Themiclesia

Themiclesia

震旦
Flag of Themiclesia
Flag
Anthem: Air of Curvilinear Clouds (慶雲歌)

Royal anthemAir of Mosses (南山有臺)
CapitalKien-k'ang
LargestGhap-bo′
Official languagesShinasthana
Recognised regional languagesDayashinese
Menghean
Hallian
Demonym(s)Themiclesian
GovernmentUnitary constitutional monarchy
Establishment
• Initial unification
265
• Current dynasty
1558
Area
• 
2,899,659.06 km2 (1,119,564.62 sq mi)
• Water (%)
4%
Population
• 2016 estimate
40 million
• 2014 census
39.2 million
• Density
10/km2 (25.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$1,902,000,000,000 (11)
• Per capita
$47,313 (5)
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
• Total
$2,035,000,000,000 (12)
• Per capita
$50,621 (2)
Gini (2015)25.7
low
HDI (2015)0.93
very high
CurrencyAuric catty (鎰, ′jik) ()
Time zoneUTCSMT +4–6 (West, East, Remote East)
Yes
Date formatmm-dd-yyyy (Gregorian)
RN-yy-mm-cc (official)
Driving sideright
Calling code+2
Internet TLD.tm

Themiclesia is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy situated on the east side of the Halu'an Sea. It borders Nukkumaa to the north, Polvokia to the northeast, Dzhungestan to the east, and Maverica to the south. It is typically received as stable, well-off, mid-sized country in Septentrion, rich in history and culture, which links it primarily to Menghe, though elements of other cultures are also represented. Themiclesia is internationally noted for its technological advancement and moderate foreign policy, though it is an active member state in multiple international organizations.

Name

The country's official English name, "Themiclesia", is far removed from its etymological origin. Themiclesia was under the rule of the Tsjinh Dynasty in the 300s, when Maverican merchants started to use Shinasthana as a portmanteau of Tsjens + -sthana (locative suffix); more than a thousand years later, Shinasthana was borrowed into Rajian as Thimestheni, when either clerical error or arbitrary phonetic Sylvanization, or a combination of both, resulted in its reading as Themiclesia in central Casaterra. As eastern and northern Casaterran nations were not influenced by this change, their names for Themiclesia remain Thimestheni.

Themiclesia originally existed without a permanent name attached to the nationality but adopted a new name as each dynasty came and went. Since the arrival of the Meng in 543, however, the name 中朝 (trjung-n′rjaw), "Restored Dynasty" came into general use as Themiclesia developed an identity disparate from that of Menghe, which was then governed by a series of nomadic rulers, whom the Liangs (and their successors) regarded as politically and culturally illegitimate. Meanwhile, to emphasize its legitimacy, names that originally referred to Menghe were also widely used by the literati to identify to Themiclesia, such as 中夏 (trjung-ghra′), "Restored Legitimate/Cultured Nation", and 中華 (trjung-ghrwa′), "Restored Illustrious Nation". On the other hand, the exonym Shinasthana was borrowed into Themiclesia during the 7th c., as 震旦 (tjelh-tanh), two characters roughly simulating the Maverican pronunciation but devoid of meaning. This name found more use in geographical and international contexts, while those stipulating political legitimacy were used in political contexts.

By the 19th Century, tjelh-tanh had overtaken the use of trjung-n′rjaw as a political name for Themiclesia, whose government gradually became less entrenched in the doctrine that it derived governing legitimacy as the inheritor of Menghean imperial legacy. Part of this detachment stemmed from the inevitable realization that Themiclesia would need to recognize the thriving and powerful Menghean state as a legitimate country in its own right, in order to establish much-needed diplomatic relationship with it; naturally, the name trjung-hngjawg, which explicitly denigrates Menghe, cannot be used in a diplomatic setting. Nevertheless, the term still retains some use in state ceremonies, where the Emperor is referred to as the Sovereign of the Restored Dynasty, instead of the Emperor of Themiclesia, a term not used domestically.

History

Themiclesia possesses a long tradition of written history, translated from its Menghean origins. A general survey of Themiclesian history typically relies upon official histories and anthologies, books by private authors, and non-academic records left by contemporaries. Traditionally, history is almost exclusively focused on the post-settlement part of history and the history of Menghe (which Themiclesia identified with), a growing portion of studies include archaeological material of prehistoric societies that inhabited the country.

Menghean settlement

The cultural group that forms the majority of the Themiclesian populace came from the Menggok culture, which was based in and gives its name to Menghe. Meng people settled in Themiclesia starting from the 8th c. BCE, first in pursuit of the region's lapis lazuli ores, prized by Menghean nobility. There is some evidence that early migration correlates to political stability in Menghe; during periods of disorder or weak governance, emigration (not necessarily to Themiclesia specifically) intensified. Individuals also returned to Menghe, suggesting Themiclesia functioned as a refuge in some contexts. The first waves of settlers were unaffiliated with the Menghean court, leaving little historical record. Menghe was under stable governance since the 3rd c. BCE until 278 CE, and the population in Themiclesia increased slowly during this time.

The fall of the Meng Dynasty in 278 to civil war corresponds with the first rapid expansion of the new country's population. Some researchers provide that Themiclesia may have hosted up to 1 million inhabitants to 278, though others halve or quarter the proposed figure. Menghe did not govern Themiclesia formally, and local communities, sometimes organized around extended families, functioned autonomously, though it seems organized leadership of a considerable number of Menghean-descent communities may have existed since around the start of the Common Era, whether for security against natives or other reasons.

Tsjinh (266–421)

The establishment of the Tsjins Dynasty (晉) in 265 precedes the fall of the Meng State by twelve years. In later reckoning, Tsjins' founding date was shifted to describe it as a successor state to the Meng Dynasty; this practice is no longer deemed acceptable. Tsjins' early governance remains mysterious due to the absence of systematic record-keeping and to later romanticism. At its beginning, a new government organized itself along Menghean lines, probably motivated by the first large clans to resettle in Themiclesia, escaping chaos in Menghe. These people have been thought to represent some prominent lineages in Menghean society, though most think it unlikely that the most prominent would trek as far as Themiclesia to avoid the war.

The figure Gwjang Du' (王導, 262–320) is central to the founding of the first dynasty. His clan arrived in Themiclesia, like many others, to escape turmoil; as is typical in Menghe, large estates were organized around a landed aristocrat, with free tenants, indentured tenants, men-at-arms, and slaves. Though Themiclesia was more peaceful, skirmishes occurred frequently between indigenous groups and settlers. Their disorganized distribution and expansion resulted in a patchwork with settler- and indigenous-held areas, which Gwjang criticized as unsafe and inefficient, requiring manpower be diverted from productivity to defence. Possibly weary of the civil war in Menghe, Gwjang suggested that leaders of various clans establish a state in lieu of the Menghean one to consolidate resources and establish unitary control over the settled portion of Themiclesia, which came to fruition in 265. The Sje-mra' (司馬) clan, being the one that settled purportedly before other major clans, was acclaimed as king, with the proviso that everything was to be "done as accustomed in the Meng court, except the Imperial title".[1]

Gwjang's proposals were met with general approval from leading clans, which conceivably desired a familiar social and political structure after a long exodus from their homes. However, the new state was starkly different from its antecedent in the inactivity of the government. Gwjang transposed Menghean institutions to Themiclesia with didactic fidelity, yet because the Sje-mra clan obtained the crown courtesy of the other major clans (and Gwjang in particular), the crown, by design, had no power over the same clans that initially created it. Many historians recall to Meng government in the 3rd c., where weak monarchs were routinely dominated by powerful officials, originating from aristocratic, educated clans that owned large tracts of land, providing financial backing to their activities at court. Moreover, that recently the total collapse of the Menghean state was triggered by an ambitious monarch attempting to restore power to himself, the clans may have seen an explicit and urgent need to maintain a monarchy unable to repeat what exiled them in the first place. The Tsjins sovereign has been analyzed as a "masterfully-crafted mascot, born out of a complex need for solace and nostalgia, featuring everything that they liked—and nothing they disliked—about the Meng crown".[2]

Pre-modern historians generally write of the Tsjins period as one of great cultural achievement, social stability, and a model for later dynasties. Some have criticized this image as romantic and connected it with later politics. Still others assert that social mobility during the Tsjins period was extremely poor, and a commoner, even one educated, faced insuperable barriers in seeking office. In any event, it is generally agreed that the Tsjins monarchy was little more than a figurehead, loosely styled after the Meng emperors though not so called at that time. Certain factors, such as the abundance of farmland, demarked Tsjins society from the norm in Menghe, where farmers were structurally forced to sell their land and become serfs.

Sungh (421–492)

The Sungh (宋) dynasty

Rjang (492–543)

Meng (543–752)

Being the first dynasty to bear the imperial title in Themiclesia, the Meng (domestically, mrangh) court encountered an unprecedented need to assert itself as a legitimate continuation of the Meng Dynasty of Menghe. This dogma was to define the Meng court and shape many of its policies. Immediately after the abdication of the Rjang monarchy, Emperor Ngjon, who fled to Themiclesia after his home state Chollǒ fell, began reforming the Themiclesia to support his rule, with mixed results. In his construction projects, the court support him, but in concentrating more power in the throne, the court resisted. The Chollǒ aristocracy that arrived with him possessed few resources to fortify him and were more interested in re-establishing their economic position locally. Moreover, in Chollǒ, they were accustomed to a nominal ruler and did not desire to see change. To Emperor Ngjon's chagrin, they and the Themiclesian aristocracy entered a stable relatioship and jointly dominated government.

Under the traditional paradigm, shared by the Themiclesian and Chollǒ aristocracy, a dynasty that enjoyed the mandate of heaven should see tribute from other states. In Ngjon's reign, under pressure to prove his legitimacy, his sent emissaries with gifts to natives in Columbia with promises of more largess if they appeared in Kien-k'ang with a token tribute.[3] While Ngjon never meant this as a permanent measure, aristocrats' reluctance to use military power confined the dynasty's future rulers to this measure. As the number of tributary states rose, expenses mounted. In the 8th century, these expenses sometimes amounted to 30% of annual outlays.[4]

Dzi (752–1089)

The Dzi Dynasty was established by Tong Kruh-djuar (董鋯陲) after a struggle for power during the minority of the final Meng emperor, Emperor Kjung (孟恭帝). In the respect of foreign relations, Dzi is remembered as a period of expansionism and intermittent warfare. Domestically, its politics was generally divided along the lines of the aristocracy (士族) and the commoners (庶族). The "commoners" refers to similarly-aristocratic, scholarly clans that have risen to prominence during the second half of Meng rule. A smaller faction sometimes surrounded the Emperor, that did not belong to either group. Conflict between these two groups and the Emperor's struggle for power, defined the Dzi court.

While the Meng emperor protected his position by strategically appointing aristocrats, often creating debate and inviting influence from the throne, the Dzi emperor actively circumvented his court in financial and military affairs. Organizationally, this translated to an expansion of the Inner Court. One key development is the institution of the Themiclesian Navy, incorporated from the merchant marine that existed under the Meng Dynasty, then having some diplomatic functions. The Navy, unlike the Army, was not funded by the Treasury or administered by the Civil Service, which were firmly under aristocratic control. Conversely, revenues from the Navy flowed into the emperor's privy treasury. Additionally, since the Navy posed no threat to the land-based aristocracy, they generally did not interfere with its operation, allowing the emperor to field them according to his whims. Under the third Dzi emperor, Hmen (齊昏帝, lit. "the moronic"), the Navy was able to subjugate, in 794, the Arokwa and Minuaka nations of Columbia and force them to pay tribute.

Drjen (1089–1341)

Modern Era

Rajians contact

The large maritime state that the Sung Dynasty governed suffered a catastrophic economic downturn that scholars now attribute to deflation of silver, and, under immature monetary policies, the governemnt issued banknotes leading to inflation in copper coins. Commerce became unprofitable, and the state's revenues sharply decreased. Starting in 1350, the outposts on the western coasat of the Halu'an Sea, which enabled overland commerce in what today is the Organized States, were subject to frequent raids from Rajamaan Yhdysvallat, and the cost of repelling them became a liability to state coffers; combined with persistent failure and recent conflict with Menghe, the government withdrew military positions in 1393. Meanwhile, the territories on the east coast of Columbia became more prosperous tailing the mainland.

Sylvans contact

Fleets from the Columbian west coast were repositioned on southern coast. The South Sea Fleet settled at Novio Porto in 1395. With waters alien to Vuortish pirates and better access to domestic resources, the Themiclesian Navy had more success halting the Rajian advance along the southern coast. In 1399, Sylvan merchants arrived to the amazement of the Port Corps; they were invited ashore to trade with both Themiclesian merchants and the natives. The presence of a second Casaterran power was received with excitement in Themiclesia, which could now trade with multiple states without crossing the tulmultuous Strait and braving piracy. Diplomacy between Sylva and Themiclesia began in 1410.

Mutualistic commerce persisted until a war broke out between Sylvans and Rajians for control over the OS interior. Sylvans requested for assistance from Themiclesia, and, deciding that competition between Casaterran powers may elicit better offers, the government sent four infantry divisions (with a strength of around 36,000) to the OS. Armed with Sylvan muskets and Themiclesian artillery and bolstered with native auxiliary forces, Themiclesia engaged Rajamaan in winter of 1596. To ensure logistical preparedness, the South Sea Fleet was ordered to ferry supplies across the Halu'an Sea, together with the North Sea Fleet. A stalemate ensued in mid-1597. The Sylvans suddenly attacked and captured Novio Porto; a small part of the South Sea Fleet investigated the incident, only to find the Sylvans firmly entrenched in the area. Citing natives attempting to eradicate them, they refused to admit Themiclesian administrators; the ships docked outside the port. The entire fleet later sailed south to apply pressure.

The lack of food and refurbishments prevented the Army from continuing fighting, while the South Sea Fleet arrived in Novio Porto to discover a reinforced Sylvan fleet in positions; later in 1597, the Army retreated to the large settlement near Clarkestown. In 1599, Themiclesian, Rajian, and Sylvan legates concluded the Treaty of Giaw-tju, which ceded Themiclesian outposts near New Erus City and Novio Porto to Sylva and the other one to the Rajamaan. The Themiclesian delegation reportedly claimed that the outposts were leased from native tribes and thus could not be ceded, the two other delegations denied the presence of any legal obstacles; the same treaty affirmed Themiclesian merchants' rights to trade there, upon a duty on the value of their sales. Relations were quickly restored to normalcy thereafter.

Tyrannians contact

Tyrannian settlers first arrived in Columbia in the early 1600s; unlike the others, more of them were settlers than traders. Disputes arose between colonial officials and Tyrannian settlers, whose sales were taxed. The Tyrannian colonists argued that they were already paying duties towards their own government, and being taxed again ran afoul of reason and their allegiance. The government was unable or unwilling to respond, and in 1635 a revolt occurred in Neng-t'jang. He expelled the rebels from the settlement and sent for further instructions from court, but that too fell on deaf ears; he watched the Tyrannians take over the entire settlement. Later, the court strip of office for incompetence, and his lieutenant, who managed to escape home, was convicted of misgovernance inciting rebellion. The loss of the settlement was used as ammunition for the view that maintaining administration there was an erroneous policy.

In 1656, a new policy was announced, increasing customs duties to remit the poll and land taxes. The official trade route in Neng-t'jang was to be re-opened by force. The fleet launched an attack on the Tyrannian-controlled settlement. After some success, the prime minister suddenly died, and his replacement ordered the fleet back home immediately. His policy created customs duties all maritime commerce passing into the Halu'an Sea and to split the resulting revenues with the Empire of Gavistia, in Maverica. This move was intended to create a lasting peace and a permanent trade route, over land, to Menghe. However, it also recreated the problematic double-taxing of Tyrannian settlers. The resulting conflict protracted over a span of four decades, Themiclesian settlements lost piecemeal to Tyran. The imperial court was not committed to defending holdings abroad but would not surrender them without opposition. By 1674, the last Themiclesian-controlled outpost was lost, ending the Themiclesia's administration in continental Columbia.

Ostlandian contact

Northern Maverica, then administered by to Themiclesia. An edict dating to 1733 permitted Ostlandic colonists to settle freely south of the river of Kim-shra. While the government treated the Ostlandic settlers as ordinary subjects, disputes soon arose over linguistic incompatibility (Ostlandic settlers were German-speaking). Ostlandic settlers in 1751 petitioned for the use of German as the lingua franca in all government proceedings relating to them; upon refusal, a rebellion fermented in 1755 in an alliance with a number of Indic city-states under the suzerainty of the Themiclesian monarchy. Temporarily able to prevent its expansion, the government opted for peace, fortified by its own alliance with a third party: the Empire of Gavistia would have a condominium with Themiclesia over the Ostlanders and the Indic city-states in the region, with common upper limits for taxation and provisions for administrative jurisdiction.

The Gavistia Empire disintegrated after internal strife later in the century, reverting to Themiclesia full dominion over the Ostlandic settlers. Egged on by the example of the newly liberated Columbians, in 1781, radical groups of Ostlandians began a guerilla war against Themiclesian rule, which was increasingly suspicous of both Ostlanders and Mavericans in the late 1700s. Measures prejudicial to locals were enacted in favour of Themiclesians, namely granted them a higher social status and sumptuary entitlements. The colonists pressed on with their strategy to avoid a full deployment from the metropole; during 50 years of intermittent warfare, government reaction bounced between suppression and placation. In 1838, an edict was passed, officially abandoning control over the north of Maverica, after the Organized States lobbied at court in sympathy of the Ostlanders; this was done in exchange for commercial rights with the OS.

20th Century

The closing years of the 19th century saw an increase in trans-Halu'an trade between Themiclesia and OS. Due to the composition of the government of OS at this time, official requests from that body towards the Themiclesian authorities increased in frequency; the government practiced a policy of maximal tolerance, believing that assisting the development of the economy in OS was ultimately to the interest of Themiclesian itself, not to mention a smoother diplomatic relationship in the short term. The permission of OS factories to be set up in Themiclesia, under attractive terms, was conceived by the government as a means to expand industrial infrastructure to less developed areas. In order to attract investment, the government also made several significant concessions, including allowing Columbian troops to be stationed in Themiclesia; while unsavoury for some contemporary commentators, it seems these sacrifices had paid off in the longer term. The outbreak of WWI further placed demands on Themiclesian industry, leading to increased output and employment. In order to facilitate better co-operation with OS, the government passed the Preservation of Civic and Political Institutions Act in 1894, which essentially made nationalism in Themiclesia illegal (the sovereignty of the government as a whole is legally protected); the Liberal Party has always appealed to rationaism and viewed nationalistic sentiment as an inimical ideology. In exchange for these policies, the OS government backed the Liberal Party in the elections between 1902 and 1930, with the notable result that the country during this period enjoyed a strong, stable, and Liberal government.

In 1931, the OS government was formed by a new president, who implemented what today is known as the "good neighbour policy". Under this doctrine the OS would cease its intervention in neighbouring countries, which in OS was openly practiced and admitted. In Themiclesia, OS presence and influence was regarded as legitimate by the populace, under the assumption that it would economically benefit the country, and, crucially, was permitted by the government. The withdrawal of OS troops in 1932 caused some anxiety in certain communities that had developed around servicing OS garrisons. 1932 was also election year, and in March the Liberals saw their majority wane to a paltry 2 seats, causing alarm within the cabinet. As an emergency measure to suppress oppositing ideologies threatening to expose Liberal complicity with some intercourse with the OS never meant for the public eye, the government passed the Preservation of Civil and Constitutional Order Act of 1932 (Apr.), making many forms of non-traditional thought officially illegal in public assemblies and political parties, extending to public speeches, books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, or simply any "medium of information intended for and made available to a public audience". The proscribed list included Marxism, Leninism, Fascism, Zayetism, and Anarchism; the existing ban on nationalism was amped up. It also directed the government to "suppress, arrest, and prevent all public assemblies actively altering or professing to alter the constitution of this country."

Meanwhile, the government also reinvigorated its list of planned social legislation, which were on hold since the late 19th Century due to certain provisions that interfered with OS industrial interests. Social insurance, medical grants, rural land grants, public pensions, and mandatory secondary education were all instituted within a short window; the sudden installation of these programmes strained the treasury greatly, but higher taxes were raised on corporations and high-income individuals as a counter-measure.

The operation of the PCCOA reached a zenith in May 1935, when a fascist demonstration burst into the imperial palace in Luok-yang, where ensuing suppression resulted in over 2,200 dead and more than 4,000 injured; parts of the country were in uproar over the government's decision. On Sept. 30th, a referendum was ordered, the first in this country's history, asking the citizenry whether they "affirmed or opposed the government's actions in May"; with still a sizeable majority by the government's side, the Prime Minister then pressed on with suppressing ideologies that contradicted the Liberal-Progressive coalition, which together accounted for over 90% of the seats in parliament, until the outbreak of the PSW. The implementation of PCCOA continued to draw criticism from domestic and foreign commentators, who thought this act enabled the government to crack down on anything, since Themiclesia's constitution, "if it actually exists, is not stated."

PSW

Post-war

As Themiclesia suffered comparatively little casualty and damage to its infrastructure in the PSW, it was well-placed to take advantage of the reconstruction wave. The nation's economy developed rapidly, in close conjunction with that of the OS, after wartime controls on capital were loosened in 1946. The pre-war contention over the repressive political environment abated in a national fervor for industry and innovation, and the stable, moderate policies of the post-war Liberal government continued to nurture the country's industries. Strong social programmes, which burdened capital and labour equally, ensured social cohesion, and the government's foreign policy of "integration" in the world seemed to support the emerging idea of perpetual peace, as the last remnants of enmity with foreign states were officially forgotten with free trade treaties signed with several powers. Starting in the 1950s, the government discreetly relented on its control over the nation's ideology. It should be noted that the PCCOA did not ban ideologies so much as prevented revolutionary rhetoric; private discusisons and academic debates (particularly in universities) were not forbidden. For exmaple, the Fascist Uprising of 1935 contained a demand to restore the Themiclesian Emperor to political power, which departed from Themiclesia's undefined constitution, and this was the principal reason why the government suppressed them.

Geography and Administration

Administrative Divisions


Government

The Themiclesian political system is a modified Hadaway-style government. There is no codified constitution.

Executive

The executive branch is the Government. As a whole, it is politically responsible to Parliament and ceremonially to the crown. Because the House of Commons is the dominant house in modern practice, the Government must be able to maintain a working majority in this house to remain in power; the same is not as true of the House of Lords, without a majority wherein the Government may still govern. The Government consists of about 100 ministers, whose tenures in office is wholly dependent on its ability to maintain the confidence of Parliament. It is responsible for enforcing laws and issuing ordinances that are required by primary legislation.

The Cabinet, or domestically Council of Correspondence, is a committee of the most senior members of the Government. While there are subordinate ministers within the Government, the Cabinet is a council of peers. Procedurally, any Cabinet minister may put forth a proposal to make Cabinet resolutions, which are binding upon the entire Government, but all members of the Cabinet must assent to give it effect. The prime minister holds slightly more influence than his colleagues. Without a department of his own, the PM oversees interdepartmental policy, granting him more weight in general discussions; over a specific policy area, the responsible minister is expected to be dominant. If a lone minister cannot assent to a policy, he is expected to resign. If he is the responsible minister over the disputed policy, he has the option of asking his colleages to re-start discussions or to wait for further information; this option cannot be abused. If the Cabinet cannot come to an agreement internally or with Parliament, the Government also resigns by custom. Such a situation is infrequent, as most governments are composed of like-minded individuals.

Legislative

House of Commons

The House of Commons, or Council of Protonotaries, are elected by the people and represents their will in the political process. Because of the principle of democratic government, it is the source of political legitimacy and the chamber to which the executive is most frequently held responsible. The modern Commons, having taken shape of a legislative chamber in 1801, consists of 210 members directly elected by the first-past-the-post method in single-member constituencies. Both candidate and elector must be above the age of 18, of sound mind, not an undischarged bankrupt, and not a member of the armed forces. Currently, scholars of politics describe Themiclesia to have, primarily, a two-party system.

House of Lords

The modern House of Lords forms, together with the House of Commons, the Parliament of Themiclesia. The House of Lords consists of the peers of Themiclesia. Members are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Emperor; when a member dies, the seat is inherited by his or her heir as part of the title. Since the House of Lords is not democratically elected, it is by convention less powerful than the House of Commons. The Government may continue to govern without its confidence because it does not have power to reject spending bills. Since the end of the Pan-Septentrion War, the upper house has never rejected a bill, but it retains the function of debating measures passed by the Commons. Since it is not elected, some believe its views are less politically-motivated and may reveal shortcomings in the Commons' decisions to the public.

Judiciary

The judicial branch consists of the House of Lords, the Court of Appeal, and other high courts headed by the Supreme Court.

Economy

The Themiclesian economy is founded primarily on the service industry, which accounts for over 64% of its national product; main services in which Themiclesia has a noted position internationally are those of finance, education, technology, business consultancy, and insurance. Nevertheless, the nation is still involved in agriculture and industry, but has focused, after the Pan-Septentrion War, on high value-added or specialized goods.

Agriculture

For most of its history, Themiclesia's economy was one of subsistence agriculture. Most dynasties openly promoted this form of production, sometimes even at the expense of suppressing commerce, as it fostered social stability and order by securing peasants to their land; this was further supported by land policies that protected a minimum allotment of arable land to each male and female subject. By the early 20th Century, high production costs meant it competed poorly with the industrialized agricultural market. Failing prices in agricultural goods forced many peasants to migrate towards the city, causing much unrest and tension, and also industrial wages to drop precipitously. In 1932, the government introduced a program to lease machinery to the peasantry, but it hardly made a dent until after the war. The traditional fishing industry also suffered a similar collapse, until an injection of funding in 1952 to modernize and revive it.

Modern agricultural in Themiclesia produces only a handful of cash crops, namely rice, wheat, and millet. The temperate climate of Themiclesia's heartland supports growing a wide variety of high-value cash crops, such as exotic fruits, premium vegetables, flowers, and spices. Themiclesia has a large fleet of fishing boats that utilize trawling nets to harvest the rich seafood that was previously inaccessible to manual divers and thus untapped. Further from coast, the natural current of the Halu'an Sea brings tuna and several other commercially viable species close enough to the coast that fishers do not need to brave the high ocean tides. Themiclesia's many long and peaceful rivers is also the reproductive habitat of salmon and herring. Inland lakes have sections closed off for the purpose of fisheries that produce halibut and sole, species suited to intensive farming.

Agricultural and rural tourism is now a hot topic and booming industry in Themiclesia. Service providers establish hotels and lodges in farming communities and provide the opportunity for tourists to acquire in-depth and hands-on knowledge of traditional agriculture; revenues from this industry is shared in co-operatives with the local community for perpetual development.

Mining and Industry

Themiclesia is particularly well-endowed in terms of mineral deposits that command value on the international market. Themiclesia, being home to an ancient civilization, has cultivated the use of copper, tin, iron, silver, and gold several millennia ago. With the introduction of modern technology, previously exhausted mines are being re-developed; many investors value them higher than new mines, as existing shafts and tunnels could be re-used, drastically reducing the costs of initiating operations. Of these, copper and tin are the most intensively mined metals in this country. While Themiclesia may be one of the first users of a blast furnace, which creates cast iron, a key component of steel, this has never developed into a steel industry in Themiclesia. This also largely applies to coal.

There are large uranium deposits in Themiclesia, located to the northeast of the nation.

Service, IT, and Finance

Demographics

Income and Income Distribution

Themiclesia produces roughly OS$1.86 trillion worth of value annually at the previous statistics announcement, for fiscal year 2018. Spread across the nation's population of 40.4 million, each citizen produces accordingly $46,000 of value; this is next to the Organized States of Columbia and (recently) Dayashina-proper. Income is distributed fairly equitably, with a Gini Coefficient of under 30.

Age

The average age of Themiclesians is 40, and this figure is set to increase on any ten-year outlook. The government is concerned if this trend is not corrected in the long term, but income shows a stronger correlation with age in Themiclesia than in other countries, as older people tend to be better-paid, which explains the relatively high retirement age in Themiclesia. The average retirement age in Themiclesia is 67.2 years.

Urbanization

Themiclesia is highly urbanized; over 80% of its population resides in urban areas. The most populous city is the capital city of Kien-k'ang, with a population of 2.65 million; counting the metropolitan area around it, around 8 million or 1/5 of the nation's population live close to the capital city. The second and third most populous are Ghwap-bo and Kwang-tshiu, each with 8 and 6 pepole residing in their respective metropolitan areas. There are 12 cities in Themiclesia with a population greater than 1 million.

Culture

Language

The official written language of Themiclesia is Shinasthana, though no law formally recognizes this. It is the de facto national language of Themiclesia, as it is the main language of instruction in primary and secondary schools as well as a mandatory subject in literature courses. This language belongs to the Menghic Family, sharing much of its vocabulary with the Menggok languages.

Aside from Shinasthana, various varieties of Menghean and Dayashinese are spoken natively by immigrants or their second- and third-generation descendants; they account for around 10% of the total population of Themiclesia. These two languages are also intensively studied by native speakers of Shinasthana, due to commercial and cultural relationships between these countries. Behind these two languages, Tyrannian is widely spoken as a second or third language by individuals of all backgrounds, but it is not usually a first language in Themiclesia. Rajian is spoken by a smaller but more distinct community residing in Themiclesia's far north, along the Nukkumaan border; formerly, it was farther north, but when Sngrak-tju was ceded to Nukkumaa in 1857, they decided to remain in Themiclesia.

Etiquette

Religion

Foreign Relations

Armed forces

Notes and references

  1. 群公慕君后之謙恭,行天子事而不稱天子。The many lords were moved by the modesty and conscience of the sovereign, who deigned to the tasks of the Emperor but refused the title of Emperor.
  2. Boulton 1995
  3. According to state records, a single blade of grass was acceptable as tribute, since grass was used in filtering alcohol used at the Emperor's ancestral temples.
  4. In 732, the Secretary of State for Finance wrote to the Emperor, "[...] may it please Your Majesty, to have pity upon your subjects, when half their remission to Your Majesty is exchanged for silk, gold, and artifacts, made by tireless artisans who are not compensated for their services, and shipped abroad for the enjoyment of barbarous princes. None can doubt Your Majesty's great stature amongst the states and generosity to foreigners..."

See also