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Federal Republic of Amandine
République Fédérale d'Amandine
Location of Amandine
|Official languages||Principean, Blaykish|
|Government||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
• Prime Minister
|Independence from Blayk|
• Belmont Revolution
|30 September 1796|
|12 May 1802|
• Treaty of Priscille
|2 November 1807|
• Confederal Articles
|17 January 1819|
• Current constitution
|9 September 1835|
• Treaty of Anne-Marie
|26 July 1836|
|3,318,987 km2 (1,281,468 sq mi) (1st)|
• 2020 census
|29.5/km2 (76.4/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$4.150 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$2.200 trillion (5th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 41.9|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.882|
|Currency||Amand Federal Livre (AFL)|
Amandine (Principean: Amandine, pronounced /æmɛndiːn/), officially the Federal Republic of Amandine (Principean: République Fédérale d'Amandine), and also known as the Third Republic of Amandine or R.F.A., is a sovereign state located in central Marceaunia Minor. It is bordered to the east by Rocia, to the south by Sainte-Mélitine, to the north by the Adrienne Sea, and to the west by the Rum Gulf. The nation shares a maritime border southward of Audonia. Amandine has an area of 3,318,987 square kilometres, divided into twenty provinces, and with a population of 97.8 million people. Its capital is Colette, but St. Laurine and Anne-Marie both possess larger populations. Other large cities in Amandine include Corneille, Ville de Belmont, Colombe, Nouvelle Marbonne, Nouvelle Valden, and St. Georges.
Amandine was originally inhabited by numerous indigenous nations since the fourth millennium BCE, prior to Auressian exploration in the 1500s. In 1510, the Imperial Port of Colette was proclaimed for the Kingdom of Vervillia by explorer Jean-Baptiste Amand II. While the territory's early population was staunchly Vervillian in its identity, the Blaco-Vervillian Union's formation in 1530 sparked a debate over the formal claim to the territory, which lasted until the late 18th century. The Blaco-Vervillian Union greatly financially and infrastructurally benefitted the Imperial Port of Colette, which by now had grown its territorial boundaries well beyond the initial founding site as the Low Crown Colonies. Between the 17th and 18th centuries, the Low Crown Colonies became a vital trade and economic hub for the Auressian Power, but restrictive mercantilist policies and a gradual loss of autonomy corroded the previously strong relationship between the territory and the motherland. Following the War of Tyrnican Succession and the defeat of Vervillia, the colonies were formally transferred to the Blaykish Chaudoir Monarchy without any colonial representation in the matter. The Blaco-Vervillian Union's dissolution from the war entirely severed the colonies' governmental connection to Vervillia, worsening the situation against the Kingdom of Blayk. Relations further spiraled under the succeeding Sarbeliard Monarchy as punitive acts were passed to suppress rebellions. The most notable and disruptive rebellion was the Belmont Revolution in 1796.
Independence was declared in 1802, being achieved in 1807. The Republic of the Amands, a directorial republic, took control of the former colonial holdings. From 1806 to 1809, internal violence between Blaykish and Vervillian citizens erupted into the culturally and politically transformative Belmont RevolutionNational Revolution. Following a coup against the Legislative National Body in 1809, the Republic of Amandine was established. In 1819, the Confederation of Southern Marceaunia replaced the Republic's government, eventually leading to the First Continental War. During the international war, the Second Republic of Amandine was temporarily established, leading to the the Constitution of 1835 that chartered the Federal Republic of Amandine. Since then, the country has maintained the same governmental structure as a semi-presidential republic. While Amandine was intertwined in regional affairs for the majority of its history, the nation became a global power from the Second Great War in 1943 onwards.
Amandine is a federal semi-presidential constitutional republic. It is a founding member of the Assembly of Marceaunian States (AMS) and is involved in numerous bilateral economic and diplomatic agreements with foreign governments around the world. Amandine has cultural, ideological, and economic spheres of influence (SOI) around the continent of Marceaunia Minor, southern Marceaunia Major, as well as island nations and territories in the Rum Gulf. It has a high military expenditure which is primarily allocated to the Federal Naval Division and Aviation Division. The nation is a founding member of the Assembly of Marceaunian States. It partners with numerous intergovernmental organizations dedicated to the development of global security and prosperity. Even though Amandine is not nuclear weapons state, the national government has expressed interest in introducing a program alongside its equipped allies.
Amandine is a developed country with the world's fifth largest economy by nominal GDP ($2.2 trillion) and the second largest by purchasing power parity ($4.15 trillion). It is a high-income mixed economy that is one of the world's largest breadbaskets, with a focus on agriculture, petroleum extraction, manufacturing (including technology manufacturing), and service, among other industries. Amandine has a very high Human Development Index (HDI) rating of 0.822, with concerning income disparity rankings. Amandine is a staunch protector of civil rights and conducts significant work towards the achievement of a high quality of life, both domestically and abroad. Additionally, the nation is well-regarded in terms of its education and economic freedoms.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Indigenous & Pre-Auressian History
- 2.2 Vervillian Contact
- 2.3 Low Crown Colonies
- 2.4 The War of Tyrnican Succession and Great Upheaval
- 2.5 Amand War of Independence and National Revolution
- 2.6 Confederation & the Continental War
- 2.7 Revival Period
- 2.8 War of the Adrienne Sea
- 2.9 Great Wars
- 2.10 Modern Period
- 3 Government & politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
The Vervillian colonial territory extending beyond the Imperial Port of Colette was formally titled the Low Crown Colonies, referencing their geographic location in relation to the mother country. However, colonial subjects, mostly from the agrarian and working classes, colloquially referred to the territory as the Land of Amand (Principean: Pays d'Amand). Although, the aristocratic classes largely used the formal name. The lower class title originates from early Auressian western hemisphere explorer Jean-Baptiste Amand II. Amand, a wealthy cartographer and philosopher who received a royal contract by the Vervillian Crown under Marianne II to explore the southern Hesperian Ocean and later survey the newfound coast of Marceaunia Minor. While historians have questioned his birthplace between Vervillia and Blayk, Amand's proclamation of the Port of Colette has enshrined him as the founder of Amandine and much of Marceaunia Minor society, as a whole.
Following 1875, The Vervillian-turned-Blaykish territory maintained the "Low Crown Colonies" title. However, as anti-Blaykish sentiment and a growing demand for autonomy grew, the commoner "Land of Amand" name became increasingly popular. During the Belmont Revolution (1796-1797), rebels' flags sometimes had the word "AMAND" painted or sewn onto them. Upon founding father Charles Belmont's refuge in Rythene to avoid treasonous prosecution, he and his followers picked up the Rythenean name for the colonies: "Amand Country." Once Belmont returned to the colonies in 1800, he remained inspired by the Rytheneans, using "Amand" as a point of solidarity with the peasantry to create a more widespread revolutionary identity. By the Body of War and Correspondence's declaration of an independent state in 1802, the Republic of the Amands was unanimously adopted to both craft a national identity separate from Auressian allegiances and to reference the Vervillian explorer in opposition to Blaykish rule.
Indigenous & Pre-Auressian History
Dating back to the fourth millennium BCE and possibly even further, Marceaunia Minor has been home to a diverse array of native civilizations. Humans likely migrated to the continent via passage from southern regions of Marceaunia Major, or what is now controlled by Audonia. While still a theory, researchers also believe that early sea faring groups from Demontean Ocean islands also entered the land. The multitude of native societies in modern day Amandine contributed to the well-documented interactions between them, largely contributing to river-based trade, cultural mixing, and conflict in the region. Chiefly among them, the Tainã-Kan Empire was the first to control a substantial territory, subjugating the minor native societies that fell within its domain. Lasting for centuries, the empire eventually broke apart into warring dominions that competed against one another. Historians categorized the Tainã-Kan Empire's collapse and subsequent period the Post-Tainã-Kan Shift. Lasting for over one hundred years, the Post-Tatankan Shift saw the rise of the Iara, Jacira, Ubirajara, and Waman Empires. These four civilizations, categorized as the Four Grand Dominions, existed in a near constant state of warfare, barring sporadic periods of peace. Eventually, the Jacira and Waman people culturally and genetically merged into the Maiarans. As the final great empire to predate Auressian colonial rule, the Maiaran Empire exerted control over vast swaths of northern Marceaunian Minor, even reaching into portions of the rainforests. The expansion of the Maiarans lasted around 150 years until the empire's dissolution in 1653.
A number of smaller civilizations simultaneously existed and flourished under and around the Maiaran Empire. In modern day Sainte-Melitine, a number of indigenous societies derived from the Tainã-Kan Empire, especially sharing a genetic and cultural heritage with the Waman people before breaking off into distinct groups. As they developed, these civilizations thrived and existed outside the realm of the the Maiaran Empire. Notably, the Tchatcha kingdom of Calquouin grew into an influential power.
Jean-Baptiste Amand II was born into a wealthy, royally connected family with long ties to the merchant profession. His informative years were spent in individualized education from regal, secular, and religious instructors that provided him with an extensive understanding of geography and mathematics. He eventually followed in his father's footsteps as a court-appointed courtier and merchant for a number of royal families. While he spent majority of his early work with royals from Blayk, Fortaine, and Vervillia, he became most financially associated with the Vervillians. His sharing of a humanist point of view in line with reigning queen Marianne II allowed for a blossoming relationship. Amand II gained greater insight into the court, which he leveraged when Marianne was succeeded by Thomas I who was far more critical of him. Using his accrued family and commercial wealth, Amand II rose to prominence after drawing the most accurate map of the eastern Galene Sea in 1501 and discovered the Archipelago of Hearts (Principean: Archipel des Coeurs) in the Hesperian Ocean near Sortenza in 1505. The island was named after the native red, pink, and white flowers that resembled hearts, with the wind gusts making the petals appear to beat.
After landing on the previously unknown island chain, Amand II became particularly interested in oceanic travel to the south. Like many of his contemporaries, he had spent the majority of his profession in the Galene Sea trading between coastal cities. Sea travel northward toward Rythene and Tyrnica was also preferred, due to the proximinity of the financially powerful Crowns. While others had traveled to southern parts of the Hesperian Ocean, Amand II believed that the Ocean promised more islands and resources than previously thought, along with gentler oceanic routes. Rather than through the rockier, icy, and volatile Breuvician Ocean that most Blaykish and Vervillian seafarers traversed, Amand II began to petition to his former Courts to chart out the southernmost areas of the Hesperian Ocean. While initially facing unanimous rejection, he finally received an agreement in 1509 with the Marianne II of Vervillia after presenting his map of the Archipelago of Hearts and drawings of other islands that he discovered in subsequent visits to the island chain. He also fabricated the size of many of the islands to increase their worth to the Crown. Marianne was pleased, and agreed with Amand's assessment that Vervillia's potential discovery of new lands would keep the country competitive in the burgeoning race to the western hemisphere. He eventually reached the New World after months of journeying, making landfall on small islands thousands of kilometers around the still undiscovered Marbon Island. On his first voyage, he and his men first reached an island he called "Promise" (Principean: Promesse). There, he discovered his first band of indigenous Marceaunians. He continued to island hop before returning to announce his discovery. He led four more explorations, each funded by Thomas I of Vervillia, with his second journey in 1510 most famously reaching the eastern coast of continental Marceaunia Minor. He would rise to even greater prominence after surveying for natural bays or ports, of which the continent was plentiful, while also coming into conflict with indigenous populations. He then established the Port of Colette for Vervillia. Thomas I made Amand II a viceregal representative of the territory for his contributions. His fifth voyage in 1526 was also notable for the charting of Conouco, modern day Sainte Baptiste. Illness prevented him from stepping foot onto the island. His notes to the Crown mentioned that he, in fact, did, but the historical record gives such credit to explorer Fidélias Tétreault in 1551. Amand II's health became grave on his voyage back to Vervillia, passing away two weeks before reaching the kingdom.
The discovery of eastern Marceaunia Minor, the Adrienne Sea, and parts of the Rum Gulf became widespread news over the early 16th century. Vervillia became the earliest and most financially dominant colonial empire during this period, but Blayk, Rythene, and Tyrnica would all fund successful explorations in the western hemisphere. In 1530, the Blaco-Vervillian Union formed, de factoconsolidating the colonial possessions under the Union, but in reality each colony remained under the administration of its respective monarchy. The Port of Colette, renamed the Imperial Port of Colette, transformed into a hub of economic activity as the region was developed by the Auressians.
The Maiaran Empire was seen as the most dominant indigenous power against the Vervillians on Marceaunia Minor. However, the combination of advanced weaponry, alliance networking with rival civilizations, and most impactfully, Auressian pathogens, led to the Empire's collapse in 1563. The disintegration of Maiaran regional power allowed for rapid expansion of colonies. Eventually, the Low Crown Colonies, with Colette as its seat of local governance, stretched into the more pastoral interior of Marceaunia Minor, before eventually touching the southern tip. The devastation of indigenous life underscored much of the 16th century, but pockets of heavy resistance held firm across the colonies. By the 17th century, forms of organized rebellion consolidated as remaining civilizations and tribes attempted to reclaim their lands. The 1716 War of Remembrance was the most violent eruption of violence, leading to early victories and the establishment of a collective known as the Kingdom of Caçapava. This small territory in the interior of the Vervillian colony of Maiara was burned to the ground in retribution, leading to the subsequent 1717 War of Remembrance that quashed the indigenous resistance and enforced strict colonial administration. Control over the indigenous civilizations in southern regions of the Low Crown Colonies was far more difficult at times, with a tradition of resistance never fully disappearing despite armed efforts by Vervillian and Blaykish farmers and soldiers to impose their will.
By the mid-18th century, Vervillia claimed the majority of claimed land on Marceaunia Minor, with Palia ruling much of the east.
Low Crown Colonies
The Low Crown Colonies were the collection of Vervillian–and later Blaykish–colonial possessions on Marceaunia Minor. Early under the Vervillian Crown and the Blaco-Vervillian Union before 1785, the colonial administrations enjoyed relative autonomy to pursue commerce and agricultural policies. The period of economic freedom allowed the colonies, especially on the coast, like Sainte-Marianne, Beaufort, and Nouveau Brençon to flourish in the developing region. The relaxed nature of colonization attracted private merchant companies to participate in the efforts. The Vervillian-based Far West Hesperian Company and recently established Adrienne Sea Company sought to expand their markets in the growing region, as well as become involved directly in the resource extraction process to maximize control of trade. The colonies of Beaufort, Sainte-Marianne, and Terre de Thomas were all privately chartered and approved by the Crown, under ultimate authority of the monarchy. The greater independence experienced by the private colonies attracted political and religious refugees. Others were attracted to the ongoing resource extraction boom, namely in cutting highly desired Pernambuco wood for dyes, minerals and silver, and crops. Exploitation of indigenous people became commonplace to undergo the process, oftentimes leading to conflicts with surrounding societies and tribes. The search for more resources also drove the colonial administrators to push their boundaries beyond the royal agreements. Border conflicts increased. The 1532 Clément and Sainte-Mélitine War broke out after Sainte-Mélitine Chief Administrator Fernand De Villepin issued maps that encroached on valuable salt mines in Clément. Clément intendant René Caillat, a second cousin of Vervillian ruler Thomas I, contested the claims by revealing his royal charter and deeming it to be superior to the private corporation's fabricated claims. Sainte-Mélitine colonists ignored the warning and began entering the mines, leading to open conflict. These inflammatory episodes were additionally facing scrutiny by Blaykish advisors in the Union; hence, the 1535 Acts of Consolidation passed, converting all Marceaunia Minor colonies into formal colonies of the Crown.
Now formally under complete Crown authority, each of thge Low Crown Colonies received an increase in monetary investment. The colonies soon garnered the status of being the "jewel" of Vervillia's overseas empire. Oversight by the mother country gradually increased to ensure that valuable raw resources were being sent directly to Vervillia for the monarchy's benefit. Mercantilist policies were enforced to limit the loss of any potential wealth to rival Auressian powers, like Tyrnica and Rythene. Piracy was frequent in the Adrienne Sea and Rum Gulf, but the Crown's more involved actions targeted the practice. Regardless, pirates took refuge in northern Marceaunia Minor small port towns, Audonia, and Saint-Baptiste. The colonial administrators, the intendants, frequently organized naval forces to protect merchant vessels. Land forces were simultaneously raised to secure farmers' plantations. Even with the royal policing, a tradition of military self-sufficiency was rooted in the colonies.
Each colony was run by a monarch-appointed intendant. Many had familial ties or had done a service to the Vervillian Crown to gain such a prestigious position in the overseas empire. Each intendant also had a council of advisors: some colonies gave the intendant direct power to select his advisors, while majority were chosen through the colonial legislatures. The colonial legislatures held a wide range of powers that mostly focused on the purse, while the intendant represented the colony and helped make armed decisions when necessary. While tensions occassionally rose between the two entities, the legislature's economic controls gave them an advantage. In times of extreme imbalance, however, the intendants could request permissions from the Crown itself. Some issues were raised directly to the Crown, but many were vested in the colonial royal judiciaries. The royal judiciaries representated the Crown's stances in each colony. Having the final word, they mediated disputes between the legislature and intendants, but typically being an extension of the latter due to their familial relationships to the monarch. Although they had sweeping authority, they were rarely used unless in dire situations, or the legislatures ignored the rulings. Alongside the royal judiciaries were the civil and criminal judiciaries that focused on interpreting the laws applied to subjects. The legislature appointed the judges as a means of creating representative forms of justice. On the local level, the colonies were subdivided into regions (later called counties) and further divided into communities. Departments overlaid the regions based on geography. The Departments operated as both region dispute mediators, facilitators of the law to ensure interregional compliance, and symbolically to connect subjects in public forums. The web of administration created a diversely run colonial regime that underwent continual change. Taxation codes were an area of complaint for system, with not each department levying taxes; yet, neighboring departments would raise taxes alongside the colony-wide, regional, and community levels. The ever-shifting borders of the departments and regions exacerbated the issue. Reforms were attempted, but intransigence by the colonial legislatures, intendants, and royal judiciaries prevented any lasting change.
By the 19th century, the colonies of Beaufort, Clément, Maiara-Jaci, Nouvelle Montingné, Nouvelle Avilême, Terre de Gaultiere (renamed from Terre de Thomas), Nouveau Brençon, Haut Matthieu, Baissi-Matthieu, Nanuq, Sainte-Marianne, Saint-Mélitine, and the Imperial Port of Colette were all developed polities in Marceaunia Minor. The centuries of colonial rule by Vervillia promoted an old-stock elitism from the Vervillian aristocrats who were the first generations of settlers since the early 16th century. They held many de facto privileges over the Blaykish colonial subjects, who made up the majority of the peasantry and working class. The middle and late 1700s saw a growing trend in Blaykish immigration and population explosions within the colonies that created new opportunities for social mobilization. Classical Perendism was already widely practiced in the colonies from years of religious persecutees escaping to the colonies. The peasant and upper classes both worshipped under the faith, but the latter used their local churches' influence to crystalize social status. The wave of Blaykish settlers further solifidied the religion's role in colonial life as more continued to flee from the Dicerate's ecclesiastical authority; conversely, Apolostic Perendism did exist among smaller communities of individuals who largely sought fortune in the colonies rather than finding refuge from religious persecution. The colonies remained very diverse culturally, ethnically, and religiously, so minor religions existed alongside the dominating presence of Classical Perendism. The newer waves of Blaykish colonists became entrenched in the merchant profession while those who became successful demanded titles and government appointments due to newfound wealth. The population demographic shift appeared to threaten the Vervillian colonial elite order, so tensions between the groups rose. In the 1785 War of Tyrnican Succession, Blayk and Tyrnica's victory over Vervillia led to the dissolution of the Blaco-Vervillian Union. In the New World, the Low Crown Colonies were transferred to Blayk as part of the treaty demands. Such a shift to Chaudoir rule became an immediate threat to the colonial Vervillian elite, advancing their beliefs that the Blaykish planned to overtake their positions of power. Vervillian farmers similarly feared that the newly wealthy Blaykish classes would overtake their farms and plantations, or outright steal the land without any ability to object.
Centuries of the colonial system were beginning to come undone. The competing factors of outdated mercantilist policies, unprecedented demographic shifts, regressive taxation models, and the dissolution of the Blaco-Vervillian Union radicalized portions of the population into vocal protest. The disseminating knowledge of liberal ideals from Auressia trickled through the Blaykish immigration waves, catalyzing the mounting frustrations toward the House of Chaudoir, succeeded by the House of Sarbeliard.
The War of Tyrnican Succession and Great Upheaval
During and after the Rythenean Revolution (1790-1793), stories from the veteran revolutionaries largely found refuge in the Low Crown Colonies. The conditions for ideological radicalization became more pronounced by the late 18th century, so the stirring of these attitudes was advanced by the success of the liberal republican revolution in Rythene. Ambitious revolutionaries traveled to the Low Crown Colonies to manipulate the mounting societal frustrations to stir a subsequent movement in the New World. Charles Belmont, a Beaufort-born aristocrat, lawyer, polymath, and sympathizer of the Rythenean republicans, joined academic circles related to the Rythenean Revolution while becoming friends with veterans who entered the colonies. He became a leading figure in the anti-Blaykish movement. Though, there existed grassroots rebellious activity. These locally organized riots helped inspire his call to action for greater rights as a royal subject. The educated elite who were overwhelmingly descendants of old stock Vervillians were largely disgruntled by the results of the 1785 War of Tyrnican Succession: Blayk gained formal control over the Low Crown Colonies, previously under Vervillian administration in the Blaco-Vervillian Union. The Belmont Revolution kickstarted in 1796 after support continually grew across the territory for a show of defiance against the alleged injustices of the Blaykish authority since the Blaco-Vervillian Union's collapse. The Vervillian aristocrats who feared Blaykish administration overrepresented support for the Belmont Revolution. The Chaudoir Monarchy gradually introduced privileges and immunities for Blaykish colonists, while antagonizing the Vervillians. The Low Crown Colonial Judiciary Act of 1789 was particularly egregious to the Vervillian aristocratic class. The legislation reshaped the royal courts for greater monarchical oversight. Now, the monarchy would grant direct lifetime appointments over the royal courts that would oftentimes be filled disproportionately by Blaykish mainlanders and colonial subjects alike. The shift in the courts' demographic makeup simultaneously restricted the colonies' prior right to select the judges and severed the historical intimate relationship between intendant and the royal court. Blaykish troop counts also multiplied to ensure the enforcement of Blaykish authority. The animosity worsened after the Sarbliard Monarchy introduced property reclamation practices that allowed Blaykish administrators to co-opt or, at times, transfer ownership of Vervillian shops, taverns, and inns. While Gilbert II initially planned to reduce the shipment and conscription of troops in the Low Crown Colonies, his advisers convinced him to maintain them. These policies seemingly vindicated the conspiracy of the Blaykish to upend the Vervillian way of life. Thus, the Belmont Revolution became a justified form of rebellion in the eyes of the once-non-violent and moderate leaning Vervillian elites.
While largely disconnected across the northern and central territories, the Belmont Revolution was the first semi-organized network of revolutionary activity among the colonists. More of a rebellion to defend the rights of the Vervillian subjects more so than a proper revolution, it has been classified as such due to its size and its being a critical first step in the New World's Great Upheaval. Rebellions preceding the Belmont Revolution were usually clustered among small agricultural towns. The revolution was initially damaging to the Sarbeliard Monarchy and their financial security after a few major ports were occupied by the rebels. Though, because it was largely disconnected via the sheer geographic size of the colonies and lacked widespread popular support due to its aristocratic nature, it only took approximately one year for the violence to be firmly suppressed. Many of the revolutionaries were hanged for their contributions to the effort while Charles Belmont and a group of other instrumental leaders successfully escaped to the Rythenean Republic and across Marceaunia. In Rythene, Belmont wrote extensively of his experiences that shaped his radicalizing political beliefs. Namely, he drew upon republican models from Auressia, antiquity, and indigenous democratic governing models to inform his own theory of liberal government. It was in Rythene that he and other revolutionaries called themselves Les Guillaumes, a reference to the famed first elected president of the Rythenean Republic. The Belmont Revolution originally sought to affirm the colonists’ rights that the Blaykish transfer of power undermined. With virulent opposition to the Sarbeliard Monarchy mounting, the concept of a distinct Amand identity would soon take formal shape. The colonial administrations were divided from the revolution. Some saw an opportunity to gain more political power against the Crown's authority through the movement, or were the very Vervillian elites who opposed Blaykish rule. The majority of administrators by this point denounced the violence in favor of petitions.
In the following years, the Sarbeliard Monarchy attempted to quell riots and civil unrest by instituting economic, social, and legal reforms: chiefly, the Immunity Act of 1799. The Act sought to give colonial leaders greater control over foreign trade, allowing them to cooperate with other national powers in Auressia beyond just Blayk. Many hoped that this would reintroduce cooperation with Vervillia. In reality, though, the Immunity Act of 1799 was never properly implemented and only benefited the Blaykish and merchant class, generating a deeper divide with Vervillian colonists, as well as further alienating farmers from commercial self-sufficiency. The Agricultural Privileges and Means Act of 1799 would further antagonize the peasantry and farming populations by placing quotas on cash crop production and bolstered the authority of regional administrators over access to farmland and trade. A series of anonymously published texts, titled “A New Ancient System” (Principean: Un nouveau ancien système) attacked the policy as an antiquated and punitive feudal system imposed on already-struggling farmers. Plantation owners in the Sainte-Mélitine colony were particularly impacted, along with farmers in the interior. A poor agricultural season in early 1800 accentuated their frustrations, causing the Act to be reformed in late 1801. Instead of these reforms quelling unrest, increasingly anti-Sarbeliardists saw them as failed, backhanded bandages over the greater societal fabric of a collapsing colony split between long-time Vervillian landed aristocrats and more recent Blaykish elites. Finally, the Marceaunian Emigration Acts of 1800 incentivized more Blaykish subjects to migrate and settle in the Low Crown Colonies. The Vervillian elites and merchants accused Blayk of attempting to replace the population with sympathetic Blaykish subjects and to drown the market with new, staunchly loyal Blaykish merchants. Blaykish-Vervillian relations in the colonies continued to spiral.
The reforms eventually became penal, when known anti-Sarbeliardists were imprisoned and indefinitely held without a fair or impartial trial. Colonial administrators became increasingly anxious, paranoid, and authoritarian. The Blaykish Civil War (1801) and Vervillian Revolution (1805) were the straws that finally severed relations. Charles Belmont and his Les Guillaumes also returned in 1800, where they saw an opportunity to inspire a second, more effective revolution that could bridge the Blaykish and Vervillian divide into a common national identity. During his four year refuge in Rythene, Belmont learned from revolutionary groups how to organize institutions that could effectively unite the people under a common cause. It also became common legend that the blue-white-yellow flag was inspired by the sight he described when returning to the Low Crowned Colonies’ northern coast, later painted and designed by fellow radical Frédéric Arthur: “Our great father Belmont entered the Port of Colette to a sea of magnificent blue waters with color as deep as his commitment to a free land. The sun above ignited the sky in a yellow reminiscent of the torch of liberty. This brightness reflected off of the port’s buildings, creating a white as pure as the people’s will. He knew, then, that Providence ordained the Amand nation.”
The collapse of the Blaco-Vervillian Union and the Rythenenean Revolution were the primary macro-drivers of Amand independence; they highlighted the distancing relationship between the Marceaunian colonies and the seemingly collapsing Auressian order driven apart by radical anti-monarchical movements. Increasing class disparities, tensions between Vervillians and perceived unrepresentative Blaykish rule, the lack of security through transitional borders, and depletive mercantilist policies that drained the Low Crown Colonies of their financial & natural resources with little in return also pushed the colonists toward independence.
Amand War of Independence and National Revolution
Upon the Blaykish Civil War’s outbreak in 1801, the Necessary Conscription Act of 1801 and the Royal Proclamation of 1801 came into law in the colonies. The former enforced a conscription policy where healthy men of age were required to serve in defense of the Sarbeliard monarchy against the proclaimed Blaykish Republic. Months later, the Royal Proclamation of 1801 asserted that King Gilbert II of Blayk held complete rule over the colonies, supplanting centuries of relative autonomy enjoyed by the colonists. Despite the proclamation claiming to "equate the rights of the colonial subject to his fellow man in the mother country," the colonial had fallen under martial law. Belmont and other outraged Vervillian aristocrats, as well as Blaykish colonists aligned with the Blaykish Republic, alongside the radicalizing farming class, rejected the augmentation in authority which they saw as a violation of their natural right to self-governance and association. Mass demonstrations against the Acts sparked bloodshed in the populated port city of Nouvelle Valden, where a public hanging was taking place for a serial draft dodger. After the crowd grew tenfold and became rowdy, one of the protestors, a female named Orianne Tremblay, threw a punch at an officer. Infuriated by the public humiliation and growing anxious by the intensity of the crowd, he grabbed her by the arm and dragged her to the gallows. The crowd then stormed the armed officers, leading to them opening fire. This incident inspired the popular Amand symbol of a woman martyr being hanged for the cause of liberty, despite the reality that she was never actually hanged. In the criminal trial for the soldiers, the offending officer stated that he had no intention of hanging Tremblay but rather to use her as a threat to subdue the protestors. The news of the Nouvelle Valden incident spread around the colonies, kickstarting the revolt.
Organized fighting began in 1801. The temporarily established Body of War and Correspondence declared the Republic of the Amands an independent sovereign state in 1802. The blue-white-yellow tricolor was unfurled and was to be used by all Amand revolutionaries in the National Symbol Standardization Act of 1802, the second official act passed by the Body. The Amandine War of Independence lasted until 1807. The war was characterized by both expelling royal Blaykish forces entering the nation and subduing the loyalist territories. The bloodiest battle of the war occurred in 1802 at the Battle of Colombe. In 1803, the entry of the Free Audonian Army into the war strengthened the Republic of the Amands' wartime capabilities. The Kingdom of Blayk had one final, major success in the 1804 Battle of Mathide, but the remainder of the war was spent by the Republic of the Amands exerting its occupation over the territories. As Blayk’s monarchy had been in exile in Tyrnica–its military stretched across the globe–the loyal regions in the Marceaunian Minor territory would eventually be snuffed out. Eventually by the later years of the war, fighting would quiet but little movement occurred diplomatically to bring about a conclusive treaty.Most large scale fighting had concluded by late 1805. The Treaty of Priscille (1807) formally resolved the war and resulted in the Blaykish Republic, Vervillia, and other Auressian powers recognizing the new nation’s sovereignty. It ended the House of Sarbeliard’s claims to the former Low Crown Colonies. The 1807 Treaty of Priscille was deliberately signed in the historic Amand city to assert the legitimacy of the new nation. The nation would sign a bilateral Treaty of Faith and Friendship with the Rythene Republic three days later, also in Priscille.
One year prior to the signing of the Treaty of Priscille, anti-Blaykish paranoia sparked an internal revolution. The National Revolution would spark a campaign of mob and state-sponsored violence against designated “irrepublicans,” “pro-Sarbeliardists,” and “counter-revolutionaries.” While in 1806, revolutionaries primarily purged Blaykish soldiers and public officials, a notable number of the Blaykish population would be imprisoned, surveilled, tried, or executed for alleged actions subversive to the Republic of the Amands in subsequent years. Occupied cities faced heavy surveillance by the Amand army, but the postwar years involved nearly every major urban center. Sainte-Marianne Politician Aymeric Bettencourt would famously write, “There does not exist a Republic of the Amands. We have created a Republic of the Vervillians, cut from the cloth of Marceaunia, to oppress the Blaykish.” The National Revolution continued beyond the War of Independence to 1809.
Ordered under Directive 18, read aloud by Body Member Grégoire Delaplace: "The Body of War and Correspondence hereby demands firm loyalty to the spirit of our Republic, to her sustained vitality among a unified collection of citizens, each endowed with sacred liberty and justice, that shall only remain existent with her enemies foreign and abroad extinguished. As the war against rebellious territories commences, in their existence contrary to nature, the People shall persecute any and all irrepublicans, counterrevolutionaries, and elements opposed to the Republic within her boundaries."
The National Revolution swiftly transformed into a nationwide panic defined by widespread radicalism, mob rule, and state-sponsored violence to keep the spirit of the War of Independence alive beyond 1807. Les matelots, L’Accord, and Les guêpes, the most radical political groups, advocated most openly for internal revolution. By the peak of the Revolution, anyone with Blaykish sympathies–whether legitimate or fabricated–faced criminal charges, deportation, and harassment. After the unexpected death of Charles Belmont by illness, most members of the Les Guillaumes were removed from power, with many executed or jailed. A number of cases of treason led to state-mandated executions. Belmont andLes Guillaumes were initially supportive of the revolution, but once the War of Independence concluded they became increasingly discouraged by the campaign of terror. Many of the party's ranks became vocal opponents of the radical groups that led to their systematic purging.
The National Revolution became a campaign against the Blaykish, more so than the Monarchy. By the most radical point of the revolution in 1807 and 1808, any ties to Auressian countries came under heavy surveillance. Vervillia was included. The hyper-nationalist ideology of “Sardouism” (Sardouisme) placed the Amand national identity above any and all past allegiances. Loyalty pledges became a standard requirement of citizenship. By late 1808, the Treaty of Faith and Friendship with Rythene would be severed as the nation declared itself totally independent of Auressian interests.
In 1807, the Body of War and Correspondence established a co-equal branch titled The Collaborative. This governmental branch was entrusted with designing ways to best assert an “ordered revolutionary fervor.” This translated to a near complete control of military logistics through a Commander-in-Chief. The increasingly paranoid government intended to channel the National Revolution against its perceived domestic enemies while simultaneously hoping that a continued wartime effort would promote a united Amand identity in the vast nation. Both branches undertook a cultural transformation of the nation. The Amand Calendar with “holidays of significance to the Amand People” was implemented; streets were renamed from Blaykish and, at times, Vervillian figures. A modification of Principean was attempted but never realized. Most prominently featured was “The Republican Organization,” a Perendist-styled faith that infused elements of the widely followed religion with Amand-specific canon, mythology, and holidays. Some members of the Body of War and Correspondence (renamed the National Legislative Body in 1808) debated about establishing an atheistic or Deist organized religion, but Perendism was deemed too vital to the identity of the Amand. Hence, a compromise was made to create a civic religion semi-operated by the state.
The National Revolution eventually lost its energy by late 1808 and into 1809, further accelerated by some of its greatest proponents eventually becoming its infamous victims. Much of this development is credited to the collapse in popular support, the National Legislative Body’s eventual attempts to dispel the Revolution’s mobs, and The Collaborative’s utilization of military operations to quash the chaos. In 1809, viewing the National Legislative Body as ineffectual and ideologically dangerous, The Collaborative undertook a coup d'état. This action was deemed necessary after the sympathetic Les foundations and L’Océan party members were all formally charged with treason to consolidate power among Les matelots and Les guêpes. The Collaborative hoped to establish lasting order through a more centralized, uniformly structured state. It maintained the directorial-style of government of the National Legislative Body. Many cultural revolutionary reforms would be abandoned, excluding the Republican Calendar and the Republican Organization. The National Revolution ceased by November of 1809, marked by the ascendance of the Republic of Amandine. Maintaining a semblance of order not previously seen since the turn of the 19th century, the Republic of Amandine underwent an interim period of repair to undo the revolutionary destruction.
Economically, the nation maintained its uniform tax system and regulation through the central government, but the Panic of 1815 from poor agricultural yields and a central bank run stunted economic development. The Republic took years to recover, creating the financial impetus for reform from the liberal wing of The Collaborative, which was now renamed the Legislative Collaborative under the Republic. The Republic maintained a more secure, albeit authoritarian rule for a decade before a liberal intellectual wave within the Legislative Collaborative sought to transform the government once more into one echoing the ideology of Upheaval liberalism. Mixing an industrial-agriculturally balanced economy and modern governmental structure with the liberal tradition of the War of Independence and Revolution, a Confederation of states replaced the Republic.
Confederation & the Continental War
Largely devised by the Committee on Charters, a subgroup of the Legislative Collaborative, and spearheaded by statesman and polymath Augustin Olivier III, the Confederation of Southern Marceaunia formed on 17 January, 1819. Through the Confederal Charter, the Republic of Amandine was dissolved to component states within the larger framework, with boundaries reflecting the historical colonial and republican borders. The Confederation of Southern Marceaunia was comprised of the State of Armelle, State of Sainte-Marianne, State of Beaufort, State of Clément, State of Maiara-et-Jaci, State of Tecumseh, State of Nouvelle Montigné, Nouvelle Avilême, Nouveau Brençon, Gaultiere, Matthieu, Nanuq, and the State of Sainte-Mélitine. The Capital District of Colette remained the designated national capital, although legislators debated over moving the capital to other cities. Candidates included a return to St. Laurine and St. Georges. The national name, “Confederation of Southern Marceaunia,” was intended to dissociate from the increasingly violent Sardouism that emphasized a strict Amand identity. Instead, citizens would officially be named “Southern Marceaunians.” The vast majority of people either continued to refer to themselves as Amand or as their regional polity.
Sectionalism gradually strengthened during this period. Other reforms were implemented, such as the Amand Calendar being temporarily abolished (before being reintroduced in 1824), the Republican Organization completely severing from the national government to be administered by local authorities (or, in same municipalities, not at all), and a non-uniform economic and tax system respective of the states. As states developed their own economic interests and policies, local leaders inevitably questioned the purpose of the Confederation.
The Crisis of 1829 saw the State of Armelle pass legislation to raise a “territory-encompassing army, in perpetuity for the moral and secure needs of Our Country.” The Crisis set off a chain reaction of internal problems: a state raised a standing army in an illegal manner in violation of the Confederal Articles. The neighboring State of Saint-Mélitine and Amandine responded with temporary militia formations on their own borders and jointly requested the Confederation to force Armelle to stand down. The Confederation, slow to respond, refused to send in the national guard after assessing the situation. Violence began to break out along the border as tensions rose with Armelle who was accused of raiding border towns for supplies. The Confederation eventually brought down the national guard, diffusing the situation. The Crisis of 1829 has been considered the nexus point of the coming Continental War.
As the incongruous nation’s condition worsened on economic, social, and political levels, the component states became disparate entities with few reasons to stay in a floundering pan-continental nation. Public calls for separatism became an advocated issue, particularly in the south and western regions. On 3 May 1831, the secession of Sainte-Mélitine propelled the Confederation–and Marceaunia Minor–into war. In 17 years, a liberal solution to an economically and governmentally rudimentary republic crumbled under its own self-imposed constraints. Without a strong national identity or the infrastructure to prevent states from accruing unreasonable autonomy, the Confederation collapsed under its own weight.
Considered the first major transnational war fought between modern Marceaunia Minor nations, the Continental War, also known locally as the Separatist War or War of 1831, was a large-scale conflict involving nearly every nation on the continent. The Continental War was an indirect culmination of the independence movements decades following the Great Upheaval. It followed the Confederation of Southern Marceaunia’s decline in authority as an ineffective government.
The Continental War was sparked in 1831 with the secession of Sainte-Mélitine, followed by the secession of Armelle and later into the conflict Lorena. With the Confederation of Southern Marceaunia’s military largely supported by the collective input of its member states, the separatists capitalized on the national military’s fracture. The Confederation of Southern Marceaunia maintained a widely spread national armed forces over its vast boundaries, but each state contributed significantly to its numbers for collective protection via quotas. Armelle and Sainte-Mélitine withdrew their military members and raised their own defense ministries. The CSM responded with force, leading to direct conflict.
As the war increasingly favored the separatists, even as they fought between each other, the national government passed the unprecedented Emergency Conscription Act, greatly expanding the individual states’ conscripts, as well as expanding an already existent national draft; the states also lost defensive autonomy for the greater confederation in order to make the war effort more consolidated. Lorena, having largely avoided direct conflict, was disproportionately impacted by the law due to the determined untapped number of soldiers available to fight. Armelle objected and froze all armed movements, causing the national government to respond with temporary martial law. The forces from Armelle were commanded to return to the state, eventually causing a skirmish between the national forces and the returning state soldiers. Armelle’s legislators effectively declared independence “in reaction to motions only considered contrary to the ideals of Our Confederation…To extinguish the flame of a dictator’s rule, One People must unite for the cause of liberty…We, the People of Armelle, hereby declare Her free and independent of any and all responsibilities formally aligned to the Confederation.”
Only two years into the war, the CSM was effectively defunct. An internal faction formed within the State of Beaufort, calling themselves the Order of the Statesmen who sought to re-establish a more centralist Republic, akin to the period of relative stability of 1809 to 1819. The Order grew in influence among other legislatures, gaining a majority in Sainte-Marianne, Clémente, Maiara-et-Tessouat, and Tecumseh. In 1833, the Republic of Amandine was declared, with a majority of states still within the Confederation joining. The Republic consolidated many of the dependent interior states much in the way Sainte-Mélitine was influential in the south. Its capital was Ville de Belmont, the capital seat of Beaufort. Additionally, it claimed the mantle of being a successor to the Confederation, not a secessionist government like the other breakaway plots. Armelle would capitulate to the re-established Republic of Amandine (historically categorized as the Second Republic) and Sainte-Mélitine. In 1835, the Republic of Amandine restructured its government into the Federal Republic of Amandine, where it largely abandoned the prospect of maintaining a continent-wide confederation for a more consolidated federal, semi-presidential structure. The Continental War officially ceased with the signing of the Treaty of Anne-Marie and the Treaty of Tétan Marangatou in 1836. Most notably, the Confederation of Southern Marceaunia was formally dissolved and the Federal Republic of Amandine was to recognize the independence of the freely declared governments: Sainte-Mélitine and Lorena. The occupied State of Armelle would receive temporary special designation in the Federal Republic as an Autonomous Federal State. All other former states of the Confederation would be retitled as provinces. Each province would be further split into local administrative departments. Financial burdens of the war, repayment for damaged and taken property, and the need to rebuild destroyed infrastructure would take precedence, alongside establishing the new federal government. The Order of the Statesmen, colloquially called the Statesmen, renamed themselves the Parti du Marchand (Marchand Party) in 1836, named after the War of Independence fighter of the same name who informed the political thought of many of the Order. The name would again change to the Unionist Party (Parti unioniste) by the 1840s. A prominent rival political faction named the Constitutionalist Party (Parti constitutionnaliste), alongside other congressional parties, would vie for power, laying the foundation for modern coalition politics.
The Continental War established the political, military, and economic framework for Marceaunia Minor’s nations until the War of the Adrienne Sea in the 1860s. Amandine would spend the coming years internally focused, with a sweeping program of infrastructural reform. The Continental War was also a jumping off point for many independent countries, including Sainte-Mélitine, now free to determine its foreign and domestic policy. While Amandine would not be in a position to pose a challenge for some time, it would maintain relations–ranging from passive to tense– with the breakaway governments through the 19th century.
War of the Adrienne Sea
The Federal Republic of Amandine came of the War of the Adrienne Sea as a Great Power in the New World. While the nation was publicly opposed to Auressian imperialism, especially in the Rum Gulf and Marceaunia Minor, Amandine refused to go to war without a direct attack or threat on her sovereignty. Simultaneously, Amandine was also a major trade nation at this point and would have been commercial partners with both the Coalition and the Galene League. It aligned more with the Coalition nations, however, providing more resources to Blay and Rythene compared to Tyrnica.
Amandine maintained a neutral stance for the majority of the war until 1911. Both repeated attacks on Amand supply shipments to Auressia and skirmishes in the lower Hesperian Ocean would shift the Federal Republic into the column of the Coalition Powers. However, the Audonian Port Crisis brought the conflict to Marceaunia, forcing Amandine into the war. Most of Amandine’s wartime efforts consisted of funneling funds and resources exclusively to these Coalition nations and severing ties to the Galene League, while also engaging in naval campaigns in the Hesperian Ocean. Amandine’s dominance in the War of the Adrienne Sea came largely from a modernized naval force, so this same force was similarly successful in the Great War. Ultimately, Amandine’s support role allowed it to secure Marceaunia Minor’s waters and the Hesperian Ocean for her Coalition allies.
Upon the Great War’s conclusion, Amandine found an opportunity to increase its global presence beyond Marceaunia Minor. Without conflict on her borders, Amandine’s newfound stability allowed it to lead Auressian rebuilding initiatives alongside other New World countries like Albrennia. Meanwhile, Amandine would have heavily aligned with the newly created Vervillian Confederation based on cultural ties, becoming a close ally to the union’s member states. Onward from then, Amandine began to expand its foreign economic interests to political and cultural interests beyond the continent.