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Monarchy of Latium

Emperor of the Latin Empire
Imperator Latinus
Imperial
Imperial Coat of Arms of Latium (full).png
Incumbent
Constantine XX.jpg
Constantine XX
since 3 November 2016
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
Heir presumptiveDiana, Princess of Youth
First monarchGaius Caesar
Formationc. 200 BC
ResidencePalace of Augustus, Palatine Hill, Castellum ab Alba
Websitewww.imp.gov.il

The Latin Emperor (Latin: Imperator Latinus) is the head of state and chief executive of Latium. Officially the title of the monarch is Emperor, though it is common to use: Caesar, or Augustus (if bestowed the title). The first Latin Emperor was Gaius Caesar around 200 BC. The current Claudii ruling family first ascended to the throne in the 4th century, though only recently came back to the throne. The current monarch is Emperor Constantine XX.

The monarchy is typically composed of the reigning monarch and his or her spouse and children, and the entire imperial household which is comprised of staff and those who assist the monarch in carrying out their constitutional duties. On occasion, those not among the listed may be included due to the monarch's discretion regarding the composition of his or her household. The monarchy is always represented by the reigning monarch, his or her spouse and eldest children. Since December 2017, the monarchy is represented by Emperor Constantine XX, Empress Alazne, Empress Zoe, The Empress Mother, and Empress Marsella, The Dowager Empress; on occasion, Princess Maria will attend functions on behalf of the Imperial Family.

The Latin monarchy traces its earliest roots to the Latin kings of Castellum, Alba and later the union of Castellum and Alba. The first Latin Emperor arose after the union of Latin peoples in ancient Latium, which gradually grew to establish an intercontinental empire covering Belisaria to northern Scipia.

History

The position of emperor is one of the oldest in the Latin State, with its creation coming sometime around 37 AD, following the unification of greater Latium.

The role of the Emperor has shifted from one of power to weakness back to power, based on the individual ruling. Most often the Monarch held near absolute power; at other times, the monarch simply held the abilities that other nobles allowed. The 13th century was the initiation of the peerage system and hereditary Lord Palatinates, saw the monarch delegate powers to various nobles, though over time these titles mostly have merged back into the Crown.

Role in Government

Today the Emperor acts as the head of state and and nominal head of government. His many constitutional powers from the earliest days of the State have gradually transferred back to the Senate, but the position as Head of the Senate, allows the Emperor oversight into the legislative side of the Latin Government, along with his role as chief executive and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Monarchy in Belfras

From 1 January 1900 to 13 April 1945, the Latin monarch served as the nominal overlord of the Principality of Belfras through an oath of fealty. The Monarchy in Belfras traces it's origins to the Belfrasian Crusade in the 13th century, where Latin crusaders and settlers established colonies. The monarchy did not recognize a separate Belfrasian regal title until the Belfrasian Self Governance Act of 1895, which established a Prince of Belfras sworn to the Latin monarch, who served as Overlord of Belfras.

In 1945, this relationship changed as the oath of fealty sworn to Emperor Constantine XIX ended and a new oath was not sworn to Empress Diana Augusta, ending the overlordship of the Latin monarchs over Belfras.

Executive Powers

The Monarch serves as the chief executive, and shares many of the same powers as a president in a presidential system. The executive office consists of the immediate staff of the Monarch, including multiple layers of support for numerous policy advisors across both domestic, foreign and other topics, Imperial Counsel, and press office. These top aides and the Imperial Offices are headquartered at the Palace of Augustus in Castellum.

The Monarch holds the ability to direct the executive Imperial Office through executive orders that are grounded on constitutionally granted executive power. In rare instances, the emperor can rule purely through the use of what is called, Imperial Executive Decree, which is an executive order of a much high magnitude. Monarchs have the power to appoint any individual to his or her Council, including Magistrates, whom must be confirmed by the Senate.

Legislative Powers

The Monarch plays a key role in legislation by virtue of his or her status as Princeps Senatus (First Citizen of the Senate). This role enables the Monarch to have a voice in the legislative agenda, veto bills, convene and adjourn the Senate, and even introduce legislation. The Monarch continues to retain substantial political authority and activity in the legislative process.

The Monarch may, in his or her sole discretion, grant or withhold assent to legislation passed by the Senate.

Judicial Powers

The judicial power of the Monarch were curtailed during the reign of Diana Augusta, following government and judicial reforms through the Acts of Constitutional Reform and later the Curiate Assembly Reform Act of 1967. Judicial reform continued to allow the Monarch the ability to appoint judges, but limited its scope as those appointments must go through a two-step verification process, earning approval of the Senate's judiciary committee and then the Senate main floor. Securing Senate approval could prove a major obstacle for a Monarch that wishes to orient the judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. Monarch's may also grant pardons and reprieves.

Military and foreign policy abilities

The Monarch serves as the supreme commander of the Latin Armed Forces. For formal declarations of war the Emperor must seek the approval of the Senate, which is in practice a formality. The Emperor has ultimate responsibility for direction and disposition of the military. The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces (belonging to the Ministry of Defense) is normally exercised through the Ministry of Defense, with assistance of the Master of Soldiers.

Along with the armed forces, the Monarch also directs foreign policy. Through the Department of State for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense, the Emperor is responsible for the protection of Latins abroad and of foreign nationals in Latium. The Monarch decides whether to recognize new nations and new governments, and negotiates treaties with other nations, which become binding on the Latium when approved by a majority vote of the Senate.

Although not constitutionally provided, Monarchs also sometimes employ "executive agreements" in foreign relations. These agreements frequently regard administrative policy choices germane to executive power; for example, the extent to which either country presents an armed presence in a given area, how each country will enforce copyright treaties, or how each country will process foreign mail.

Titles, Styles and Honors

For most occasions a simplified title is used when addressing the emperor. This simplified version is "Latin Emperor". The traditional full title of the Latin Emperor is:

The Most Pious and Blessed, Serene and Noble, Unconquered and Universal, Latin Emperor, King of Castellum and Alba, Father of the Fatherland, First Citizen of Senate, Equal to the Apostles, He Who Commands the Tides of Our Sea, Ruler faithful in Christ, and Sword of Christ.

Sovereign's may be awarded additional titles to those above upon certain conditions. For example, when a reigning sovereign is born during the reign of their preceding father or mother "Born in the Purple" (Latin: Purpurogenitus) is often included. The most recent inclusion of this into the Imperial titles and styles was during the reign of Emperor Jason VI Augustus, who was born in 1963 during the reign of his mother. Any title not included in the official role of titles does not mean that the title has been abandoned only that a monarch simply has not included it to be used in diplomacy or matters of state.

It is acceptable and common to address the emperor simply as Caesar. It derives from the cognomen of Gaius Caesar, made famous as the first king of a united Latium in the ancient region of Alba. It was the preferred title of Latin monarchs following Caesar and into the Imperial era. Upon one's ascension to the throne, they assume the name "Caesar". For example, prior to becoming Emperor, the birth name of Constantine XX was Gaius Claudius Nero Constantinus Felix Laurentius. Upon his ascension, his name became Gaius Claudius Nero Constantinus Felix Laurentius Caesar Augustus. It is common practice to address the Monarch as ''Your Imperial Majesty'' upon first instance, and thereafter as ''Caesar'', and sometimes as "Augustus".

Title of Heir Apparent

Traditionally, the eldest son of the reigning emperor is afforded the title of Prince of Youth (Princeps Iuventutis), or rarely Princess of Youth, to designate their status as emperor-designate; most often conferred upon the individual once they are baptized. The heir apparent will also hold the title of Destined to be Emperor (Imperator Destinatus) once they are baptized. It is custom to award the heir apparent the titles of Duke of Galata and Duke of Alba upon his birth. Since the reign of Empress Diana Augusta, the title of Duke of Adrianople has also been bestowed upon the heir apparent at the Monarch's pleasure. In both the past and modern times, the use of the duchy is provided in order to provide funds for the heir apparent.

Should a monarch succeed to the throne without children or an heir apparent not being clear, the reigning monarch may confer any titles they wish upon the heir presumptive.

Succession Laws

Succession to the Latin throne follows male preference primogeniture. The law governs that a Monarch's sons and their lines of descent all come before that dynast's daughters and their lines. Older sons and their lines come before younger sons and their lines; older daughters and their lines come before younger daughters and their lines. This has been the accepted method of succession since the 1353 Acts of Succession, which have been amended by Imperial Decree at various times, most recently in 1843. A series of informal rules also dictate succession to the throne, dictating that one must also be: legitimate, Fabrian Catholic, and of Latin descent. The throne is never vacant, meaning that a new monarch immediately succeeds to the throne upon the death of his or her predecessor.

Formerly, in the event of the complete or near exhaustion of the Imperial line, past versions of the AOS allowed the Senate to call for a grand council to determine who the succeeding monarch will be, placing the throne in a temporary vacancy. While this is no longer valid law, the most recent instance of a grand council being invoked was after the death of Emperor Michael VII in 1842 where the Senate debated between the succession of Prince Leo of Ghant (Michael's nephew) or Alexander Anicius (Michael's cousin).

Any individual in the line of succession may disclaim their succession rights at anytime after reaching the age of majority. This is done by delivering a Notice of Disclaimer to the Master of Offices and Count of the Chancery, who then presents the Notice to the reigning Monarch. Any disclaimer only removes succession rights from the forfiter, and no then living children; however, after born children will not hold succession rights.

Sovereign's consent to royal marriages

By the Acts of Succession, all individuals holding an imperial title must obtain the Monarch's consent before marrying. Marriage without the emperor's consent disqualifies the person and his or her descendants from the marriage from succeeding to the throne – though this doesn't necessarily invalidate the marriage.

Treason

Under an 1843 Imperial decree, further amended in 1956, it is considered high treason to "endeavor to deprive or hinder any person who shall be the next in succession to the throne...from succeeding...to the imperial crown." The penalty if found guilty is execution by firing squad or hanging. Furthermore, it is considered high treason to murder or otherwise do or intend to mean harm to the heir apparent or his spouse. It is considered high treason to violate any female member of the Imperial Family, including spouses. If a dynast is found guilty of treason, he or she is barred from succession.

Residences

The Emperor's official residence in Castellum is Palace of Augustus, on the Palatine Hill. It is the site of most state banquets, investitures, Imperial christenings and other ceremonies. The Sovereign's official residence in Ascanium is Palatium Purpura. The emperor stays in Ascanium for at least one week each year.

See Also