Declaration of Universal Natural Rights
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|Declaration of Universal Natural Rights|
|Created||31st December 1937 to 13th December 1939|
|Ratified||16th December 1939|
The Declaration of Universal Natural Rights, or DUNR, was a joint declaration made by various states on the subject of natural rights, or human rights. It was a direct result of the horrors of the Great War, and was unprecedented, due to its universal scope, the wide-ranging rights it guaranteed and the support it garnered. It is considered customary international law, but often decried as violated.
The text of the DUNR follows:
Whereas everyone is endowed with reason and conscience, Whereas this naturally endows human beings with natural rights in exercise of this reason and conscience, Whereas it is necessary to state these rights in a universally proclaimed, accepted and practiced document,
As the representatives and governments of all people, the International Assembly declares:
Everyone is equal in the rights they hold, and is entitled unconditionally to all rights detailed in this Declaration.
Everyone has the right to the liberty and security of their own person.
Everyone has the right to freedom of belief, assembly and expression.
Everyone has the right to personal property.
Everyone has the right to be equal before the law.
Everyone has the right to freedom of movement.
Everyone has the right to living standards, or the opportunity to attain them.
Everyone has the right to contact with other people or the community.
Everyone has the right to a nationality.
Everyone has the right to remedies to violations of their natural rights.
The remarkable brevity of the document is because of the inability of the parties which wrote it to agree on exacting measures. To this end, it is open to a wide range of interpretations; for example, some argue that "living standards" includes sleep, while other countries leave sleep deprivation as a legal method of torture. The document was written before the existence of the internet; increasingly, Statute VIII has been thought of as relating to the internet, demonstrating the document's wide interpretative range.