The United Kingdom od Cheirol
The United Kingdom of Cheirol
|Largest city||Fort Daniel|
|Recognised national languages||English, French|
• Colonized by Cartier
• Incorporated Territory of Ibica
|January 1, 1701|
• Independence from Ibica
|July 20, 1750|
|379,119 sq mi (981,910 km2)|
• 2019 estimate
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
The United Kingdom of Cheirol (UKC), commonly referred to as Cheirol, is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy consisting of 10 Provinces and the self-governing capital city of Delacroix. The 7 contiguous provinces occupy the island of Cheirol of the Continent of Ibica, while the provinces of Louste Island, Saint Emile, and Fournier Islands consist of their namesake islands. The islands sit along the boundary of the Cortesia Ocean and the Bay of Albion.
The islands were initially colonized by the Cartier kingdom in 1505, and enjoyed a mostly peaceful relations with their occupiers until the outbreak of the Twenty Years War. In 1560, the Cartier royal family fled to the territory after losing the mainland, and their Haviland and Keflistan colonial possessions. Albion forces invaded in 1566, and the royal family fled the islands for Merona a year later, with local forces surrendering. Cheirol was exploited for resources under their Albionite colonizers for 150 years until Ibica federated in 1701. The federal government re-instituted a territorial government and brought back limited self rule. The territorial assembly created in 1722 is seen as the original starting point of the modern Parliament. As Ibica granted independence to former colonies, support grew for Cheirol to be included. On July 20th, 1750, the Ibican flag was lowered at government buildings, and Renaud I, a descendant of the Cartier royal family, was coronated as the first King of Cheirol.
Through to the 20th Century, Cheirol heavily relied on raw resource extraction and fishing, During the 20th century, large scale industrialization, facilitated by Ibican investment, led to the nation advancing greatly in terms of wealth and human development. Today Cheirol is a thriving parliamentary democracy with renown tourism, service, and banking industries. Cheirols schools, universities, and hospitals are consistently ranked as the best in the Ceralis Forum.
The land area of Cheirol is 379,119 square miles (981,913 km2). Cheirol is at the juncture of the Cortesia Ocean and the Bay of Albion. The main island is entirely south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the island of Saint Emile off the main island's northern coast.
Many fjords punctuate Cheirol's coastline, which is also where most settlements are situated. The island's interior largely consists of the Allard Mountains and river valleys. The major towns are the capital city of Delacroix, Fort Daniel, Rapides City, and Champion. The island of Saint Emile on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation, the city of Savannah. The country is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection.
Cheirol has a left–right multi-party system. Following the 2020 parliamentary election, the biggest parties are the centre-right Conservative Party, the Green Party and the center-left Labor Party. The Labor and Green parties form the ruling coalition with the centrist, anti-royal Republic Party. The other political party with seats in the Parliament is the far-right Cheirol First Party. The communist Peoples Party also occasionally holds seats in Parliament.
In 2020, Cheirol was ranked second in the strength of its democratic institutions and 1st in government transparency. The country has a high level of civic participation, with 81.4% voter turnout during the most recent elections.
Cheirol is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary republic. The modern parliament was founded in 1701 as an Ibican territorial legislature with limited authority. It has 100 members, elected every 2 years.
The prime minister is the head of government in Cheirol. In modern times, the prime minister is, by constitutional convention, an MP. The prime minister is appointed by the monarch and their appointment is governed by constitutional conventions. However, they are normally the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Parliament and hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the MPs.
The cabinet is appointed by the monarch after a general election to the Parliament; however, the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how to distribute its seats, under the condition that it has majority support in the Parliament. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves within a reasonable time span does the monarch exercise this power and appoint the cabinet personally.
The governments of Cheirol have always been coalition governments, with two or more parties involved, as no single political party has ever received a majority of seats in the Parliament. The extent of the political power possessed by the monarchy is disputed by legal scholars; several provisions of the constitution appear to give the monarch some important powers, but other provisions and traditions suggest differently.
Foreign relations and military
Cheirol is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. Cheirol's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions. The strategy of the Cheirol government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.
Cheirol was a founding member of the Ceralis Forum. Cheirol is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. Cheirol joined the Organization of Ibican States (OIS) in 1990 and hosted the OIS General Assembly in 2000.
Cheirol and Ibica co-operate on military campaigns and exercises and are each other's largest trading partner. Cheirol nevertheless has an independent foreign policy. Cheirol also maintains historic ties to the former colonies of Cartier and Albion, such as Merona and Keflistan.
The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 reserve personnel. The unified Cheirol Armed Forces (CAF) comprise the Cheirol Army, Royal Cheirol Navy, and Royal Cheirol Air Force. In 2013, Cheirol's military expenditure totalled approximately CD$19 billion, or around one percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Following the 2016 Defence Policy Review, called "Strong, Secure, Engaged", the Cheirol government announced a 70 percent increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. Cheirol's total military expenditure is expected to reach $32.7 billion by 2027.
Cheirol is a federation composed of ten provinces. In turn, these may be grouped into two main regions: Mainland Cheirol, and the Maritimes. Provinces have considerable autonomy, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Universal Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept fair between the richer and poorer provinces.
In 2007, Cheirol was the seventh-most productive country in the world per capita ($48,534). About 85 percent of total primary energy supply in Cheirol is derived from domestically produced renewable energy sources. Use of abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power has made Cheirol the world's largest electricity producer per capita. As a result of its commitment to renewable energy, the 2016 Global Green Economy Index ranked Cheirol among the top 10 greenest economies in the world. Historically, Cheirol's economy depended heavily on fishing, which still provides 40% of export earnings and employs 7% of the workforce. The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks and to falls in world prices for its main material exports: fish and fish products, aluminium, and ferrosilicon. Whaling in Cheirol has been historically significant. Cheirol still relies heavily on fishing, but its importance is diminishing from an export share of 90% in the 1960s to 40% in 2006.
Until the 20th century, Cheirol was a fairly poor country. It is now one of the most developed countries in the world. Strong economic growth had led Cheirol to be ranked first in the Ceralis Forums' Human Development Index report for 2007/2008. Nevertheless, according to the Economist Intelligence Index of 2011, Cheirol has the second-highest quality of life in the world.
Cheirol's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, including software production, biotechnology, and finance; industry accounts for around a quarter of economic activity, while services comprise close to 70%. The tourism sector is expanding, especially in ecotourism and whale-watching. On average, Cheirol receives around 6.5 million visitors annually. Cheirol's agriculture industry, accounting for 5.4% of GDP, consists mainly of potatoes, green vegetables, mutton and dairy products.
Science and technology
In 2018, Cheirol spent approximately $34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. Cheirol has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.
The Cheirol Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Since the 1990s, Cheirol's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite.
Cheirol has a high level of car ownership per capita, with a car for every 1.5 inhabitants; it is the main form of transport. Cheirol has 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads, 2,173 miles (3,497 km) of motorways and 213,750 miles (344,000 km) of paved roads. A great number of roads remain unpaved, mostly little-used rural roads.
Route 1, or the East Coast Highway, was completed in 1974, and is the main road that runs along the Cortesian coast. This highway varies between being a two lane rural highway in some areas, to a controlled-access freeway in others. Several links of the highway through the Fournier Islands and on to Saint Emile are made by ferries, since the straits are too wide to bridge affordably.
Fort Daniel International Airport (FDI) is the largest airport and the main aviation hub for international passenger transport. It serves several international and domestic airline companies. FDI is in the vicinity of the larger metropolitan capital areas, 119 miles north of Delacroix.
Mainland Cheirol has a moderately developed rail network, connecting every mainland province.
Delacroix International Airport (DLX) is the second-largest airport, located just 8mi from the capital center. DLX limited international flights, as well many domestic services.
Louste Airport (LST) and Picard International Airport (PIC) are two other domestic airports with limited international service capacity. There are a total of 103 registered airports and airfields in Cheirol; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas.
Renewable sources—geothermal and hydropower—provide effectively all of Cheirol's electricity and around 85% of the nation's total primary energy consumption, with most of the remainder consisting of imported oil products used in transportation and in the fishing fleet. A 2000 report from the University of Cheirol suggested that Cheirol could potentially convert from oil to hydrogen power by 2040. Cheirol is one of the few countries that have filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells. It is also one of a few countries capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at a reasonable cost, because of Cheirol's plentiful renewable sources of energy.
As of 2012, the government of Cheirol was in talks with the government of Ibica about the possibility of constructing Cheirlink, a high-voltage direct-current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries. Such a cable would give Cheirol access to a market where electricity prices have generally been much higher than those in Cheirol. Cheirol has considerable renewable energy resources, especially geothermal energy and hydropower resources, and most of the potential has not been developed, partly because there is not enough demand for additional electricity generation capacity from the residents and industry of Cheirol; Ibica is interested in importing inexpensive electricity from renewable sources of energy, and this could lead to further development of the energy resources.
The Department of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines. However, playschools, primary schools, and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the provinces. The government does allow citizens to home educate their children, however, under a very strict set of demands. Students must adhere closely to the government-mandated curriculum, and the parent teaching must acquire a government approved teaching certificate.
Nursery school is non-compulsory education for children younger than six years and is the first step in the education system. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994. They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.
Compulsory education comprises primary and lower secondary education. Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 16 years. The school year lasts nine months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. The minimum number of school days was once 170, but after a new teachers' wage contract, it increased to 180. Lessons take place five days a week.
Upper secondary education follows lower secondary education. Though not compulsory, everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education. This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996. All schools in Cheirol are mixed-sex schools. The largest seat of higher education is the University of Cheirol, which has its main campus in central Delacroix. Other schools offering university-level instruction include Louste University, University of Saint Emile, Agricultural University of Cheirol and Champia University.
An assessment found 84% of Cheirolians aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, 89% have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree. Cheirol's education system is considered excellent.