Theophylactus I Augustus

Theophylactus I Augustus
'Portrait of Napoleon I', studio of François Gerard, Pushkin Museum.JPG
Coronation portrait
Latin Emperor
Reign15 November 1846 – 25 October 1891
Coronation15 November 1846
PredecessorAndreas III
SuccessorJohn XIII
Born(1819-09-08)8 September 1819
Insula Saravi, Latium
Died25 October 1891(1891-10-25) (aged 72)
Palatium Purpura, Ascanium, Latium
Burial
Imperial Crypt, Castellum ab Alba
Spouse
Issue
Detail
HouseAnicius
FatherNicephorus, Duke of Ossonoba
MotherAnastasia, Princess Imperial
ReligionFabrian Catholic

Theophylactus I Augustus (Gaius Anicius Theophylactus Caesar Augustus Magnus b. 8 September 1819 – 25 October 1891) was the 118th Latin Emperor, reigning from 1846 until his death in 1891. He has been credited as modernizing Latium, and heralded as one of the most celebrated battle commanders in Latin history, with his campaigns still being studied at military schools. To this day, he remains one of the most celebrated imperial, political and military figures in Latin history

Theophylactus was born on Insula Saravi, where his father was a farmer and his mother a noblewoman of the Anicii family. The circumstances of his birth reportedly caused a rift among the family, which wasn't resolved until the 1830s. Theophylactus first joined the army in 1833 at the age of 14, after having lied about his age. By the age of 18, he was made an officer due to the influence of his grandfather, senator and nobleman Duke Constantine Ancius. In 1839, Theophylactus successfully defended the capital from the Imbrosian revolt, and was later involved in the brief Gelonian Revolution of 1842. Following his victory, he was appointed Capetan by Emperor Michael II, making him the youngest general in the Latin military.

Theophylactus rose in prominence since the Lihnidosi-Vardanan War, and later became heir presumptive to the Imperial titles after the 1843 Senate Grand Council, which saw his uncle, Andreas. chosen as the heir to the vacant throne. While the Grand Council had determined Andreas Anicius had the strongest claim to the throne, many had claimed to have chosen him due to Theophylactus's military prowess and the growing concerns of a unified Lyncanestria to the north in lieu of a protestant Gentry on the Latin throne. Theophylactus would eventually succeeded his uncle in 1846, and throughout his reign was widely considered a champion of the people. He benefited from widespread popular and senate support throughout Latium, but often struggled to convey legitimacy due to the circumstances of coming into the throne and of his birth. Theophylactus often worked to rectify this by strategic marriages and through religious means, including the Papal Donation.

Early Life

Military Prominence

1843 Grand Council

Announcement as heir

In November 1842, Emperor Michael VII passed away with no surviving children resulting in vacant throne. Initially, the Senate searched for the closest relative of the ruling Aemilii male line, but the search brought no positive results. The closest blood relatives to King Michael were members of the Ghantish imperial family as Michael's nephews and nieces – specifically Nathan II of Ghant. After debate in the senate, members sent a messenger to Ghish and inform Emperor Nathan that the Senate had not yet sanctioned his ascension to the Latin throne and royal titles. Nathan reportedly refused to accept the titles and instead proposed his younger brother Leo take his place. The Senate would present two candidates in late January 1843: Prince Leo of Ghant and Lord Andreas Ancius. Prince Leo was initially the favorite choice among many of the more prominent members of the Senate, most seeing him as the legitimate heir his mother being the sister of Michael VII, while others were hesitant to elect a Protestant as king. Those who were turned away by Leo's faith looked to Lord Andreas Anicius. Anicius, on his own, was an underwhelming candidate for the throne; he was already aged 56 years and having no sons of his own, while only being a cousin Emperor Silvester III. Though for many that supported Anicius' bid to the throne, in truth they supported his nephew Theophylactus, whom himself was the son of Anicius' niece and a farmer.

In the days leading up to the selection of emperor, Lord Ancius had been persuaded by his supporters to adopt Theophylactus as his son and name his heir to his titles and estates, which was done by mid-February. The debate continued until 11 June 1843 when the Senate had set the vote date. No majority was reached following the first two votes, with Prince Leo of Ghant receiving a plurality. In the third and final vote, the Senate elected Andreas Anicius, 11th Marchis of Karia to be emperor. On 12 August 1855 he was proclaimed Andreas III in Ascanium, and in his first appearance to the Senate made Theophylactus Prince of Youth and Duke of Ostia.

Reign

Papal donation

Government reforms

Marriages and children

Theophylactus was married twice over the span of his life. His first marriage was to Princess Galara of Gaemar, a Ghantish noblewoman and niece of Pope XXXX. The two were married in 1841 at Basilica d'Imbros in a ceremony performed by Pope XXX; Theophylactus was 24 years old. Theophylactus and Galara had four children over the course of their marriage, and were said to be deeply fond of each other early in their marriage, before rumors that Galara was suffering from what is now thought to be dementia. The couple had four children before Galara's death in 1869: John, was born in 1845; second son, Theophylactus, born in 1846; Michael born in 1850; and his final child with Candreva, Silvia, born in 1854. Theophylactus was said to have been devastated by Giovanna's unexpected death, even though memoirs and records dictate that she had been ill for the better part of 14 months prior to her death.

Theophylactus would remarry not long after Giovanna's death, when he wed Princess Charlotte of Vannois, the daughter of Emperor Charles XI of Vannois in fall 1869. Theophylactus and Charlotte were separated by 31 years in age at the time of their marriage, though according to members of court took to one another quickly. He and Charlotte had three children over the course of their marriage: Diana born in 1870, Anastasius born in 1872, and born in Maria born in 1875.

Issue

Name Birth Death Spouse(s)
By Princess Galara of Gaemar:
John XIII of Latium (1845-06-15)15 June 1845 9 June 1925(1925-06-09) (aged 76) Princess Alexandra of Ghant; had issue.
Prince Theophylactus, Duke of Catania (1847-08-29)29 August 1847 11 June 1897(1897-06-11) (aged 51) PLACEHOLDER; had issue.
Prince Michael, Duke of Callatis (1850-06-30)30 June 1850 22 June 1922(1922-06-22) (aged 72) 1st: PLACEHOLDER; had issue; 2nd: PLACEHOLDER
Princess Silvia of Latium (1854-02-05)5 February 1854 3 August 1944(1944-08-03) (aged 90) Prince Albert of Ghant; had issue.
Prince Anastasius, Duke of Ambracia (1857-05-22)22 May 1857 9 June 1944(1944-06-09) (aged 72) Princess Hélène of Lyncanestria; had issue.
Diana, Duchess of Rahdenburg (1860-06-22)22 June 1860 17 March 1937(1937-03-17) (aged 66) Heinrich III, Duke of Rahdenburg; had issue.
Anna, Despotissa of Mysia (1866-05-09)9 May 1866 22 February 1952(1952-02-22) (aged 76) 1st: John VIII, King of Keld; had issue. 2nd: George I of Mysia; had issue.

Legacy

Image

See Also