Camia

Republic of Camia

Camia, 昭昌
Flag of Camia
Flag
Motto: vis et voluntas
/wiːs ɛt woluntaːs/
strength and will
Anthem: Blood of our forefathers
Map of Camia
Map of Camia
CapitalCooking / Tiung-kyaeng (中京)
Official languagesTyrannian, Shinasthana
Demonym(s)Camian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
A.B.
• Vice President
C.D.
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence from Themiclesia 
(Sept. 29, 1703)
• Din dynasty
1701
• First Republic
1745
• Second Republic
1823
• Military dictatorship
1899
• Second Republic restored
1915
Population
• 2017 estimate
19,254,200 (31)
• Density
69/km2 (178.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$758,394,000,000 (36)
• Per capita
$39,894 (17)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$690,188,000,000 (31)
• Per capita
$36,315 (21)
Currencyhyan (緍) (HYA)
Time zoneUTC+2
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
Driving sideright
Calling code+3
Internet TLD.cm

The Republic of Camia is a country on the western coast of the Halu'an Sea, in the western part of the continent Hemithea. It borders Suularko to the north and Novnoebiya to the west. The county has 19.25 million inhabitants, and its capital city, Tiung-kyaeng, is situated to the northeast.

Name

The capital city's name, Cooking, is an imprecise transliteration of the Themiclesian name Tiung-kyaeng (中京, lit. "middle capital"). Tiung-kyaeng was originally named Yen-k'ang (延康, lit. "prolong prosperity") under the Din Dynasty and the First Republic. It is a popular myth that the original name references the name of the Themiclesian capital Kien-k'ang (建康, lit. "establish properity"), signifying a cultural tie with Themiclesia, the metrepole of Camia during the colonial period. But Yen-k'ang, long before being capital city of Camia, already bore that name, so it is unlikely this name was chosen to depict Camia as a successor to Themiclesia. Nevertheless, this myth was taken as fact during the Revolution of 1799 and changed to Tiung-kyaeng, to sever the semantic connection to Themiclesia.

Geography and climate

History

Prehistory and early trade routes

Themiclesian rule

Under the direction of Emperor Tjaw-mjen (孟昭文帝, mrangh-tjaw-mjen-têgh, r. 620 – 632) of the Mrangh (孟, 543 – 752), Themiclesia began to fortify the trade routes its merchants treaded, establishing fortresses along them. During this period, these fortifications did not, generally, imply control over territory beyond the routes. In the following Dzi Dynasty (齊, 752 – 1020), these fortifications were used to establish military dominance over aboriginal societies in their vicinities. In 792, a marshalling of fortress troops overwhelmed the aboriginal coalition decisively at modern-day Keuruu, affirming Themiclesia's military control of much of the continent. On a pretext of registering natural resources, the Marine Prefect established an administration in continental Columbia that would last almost the next millennium.

In reference to contrasting architecture, some aboriginal nations called the Themiclesians the "People of the Wide House". Later in the Dzi Dynasty, the continent was split into two "routes", centred on the paths of trade: the area east of the Camian Mountains was called the Left Route, and west of it, the Right Route. In contrast with the Meng policy of appeasement and gift-exchanging, the Dzi regarded hostile aboriginal as non-human and commanded its forces to annexe their territories. This' was highly unconventional for the Themiclesian court, which generally prohibited regional military commanders from opening war autonomously.

Colonial administration

In the 14th century, the Yi dynasty of Menghe expelled Themiclesians from their colonial possessions in Meridia, through the naval battles at Portucllia (1325) and Dubh (1352), and forced Themiclesia to end military ventures in the Meridian Ocean after the Siege of Kien-k'ang (1385). Limited to Columbia, the court built a regular army to address Casaterran incursions on the continent they still (partly) controlled, out of penal labour camps inmates, promising pardon and lands in the continent for 20 years of service. The lure of free land also attracted dispossessed Themiclesians to enlist. This army utilized the fortifications that dotted the trade routes, which connected communities founded by unsanctioned settlement. Once discharged from service, they received frontier lands organized into settlements.

As Secretary of Passes (備塞丞) originally administered modern Camia, the Colonial Army was entrusted with both its protection and administration. This quasi-military administration persisted for over a century until counties were formally established in 1506. Though conceptually a militarized colony for veterans, many Themiclesians still left their homes for Camia, where there was sufficient land to settle. The cession of ′An-goi (安和) to Hallia in 1536 may also have been a component the impetus for firmer administration to impede Hallian settlement. The Marine Prefect's administration was frequently in conflict with settlers of all nationalities, since its tasks involved expropriating resources from the entire continent.

While Camia was geographically disparate from Themiclesia, the government never established a prefecture in Camia, leaving the counties answering directly to the central government. Thus, the Colonial Army operated without civil oversight from magistrates. This has been connected to the Colonial Army's later hubris towards Camian government. As settlement by Sylvans, Hallians, and later Anglians intensified, the 17th century was one of increasing autonomy for Camia. Military decisions and supplies required immediately, resources from local bodies were increasingly diverted to the Colonial Army rather than the Themiclesian exchequer. Dissatisfied with demands from the central government, many colonists believed that they were over-taxed compared to metropolitan subjects.

In 1604, the first royal colony of Anglia was set up in the southern Camia...

Indepenence

The Anglian royal colony gradually expanded the territories it controlled northwards, sometimes coming into conflict with Themiclesians; however, their efforts were limited by a Themiclesian regular army stationed locally. The Themiclesians and Tyrannians concluded a treaty that prohibited the Marine Prefect from expropriating woods and minerals from the areas between Anglian settlements in the early 1600s, which meant increased demands on the areas developed and settled by Themiclesians. Of the three arms of government in Camia, only the army admitted officers of local rearing, while the civil administration and the Marine Prefect's officers were all imported from the metropole. This fact grew to disturb the newborn Camian gentry at the same time Tyrannian influence was recognized.

The Anglian colonists...

Kingdom and First Republic

After annexing the Anglian royal colony, the Compact declared Din Mang (known as Daniel Mang to contemporary Tyrannians), to be the King of Camia in 1701. According to Themiclesian historians, the new king received by proxy the rites of kingship according to Themiclesian tradition in 1703, an event recorded on the Gold Tub of Camia. In the same year, the Royal Constitution was promulgated to satisfy Tyrannian leaders that were concerned if they would become a discriminated class in the new kingdom; the document did not guarantee any civil liberties but did make provisions against "arbitrary government" that both Tyrannian and Themiclesian elites felt to be problematic. Nevertheless, the resulting form of government irritated the Tyrannians, as it ignored most of their demands even though not despotic.

The king led a government that historians most often describe as a simplified version of the Themiclesian one, eliminating many positions of little political import that are retained purely for tradition. The Compact did not form any official institution, but its members controlled most of the bureaucracy's arms. The king has a "certain ceremonial character" according to Camian historian C. Reading, who also says that the king had little power independent from the Compact.  

After a failed royal coup to wrest power from the the Compact in 1743, Tyrannian leaders advised that the Compact should be broadened to include themselves, who were under-represented in the government.

Second Republic

Military rule

Third Republic

Pan-Septentrion War

Modern period

Government

Constitutional laws

The Act of Parliament, 1934 provides that Camia is a unitary, presidential republic. Under the Second Republic, Parliament was sovereign, but in 1935, a plebescite was called to affirm that the sovereign power was vested in the whole body of citizens, and an effort to confirm laws of constitutional importance occurred. Amongst them were the Bill of Rights of 1757, the Local Government Act, 1824, the Constitutional Act, 1838, the Bribery Act, 1844, the Judicature Act, 1850, the Members of Parliament Act, 1856, and the Representation of the People Act, 1859. The constitution was codified into its modern form in 1953.

Executive

The president and vice president are together directly elected by electors under universal suffrage and serves fixed-length terms of six years; there are no statutory limits on how many terms a president may serve consecutively or in total. The candidates with most votes becomes president and vice president, regardless of the actual share of votes he receives. Candidates for the presidency and vice presidency must be at least 40 years of age and an elector. The president is head of state and government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, issues secondary legislation, appoints civil and military officers, and oversees the executive branch. While the vice president has few duties enshrined by the constitution, other statutes have imposed on him a range of duties.

Substantive administrative duties are carried out by a number of government departments, each of which is led by an officer appointed and dismissed by the presidnet. By convention, the chief officers of the government departments form the Camian cabinet, on which the president and vice president are co-chairpersons. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was regarded as unlawful for the president or vice president to enact major policies or issue ordinances without consultation with the cabinet, but this rule was broken during the Pan-Septentrion War. The modern constitution does not require consultation, though it would be highly unusual for the chief executive to omit it frequently. At any rate, the relationship between government departments and the chief executive is regulated by statute for the most part, so open disagreements are infrequent.

The Camian armed forces are regarded as part of the executive for legislative and legal purposess, as clarified in the constitution of 1953.

Legislature

The legislature of Camia is bicameral, with a higher house, the Senate, and a lower house, the House of Assembly. The constitutional laws do not limit the national legislature's powers, though the president may refuse to enforce laws if the Court of Appeal considers them repugnant to any of them. Bills must obtain the support of both houses to become statute. Once passed, the president may decide to return the bill for further discussion; if the legislature pass the bill again with a 2/3 majority, the president must enforce it.

Each of Camia's 17 counties elects two senators for a fixed term of six years. The Assembly is composed of members elected under the first-past-the-post system in single-seat constituencies, each with around 100,000 people. Members serve terms of three years. There is no limit on re-election for members of either house. Both houses are co-equal in their powers, except the Senate may not propose or reject bills of supply. Both houses elects their own officers, sets its own agenda and rules, and punishes offenders of its rules. Both are quorate with half of all members present.

The seat of the national legislature is the Houses of Parliament, though this is no longer the official title of the legislature. The Senate and House of Assembly occupy the west and east wings of the building respectively. In the tradition of the Anglian parliament, the Senate is themed in red, while the House of Assembly is green. Members of the public may visit either house, unless the house orders the galleries to be cleared of visitors.

Judicature

The constitution provides the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court, and courts of other jurisdictions that the legislature may establish. Unlike some other states but consonant with the nomenclature of both Anglia and Themiclesia, the Court of Appeal is senior to the Supreme Court. While the executive and legislative branches have been the topic of political reform, the judicature has been relatively stable historically, the Supreme Court tracing its history to the 1700s.

According to the constitution, the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in all civil and criminal suits unless provided otherwise by statute and appellate jurisdiction over all inferior courts established by the legislature. It has been debated whether the legislature could create courts not inferior to the Supreme Court, though the Court of Appeal implicitly denied this deciding that the Supreme Court had jurisdiction over the Court-martial of Appeal, even though it was not specified this way. The word "appellate jurisdiction" was originally limited to errors manifest, but since the 1950s it has become acceptable to dispute questions of fact before the Supreme Court.

The Court of Appeal has appellate jurisdiction over the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of Appeal is regarded as the most senior judge in Camia.

Judges and masters of the courts are appointed for life and protected against arbitrary dismissal and reductions in remuneration; however, they can be punished by higher courts for misbehaviour, without losing their status or income as judges or masters. Statutes maintain that certain qualifications are necessary for the bench.

Administration

Economy

Demographics

Culture

See also