war.

In July 1976, the Navy established a number of new investigative committees to sift through the vast amount of information collected from the war and recommend changes to design and doctrine to incorporate in future vessels. The Navy Aircraft Carrier Investigative Committee (NACIC) investigated carrier performance throughout the war, including the sinking of Songhay by the European submarine U-517 while returning to port in Gadira. In March 1977, after eight months of investigation, the committee issued its reports, citing several issues with existing carrier designs and doctrine:

  • Rates of ammunition and fuel expenditure as well as airframe attrition exceeded projected rates when operating in a high-intensity conflict. These issues created a significant burden on the logistics system and required carriers spend more time than expected undergoing replenishment, increasing their period of vulnerability and reducing on-station time. In particular, the Libya-class demonstrated issues maintaining expected sortie rates even in calm weather.
  • Designed provisions for cold weather operations were demonstrated to be insufficient, hampering Punic carriers versus their smaller Inuk and Russian counterparts. In particular, lack of crew experience and a shortage of de-icing equipment reduced sortie rates significantly.
  • Flight deck layouts demonstrated room for improvement, especially in terms of reducing turnaround times. Flight deck congestion caused by an inefficient elevator layout was also an issue.
  • Survivability for the 54,000-tonne Libya-class was reduced compared to that of the larger Syphax- and Hannibal Barca-classes.
  • A shortage of provisions for mission personnel such as naval infantry or other landing troops, limiting the ships' ability to serve multiple roles.
  • Required mission readiness rates were found to be difficult to maintain in practice in the newer Hannibal Barca-class, attributed to the class' newness and the Navy's inexperience with nuclear aircraft carrier designs.

As a result of these findings, a number of changes were made to the design and composition of the carrier force. While production of the Libya-class had already ended prior to the start of the war, the Navy cancelled the replacement Versemia-class fleet carrier citing issues with survivability and combat endurance. Production of the Syphax-class was ordered suspended after the completion of existing ships on the stocks, and all future construction would be of a modified Hannibal Barca-class. The Hannibal Barca-class design would be modified to incorporate suggested changes where possible, with the expectation that a new design, incorporating these changes at the design level would replace the Hannibal Barca-class in production by 1990. The first ship of the modified design, CRS Ashtartyaton Arvad, was laid down in 1979 and completed in 1981, and all subsequent ships have been based on this subclass.

Following the laying down of Ashtartyaton Arvad, Punic Navy admirals lobbied the legislature for funding for a new carrier design, provisionally dubbed the Large Survivable Attack Carrier (LSAC). Funding for the design was approved in 1981 by the FDP/CSU-controlled legislature, but the 1982 elections resulted in the formation of a new LDU/FC coalition which reduced defense spending in an effort to control the budget and reduce the national debt. Funding for the new carrier design was limited to design work only with no ships of the new class approved for construction. In 1986, the design was completed and proposed to the legislature, incorporating a number of changes including significantly increased fuel and munitions storage as well as a redesigned flight deck layout. With a projected price tag of $5.6 billion, however, the proposal was rejected in favor of an authorization for six more carriers of the modified Hannibal Barca design, to replace several early members of the Syphax-class.

The rejection sparked a heated debate in the Navy about the future of the carrier fleet in the face of continuing legislative opposition to further modernization. With the last of the Libya-class carriers reaching retirement age and the earliest Syphax-class carriers expected to be reaching retirement age within the next decade, a new design was considered necessary to maintain Carthaginian naval strength in the face of carrier proposals from the European Federation and Venetian Commonwealth. As a compromise following ongoing protests, the legislature approved another modified subclass of the Hannibal Barca-class, later dubbed the Frederick Johnston subclass.

Twenty more of the class were ordered through the late 1980s and into the 1990s, by which point the Pretoria Agreement had changed the political landscape in Carthage regarding defense spending. The Navy received funding for the Naval Power in the 21st Century investigative program in 1995, which included provisions for a new carrier design based loosely on the original LSAC proposal of 1986, updated with new technologies and to maximize commonality with other ships developed by the program. Nuclear propulsion was retained, but a number of other changes made, including significant reductions in crew size through improved automation and the integration of more reliable digital solid state electronics.

The completed design was approved in 2005 and laid down in early 2006, with a projected commissioning date in 2010. Due to a realignment in naming procedure, ships of the new Leptis Magna-class are named after cities rather than military heroes. 84 carriers of the class are projected to be built over the next 30 years, later expanded to 96 ships. In March 2008, the Carthaginian government signed an agreement with the Japanese government for the construction of twenty ships for the Imperial Japanese Navy, followed the next year by an agreement for four ships to be built for the Gensokyo Republic. Ships for both navies are to be built in domestic yards with certain components shipped from Carthage.

The first ship of the class, CRS Leptis Magna was launched in January 2009 and underwent her sea trials later that year. The ship was officially delivered to the Punic Navy in September, and following a period of familiarization and training was commissioned in March 2010. The first carrier in Japanese service was laid down in 2009 and launched in 2012, entering service in 2014 as Katsuragi.

Class differences

Following the laying down, construction, and commissioning of the initial series of ships, a number of minor modifications have been made to later ships in the series, beginning with CVN-156 Lakfakalle. For this reason, later ships are sometimes considered to be of the Lakfakalle subclass, although no official distinction is held. Changes include revised wiring layouts, a modified arsenal arrangement, a modified waste disposal system to address stoppages in the previous design, and the relocation of several machinery shops for better access. A more wear resistant flight deck material developed under the NP21 program but not ready at the time of first construction was also first installed aboard Lakfakalle and retrofitted to older ships including those of the Hannibal Barca-class.

Characteristics

The Leptis Magna-class has a maximum length of 361.5 meters (1,186 ft) and a beam of 82 meters (269 ft) at the flight deck, a moderate increase over the 333-meter (1,093 ft) length and 77-meter (253 ft) beam of the preceding Hannibal Barca-class. Despite a generally similar external arrangement, the Leptis Magna-class is based on the LSAC proposal of the 1980s, itself a clean sheet design, and is not based on the Hannibal Barca-class. Compared to the previous class, the hull of the Leptis Magna-class has a higher length to beam ratio, allowing for increased hydrodynamic efficiency. The increase in hull size was a result of the demand for greater endurance, requiring larger fuel bunkers and magazines, and for reduced turnaround times, requiring more space on the flight deck. The increase in dimensions resulted in displacement rising from the 100,000 tonnes of the Hannibal Barca-class to 116,500 tonnes.

Greater attention was paid to radar cross section than in previous designs, although later ships of the Hannibal Barca-class incorporated RCS-reduction features as well. Efforts were made to provide fairings for equipment that could contribute to radar returns. The reduction in size of the ship's island also reduces the radar cross section. Electronics and sensors normally mounted atop the island were largely consolidated into the Integrated Sensor Mast or directly to the island structure itself in the case of the primary multifunction radar. Exhaust venting for ship systems including the gas turbine incorporates seawater mixing and waterline-level release to reduce thermal signatures compared to previous ships, while the use of motor-propulsors reduces propeller noise.

Internal arrangements were modified to reduce manpower requirements and improve survivability. Magazine protection against shaped charges and explosives was increased through the use of layered baffles and improved compartmentalization, while the use of electric propulsion allowed for a significant rearrangement of the machinery to expand the depth of the torpedo protection system. A double-bottom protects the ship for most of its length, with a system of voids and liquid layers to dissipate impacts and explosive shocks below the waterline. The flight deck is made of high-strength steel and designed to resist both direct impacts and explosive shock, and is equipped with a spray-down system for cleaning and firefighting.

Powerplant and propulsion

The Leptis Magna-class is powered by a pair of NCV4-C1S pressurized water reactors each supplying up to 300 megawatts of electricity to the ship. Rather than a conventional geared propulsion system, the Leptis Magna-class uses integrated electric propulsion, with turbine output being converted into electricity via a series of generators. This electricity can be used for motive power through a series of motor-propulsors as well as for other onboard uses, including the EMALS catapult system and the electronics suite. The decision to continue using nuclear propulsion in spite of associated costs was taken due to the increased electrical demands of the catapults and electronics as well as the need to remain underway for extended periods of time in support of overseas deployments.

Each reactor, turbine, and accompanying generator is arranged into a modular pod constructed as a single unit and integrated into the ship during construction. The design of the powerplant also simplifies internal arrangements, eliminating the need for long shaft runs and gearboxes in favor of external motor-propulsors. A higher level of automation reduces the manning requirements for the NCV4-series reactors compared to the NCV2-series used in the Hannibal Barca-class. The redesigned core of the NCV4-series also eliminates the need for mid-life refueling, and the reactor has a rated lifetime of 50 years. A significant reduction in the number of valves, condensers, pipes, and other potential sources of failure coupled with improved electronic monitoring also reduce manpower requirements.

Auxiliary power is supplied by a United Nigerian PR-1400 gas turbine, providing up to 100 megawatts of electricity. Alone, the turbine can propel the ship at up to 26 knots, while also providing power to run the reactor coolant pumps in the event of a reactor shutdown. Fuel is normally drawn from onboard stores of jet fuel, but the design of the turbine allows for mulfi-fuel operation. With a full bunker, the turbine provides a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles (22,000 km).

Electrical components are isolated in a zone-based system designed to minimize the possibility of cascade failure affecting the ship at large. A casualty power system also allows electricity to be manually rerouted in the event of damage to any specific part of the system, as well as to export power for shore use.

Propulsion is provided by four 4.4-meter (14 ft) integrated motor-propulors. The use of motor-propulsors removes the need to house the electrical motors within the hull, freeing additional space for other systems. The class retains the same twin-rudder layout of previous aircraft carrier classes, and low-speed maneuverability is supplemented by a pair of retractable Voith Schneider propellers for use in constrained waters.

Sensors

Diagram of radar coverage using the dual band antenna system.

The Leptis Magna-class includes a suite of sensors designed for both self-defense as well as support of air operations. To reduce system footprint and duplication of components, all of the ship's sensors are managed by a single computing network using the Stele combat management system to provide feedback to operators. In common with other ships of the NP21 program and those refit within the last few years, the Leptis Magna-class is designed for easy replacement and upgrade of existing electronics, with fiber-optic data connections providing significant additional bandwidth for future growth and heavier use of COTS technologies where applicable.

The primary multifunction radar is the same X/S-band SW/ETS-971 radar used in the Johann A. Revil-class destroyer, mounted on the carrier's island. The primary X- and S-band antennae are responsible for volume search, tracking, and fire control functions for the carrier's onboard armament. The system includes one additional X-band antenna compared to the ETS-971 installation on the Revil-class and also includes the mast-mounted supplementary arrays responsible for surface search/tracking and gunfire control, relieving the primary antennae from these resource-intensive tasks. Like the Revil-class, the Leptis Magna-class can track up to 1,000 aerial targets at distances as far as 480 km (300 mi) and up to 950 km (500 mi) against ballistic missiles. An additional SW/ETN-975 navigation radar is also carried on the main mast, and can be used to supplement surface search capability.

In addition to the multifunction radar, the Leptis Magna-class includes two radar sets for air operations, the SW/ETC-1750 air control radar and the SW/ETB-1772 landing air radar. The ETC-1750 provides precision monitoring of the local area with lower output than the ETS-971 set while the ETB-1772 provides precise approach information for landing aircraft as part of the Defense Forces Approach and Landing System (DFALS).

Two SW/ETI-848 IRST modules are mounted on the island, providing full coverage around the ship and the ability to detect non-emitting or low-RCS targets that may evade detection by the radar suite. Connected to the combat management system, they are also capable of cuing self-defense measures in the event of such attack and have limited parallax ranging capability when used together.

Armament

Based on wartime experience, the armament of the Leptis Magna-class is significantly improved over the comparatively lightly-armed Hannibal Barca-class. Despite these improvements, use of the ship's onboard armaments is still considered a measure of last resort and the weapons complement is focused primarily on self-defense.

Missiles

Typical missile load (c. 2014)
Leptis Magna-class
  • 3 × 16-cell Mark 21 VLS
    • 96 × SAI-774 Sayaka short-range SAM (quad-packed)
    • 60 × SAR-778 Sakura medium-range SAM (quad packed)
    • 36 × Mark 111 missile decoy (quad-packed)

Three 16-cell Mark 21 vertical launch systems provide limited zone area defense for the Leptis Magna-class, with each cell capable of being quad-packed with either SAR-778 Sakura or SAI-774 Sayaka surface to air missiles. In addition, several cells in each system are fitted with the Mark 111 missile decoy, providing defense against anti-ship missiles. The Mark 21 VLS is limited to shorter-length SAMs and decoys and is not capable of carrying larger anti-ship or cruise missiles. Each VLS is housed in one of the ship's sponsons to maintain a clear flight deck for air operations. While lacking sufficient space in the Mark 21 VLS for larger missiles, the use of the SW/ETS-971 radar set allows the carrier to provide guidance for the full suite of Tarnhelm-compatible missiles

For point defense two Mark 99 rolling airframe missile launchers are mounted, one each on the starboard quarter and port bow sponsons. While normally tied into the ship's integrated self-defense suite, each is capable of independent tracking and engagement via onboard radar and IR sensors in the event of damage to the system or loss of separate control input. The distributed mounting location ensures full coverage of all avenues of attack.

Guns

Stealthed gunhouse for the 76 mm Mark 22 Rev. 3 naval gun, with two mounts per ship.

Two 76 mm Mark 22 Rev. 3 rapid-fire guns are carried for defense against light surface threats and to supplement the ship's point-defense capability. The 76 mm guns replace the 35 mm Buckler CIWS used in the Hannibal Barca-class. Each is mounted across the beam from one of the RAM launchers, on the port quarter and starboard bow sponsons, respectively. In addition to uses against surface threats including light boats, the guns also have sufficient accuracy and rate of fire to function in the point defense role against missiles, torpedoes, and aircraft. The mounts provide a maximum elevation of 85 degrees for use against high-altitude targets and maximum depression of -15 degrees for use against low-angle threats.

Each gun has access to 85 ready rounds stored on the mount with an additional 120 rounds stored belowdecks, with an automated reloading process to keep the gun supplied. Primary ammunition types include programmed airburst munitions for use against a range of surface targets, supercavitating rounds for use against torpedoes, and the guided DART round for use against missiles. The guns are housed in weatherproof mounts with stealth-faceted exteriors to reduce radar cross section, and can be brought into action from a cold start under ten seconds. As with the Mark 99 RAM mounts, the Mark 22 guns are distributed to provide even coverage across all angles.

Four mounting points are provided for CRA-334 chain guns, including power supplies for the motors. In addition, mounts for manually-operated machine guns stored in the ship's weapons lockers may be used for close-in protection against small boats, divers, helicopters, and other immediate threats. Additional handheld weapons are stored in the lockers for use by the crew, with space to house a full complement of infantry arms for embarked mission personnel if required.

Torpedoes

Two three-tube Mark 37 integrated torpedo tubes are mounted abaft the starboard elevators. The primary role of the torpedo tubes is to launch torpedo interceptors and countermeasures such as the SSI-725, but the tubes retain full compatibility with the SWT-740 Super Perseid light torpedoes stored for aviation use. The use of the newer Mark 37 torpedo tubes allows the launchers to be concealed when not in use, protecting them from weather damage as well as reducing radar returns from normal exposed launchers.

Aviation and boat facilities

Linear motor used in the electromagnetic catapult system.

The flight deck area of the Leptis Magna-class features several redesigns to improve aircraft handling and reduce manpower requirements and turnaround times. With an outward angle of 9 degrees, the angled flight deck allows for simultaneous launch and landing operations, although on deployment carriers typically operate in cyclic shifts. The reduced size and relocation of the island further aft and created space for a centralized rearming and refueling station, with munitions elevators also relocated to service this station. The reduced turnaround times are expected to result in an increased sortie rate for aircraft while decreasing the number of personnel required to move the planes between stations and to rearm and refuel the aircraft for launch.

Four electromagnetic catapults replace the steam catapults used in older carriers, designed to reduce maintenance and space requirements as well as allow greater flexibility to support lighter weight drones and other small aircraft which would otherwise be damaged by a steam catapult. In addition, the switch to electromagnetic catapults allowed for the elimination of the steam lines from the reactor to the flight deck as well as the steam reservoir for the catapults, instead replacing them with more flexible electrical cabling and capacitors. The arresting gear is also all-electric, using linear induction motors in place of hydraulic cylinders to vary the arresting forces to accommodate lighter aircraft. A crash barricade is also stowed for use in recovering aircraft in emergencies.

Diagram of the electric arresting gear system.

Like previous classes, four elevators are used to transfer aircraft from the hangar to the flight deck, located along the deck edges. Munitions are handled by a new automated system, significantly reducing the manpower required to move ordnance from storage to the flight or hangar decks using electric carts and a series of munitions elevators. Munitions can be stored and inventoried according to type and automatically retrieved by console inputs with minimal human oversight. Due to the larger hull, reduced crew size, and more compact reactor plant, the Leptis Magna-class carries 55% more ordnance and 70% more aviation fuel than the previous Hannibal Barca-class, increasing mission endurance and increasing resupply intervals.

Boat handling facilities include a concealed davit for small boats along the starboard quarter while larger boats can be handled by equipment mounted along the port quarter elevator. With the elevator raised to the flight deck level, cranes can be used to raise and lower small boats and cargo to the sea, allowing special forces teams to be deployed and recovered. Several small boats are normally carried, including RHIBs, whaleboats, and a captain's gig.

A separate mission space located below the hangar deck level provides flexible volume to support a variety of demands. The space may be used to accommodate additional aircraft or spares for surge loading, additional bunks and armory space for embarked mission personnel, medical facilities for humanitarian missions, or space for command and control purposes. The space is accessible from the hangar deck via two centerline elevators.

Air wing

The use of multi-role strike fighters increases the carrier air wing's mission flexibility.

While the Leptis Magna-class can accommodate over a hundred aircraft at maximum capacity, the standard carrier air wing in the Punic Navy is composed of approximately 92 aircraft. Depending on mission requirements, one strike fighter squadron may be substituted for a light attack squadron if the full capability of three fighter squadrons is not required. While underway the helicopter squadron may be divided among other surface vessels to support other missions, including logistics and anti-submarine warfare while remaining under the administrative control of the carrier air wing. The carrier onboard delivery aircraft may also be operated from land if required.

  • 2-3 × Strike Fighter Squadrons (24-36 × RFM-202 Shaheen)
  • 1-2 × Light Attack Squadron (12-24 × RFM-201TM Falcon)
  • 1 × Unmanned Strike Squadron (12 × UWR-300 Janissary)
  • 1 × Maritime Surveillance Squadron (6 × REC-50SR Cormorant; 4 × REC-280SD Cormorant)
  • 1 × Electronic Attack Squadron (6 × REC-280ER Cormorant)
  • 1 × Maritime Helicopter Squadron (12 × QMS-50 Gannet)
  • 1 × Logistics Support Squadron (4 × QTA-282CD Kingfisher)

Total: 92 aircraft

Surge loading may bring additional airframes and crews onboard to provide a buffer against attrition losses. In particular, an additional strike fighter, light attack, or UAV squadron may be embarked depending on mission requirements along with the personnel required to support them on operations. Additional stores of spares and equipment may be stored in the mission bay to support sustained operations.

Countermeasures

In addition to CIWS, the Leptis Magna-class incorporates a number of other softkill countermeasures for defense, ranging from decoys to electronic countermeasures.

Two SR/EWS-654 integrated electronic warfare suites are mounted on the ship's island to port and starboard, providing passive detection and active protection against incoming anti-ship missiles. The suites can also detect ships and aircraft at extended range through radar emissions and are connected to the self-defense systems to allow cuing of decoys and chaff in the event an incoming threat is not countered by the onboard jamming module.

The SR/ENS-670 towed torpedo decoy augments the active torpedo defense provided by the SSI-725 torpedo interceptor and the SDC-729 torpedo defense system, generating false active sonar returns to seduce incoming torpedoes away from the carrier itself. The decoy's onboard sonar also provides passive sonar coverage for the ship, allowing incoming torpedoes to be detected after the deletion of the proposed hull-mounted sonar.

A pair of Mark 40 Integrated Countermeasure Dispensers provide chaff and compact missile decoy functions tied to other elements of the onboard sensor network. Chaff dispensed by the Mark 40 can be used to counter multiple forms of missile guidance simultaneously to defeat multi-mode guidance packages and can be quickly replenished at sea. In addition, the larger, more complex Mark 111 missile decoy is carried in the Mark 21 VLS and uses a hovering rocket with onboard emitters and corner reflectors to simulate the electronic signature of the launching ship in order to seduce incoming missiles away from the target.

Crew and sustainment

The Leptis Magna-class introduces significant changes to crew berthing spaces, reducing the number of personnel in each space to bring the accommodations into line with those on other surface warships. Berthing areas are designed to be unisex to accommodate sailors of both genders in keeping with current regulations regarding the integration of women in the Navy. Improved acoustic damping and the new corridor layout reduces noise and foot traffic in the vicinity of the berthing areas, and separate crew lounges and common spaces are available. Berthing locations were also rearranged in light of survivability concerns to reduce crew casualties in the event of a missile or bomb strike.

The onboard air conditioning system was designed with room for growth based on past experiences demonstrating increased need for cooling power over the course of the ship's lifetime. Disposal of waste from the heads and the kitchens is to be processed through a new plasma gasification system to reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal, taking advantage of the ship's abundant electrical power.

Underway replenishment can be carried out via the ship's port side, for the transfer of liquids and break bulk goods and via vertical replenishment using the flight deck. To support the higher expected sortie rates and larger magazines, the Leptis Magna-class is equipped with the improved High-Speed Replenishment System, which can support 6 tonne UNREP payloads at the same rate as the previous system, doubling capacity per hour.

Operators

  •  Carthage
    • Punic Navy
      • 24 ships active, 16 building, 100 ordered
  • GensokyoRepublicFlag.png Gensokyo Republic
    • Republic Navy
      • 1 building, 3 ordered (as Imperishable Night-class)
  • GozenFlag.png Japan
    • Imperial Navy
      • 4 active, 1 building, 15 ordered (as Katsuragi-class)

See also

Related lists

Ships of comparable role, type, and era