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Community of Nations

Emblem of Community of Nations Esmeiran: Comunidad de Naciones Estmerish: Community of Nations Gaullican: Communauté des Nations Kirenian: Rahvaste Kogukond Rahelian: منظمة مجتمع الأمم Senrian: 반꼬꾸꾜우도우때 Soravian: Cообщество Націй Weranian: Gemeinschaft der Nationen
Emblem
HeadquartersKesselbourg City (international territory)
Official languages
TypeIntergovernmental organization
Leaders
Ekaterine Beruchashvili
Alessio Rosasco
Branko Tuasalamony
Establishment
• Charter signed
12 April 1935 (86 years ago) (1935-04-12)
• Charter entered into force
12 September 1935 (86 years ago) (1935-09-12)
Website
cn.int

The Community of Nations (CN) is an intergovernmental organization with the primary mission of maintaining international peace and security. The world's largest and most recognized international organization, the CN's mission also includes encouraging the development of friendly relations between states; harmonization of state action; protection of human rights; maintenance of international law; promotion of sustainable economic, social, scientific, and cultural development; organizing and delivering humanitarian aid; and safeguarding the environment. Its headquarters in Kesselbourg City are legally regarded as international territory.

The Community of Nations was established in the wake of the Great War by the leading members of the Grand Alliance with the aim of preventing future global conflicts. The CN Charter, signed on April 12, 1935, came into force in September of the same year. Membership is open to all sovereign states which agree to uphold the provisions of the CN Charter; the CN's membership currently constitutes all of the world's widely-recognized sovereign states. The organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its members.

The efficacy of CN efforts to fulfill its mandate of maintaining international peace have been complicated by international politicking by the world's major powers. Most operations have consisted of military observers limited to monitoring, reporting, and peacekeeping roles. In the past half-century, far more of the CN's budget has been spent on the organization's numerous development programs than on its peacekeeping efforts.

The CN has seven principal organs. These organs are the International Assembly, the organization's deliberative assembly; the General Secretariat, its primary administrative body; the Security Council, which handles matters of international security; the Economic Council, which handles economic issues; the Social Council, which handles social, cultural, and environmental issues; the Trusteeship Council, which oversees CN trust territories; and the International Court of Arbitration and Justice, which acts as the organization's judiciary. These organs, individually or collectively, oversee several subsidiary agencies, entities, funds, and programs, collectively known as the CN System. Additionally, the CN works closely with and can grant observer status to non-governmental organizations. The Secretary-General is the CN's chief administrative officer; this position is currently held by Ekaterine Beruchashvili of Vedmed.

Assessments of the efficacy of the CN have been mixed. Many have praised the Community of Nations as a venue for diplomacy and arbitration, a worldwide force for human development and human rights, and a successful attempt to stabilize a multipolar international system; however, it has also been sharply criticized as ineffective, bureaucratic, undemocratic, and corrupt.

History

Background

Formation

20th century

21st century

Structure

The Community of Nations has seven principal organs: the International Assembly, General Secretariat, Security Council, Economic Council, Social Council, Trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Arbitration and Justice. Underneath these seven primary organs are a variety of committees, commissions, programs, funds, agencies, research institutions, and other entities, which carry out various tasks on the CN's behalf.

All of these primary organs are headquartered in Kesselbourg City, Kesselbourg, with the exception of the International Court of Arbitration and Justice, which is based in s'Holle, Hennehouwe. Furthermore, certain major agencies are based at other CN main offices in [locations to be determined]. The official languages of the CN are Esmeiran, Estmerish, Gaullican, Kirenian, Rahelian, Senrian, Soravian, and Weranian; its primary working language is Gaullican. Vespasian was originally established as an official language, but lost this status after the Solarian War. The headquarters of the Community of Nations are regarded as international territory and the CN and its agencies are, under international law, immune from the laws of the countries in which they are based and operate as a means of safeguarding the CN's impartiality in international affairs.

International Assembly

The International Assembly is the deliberative assembly, and main policymaking and representative organ, of the Community of Nations. It is responsible for the CN's budget, appointing the Secretary-General of the Community of Nations and the non-permanent members of other primary CN organs, receiving reports from other parts of the CN system, and making policy recommendations by passing resolutions.

The International Assembly consists of one delegate from every CN member state, and is led by a president elected annually from among the organization's member states on a rotating basis. International Assembly resolutions are not binding except where they concern certain procedural matters, such as admitting new members, appointing members to councils and committees, and approving the CN budget. Non-binding decisions are made by majority vote, with a quorum consisting of a majority of delegates and each country receiving one vote; binding decisions, however, must be approved by two-thirds of attending delegates. Draft resolutions may be forwarded to the International Assembly by any of its subsidiary committees. The International Assembly is empowered to make recommendations on any matter within the scope of the Community of Nations, except upon matters of peace and security concurrently under consideration by the Security Council.

Chistovodian president Viktor Martynenko at the CNIA in 2020.

Subsidiary organs

The International Assembly has several subsidiary organs. These include the CNIA's standing committees, the Commission for International Law and Commission for the CN Civil Service, CN programs and funds, CN research and training institutes, and various boards and working groups.

The standing committees of the International Assembly are a set of permanent committees whose members are determined by the delegates of the CNIA from among the body's members. Six of these standing committees are considered "main standing committees"; these committees allow the CNIA to conduct oversight of the operations of other CN organs and to draft resolutions and recommendations concerning their respective fields. The Committee for Security and Disarmament is concerned with international peace and security and oversees the Security Council; the Committee for Economics and Finance is concerned with economic issues and oversees the Economic Council; the Committee for Social and Cultural Affairs is concerned with social, cultural, and environmental issues and oversees the Social Council; the Committee for Decolonization oversees the Trusteeship Council; the Committee for Legal Affairs oversees the ICAJ; and the Committee for Administrative Affairs oversees the General Secretariat.

There are two standing committees that are not regarded as "main standing committees". These are the Credentials Committee, which is tasked with ensuring that the diplomatic credentials of CN delegates and representatives are in order, and the General Committee, which is tasked with overseeing the operation of the International Assembly itself.

The CNIA is tasked with overseeing the operation of CN programs and funds. These are the International Development Program, which provides advice, training, and grants on various topics with the aim of supporting global development; the International Environment Program, which aims to coordinate global responses to environmental issues and climate change; the International Habitation & Shelter Program, which focuses on access to housing and sustainable urban planning; the International Food Program, which focuses on famine prevention and food security; the International Population Fund, which seeks to improve reproductive, maternal, and neonatal health; and the International Children’s Fund, which provides humanitarian aid and developmental assistance to children.

Furthermore, the International Assembly also oversees the operation of the CN's five research & training institutes: the Institute for Security & Disarmament Studies, Institute for Public Policy Training, Institute for Criminal Justice, CN Staff College, and University of the Community of Nations.

General Secretariat

The General Secretariat is the primary administrative organ of the Community of Nations and functions as the organization's executive branch. The General Secretariat has a wide purview and performs a variety of roles; it provides information and analysis for other CN bodies, organizes CN conferences, implements and enforces the decisions of the CN's other major organs, manages and directs peacekeeping missions, and communicates both with states and with non-state actors such as other intergovernmental organizations and the media.

To fulfill this broad mandate, the General Secretariat is divided into a litany of subsidiary offices and departments with specific purviews. The General Secretariat also operates several regional offices to increase the efficacy of its administrative efforts. The head of the Secretariat is the Secretary-General of the Community of Nations, the chief administrative officer of the Community of Nations, appointed by the International Assembly; the current Secretary-General is Ekaterine Beruchashvili of Vedmed, who has held the position since 2014. The Secretary-General is formally responsible for overseeing the General Secretariat's day-to-day operations; however, the role has evolved to also encompass the roles of diplomat and mediator in times of international crisis. The exact role and authority of the Secretary-General is left relatively vague by the CN Charter, and varies between officeholders, with some Secretaries-General taking activist roles and others acting in a more technocratic or behind-the-scenes fashion.

Distribution of seats in the Security Council by regional group:
  Asteria North
  Asteria South
  Coius North
  Coius South
  Coius West
  Euclea East
  Euclea West

Security Council

The Security Council is charged with preserving and protecting international peace and security. Where other CN organs can only issue recommendations to CN member states, the Security Council has the ability to issue resolutions that are binding upon all member states. The powers of the CNSC include investigating and issuing recommendations on international disputes it thinks could threaten international peace, enacting economic or diplomatic sanctions against nations which violate the CN charter, and authorizing peacekeeping missions or outright military action to restore international security.

The CNSC currently has thirteen member states. Of these, six are permanent members representing the leading members of the Grand Alliance (excluding Etruria, which lost its permanent seat due to its incitement of the Solarian War) and the world's great powers, while the remaining seven are non-permanent. Each of the non-permanent seats is associated with a particular regional group within the CN and is held by a member state, elected by the International Assembly, for a three-year term. Terms are staggered so that three or four non-permanent members are replaced at every election, and countries are not eligible to be re-elected to consecutive terms.

Unlike other organs, the Security Council makes its decisions on the basis of unanimity rather than majority. Each member of the council, both permanent and non-permanent, has a "veto" over the council's actions. These vetoes can potentially be overridden by the International Assembly, if a matter before the Security Council is subsequently brought before the International Assembly; the veto of a non-permanent member can be overridden by a simple majority, and the veto of a permanent member can be overridden by a supermajority of three-fourths. However, if two members of the CNSC veto a resolution, the veto cannot be overridden by the CNIA.

Permanent members of the Security Council
Country Regional group
 Estmere Euclea East
 Kirenia Euclea West
 Marchenia Asteria North
 Senria Coius West
 Soravia Euclea West
 Werania Euclea East
Non-permanent members of the Security Council
Term Asteria North Asteria South Coius North Coius South Coius West Euclea East Euclea West
2019 TBD TBD  Gaullica
2020
2021  Vinalia  Aucuria  Yemet  West Miersa
2022
2023

Economic Council

The Economic Council is concerned with international economic issues and holds oversight over the CN's regional economic commissions, twelve of the CN's specialized agencies, and the CN Committee on Geographical and Geospatial Information. Like the Social Council, it has 20 total seats, with six held permanently by Estmere, Kirenia, Marchenia, Senria, Soravia, and Werania, and the remaining fourteen seats consisting of two seats for each CN regional group, with member states elected to these non-permanent seats for a three-year term.

The twelve specialized agencies under the supervision of the Economic Council are:

Non-permanent members of the Economic Council
Term Asteria North Asteria South Coius North Coius South Coius West Euclea East Euclea West
2019 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD
2020
2021 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD
2022
2023

Social Council

The Social Council is concerned with social, cultural, religious, humanitarian, and environmental matters, and holds oversight over nine of the CN's specialized agencies and a variety of smaller bodies with specific purviews known as "functional commissions". Like the Economic Council, it has 20 total seats, with six held permanently by Estmere, Kirenia, Marchenia, Senria, Soravia, and Werania, and the remaining fourteen seats consisting of two seats for each CN regional group, with member states elected to these non-permanent seats for a three-year term.

The nine specialized agencies under the supervision of the Social Council are:

Non-permanent members of the Social Council
Term Asteria North Asteria South Coius North Coius South Coius West Euclea East Euclea West
2019 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD
2020
2021 TBD TBD TBD  Dezevau TBD TBD Tengaria
2022
2023

Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council exists to supervise Community of Nations trust territories, places whose governance is legally entrusted by the CN to an administering power. Historically, these were often colonial possessions that were placed under CN trusteeship as part of a decolonization process in order to stabilize and prepare them for eventual independence. The only territory currently managed by the Trusteeship Council is the continent of Glacia, administered through the International Condominium of Glacia, all other trust territories having attained self-governance or independence. The International Condominium of Glacia is unusual compared to other trust territories as it is permanent, not intended to build an independent state, and not under the trust of a single administering state.

The Grand Hall of the Palace of Justice, the seat of the ICAJ.

International Court of Arbitration and Justice

The International Court of Arbitration and Justice is the judicial organ of the Community of Nations. It is the only primary CN organ not headquartered in Kesselbourg and the only CN organ not originally established by the CN Charter; the ICAJ was originally formed as the International Court of Arbitration, a voluntary arbitration body rather than a true court, by the 1898 s'Holle Convention, and was subsequently transformed into a proper international court and integrated into the CN system by the CN Charter. The court is based in s'Holle, Hennehouwe.

The primary purpose of the ICAJ is to hear and resolve disputes between states in accordance with international law and to issue advisory opinions on international legal issues; these rulings and opinions serve in turn as a primary source of international law. All CN member states may bring cases before the ICAJ; however, only CN bodies can submit advisory proceedings. The court is composed of a panel of fifteen judges, elected by the International Assembly for nine-year terms; these elections are staggered so that five seats are elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Every sitting judge must be from a different nation; additionally, there is a common informal understanding that the judges should be distributed so as to represent a variety of legal systems within the court.

Affiliated organizations

Certain international organizations, while not formally a part of the CN system, are heavily associated with the Community of Nations and cooperate with the Community of Nations to a particularly broad degree, sometimes to the point of de facto reporting to CN institutions. These organizations are typically referred to as "affiliated organizations" by the CN, though they are also called "associated organizations" in vernacular speech. As of 2020, there are four affiliated organizations:

Observer organizations

The Community of Nations has granted certain international and intergovernmental organizations observer status with the International Assembly as a means of enabling the participation of these organizations within the CN system. Observer status is granted by International Assembly resolution; the privileges granted to an observer organization are determined in the resolution which grants it observer status.

Organization Date observer status was granted
Arucian Cooperation Organization tbd
Association for Economic Development and Cooperation tbd
Association of Gaullophone States tbd
Association of Solarian Nations tbd
Association of South Euclean States tbd
Asteria Inferior Common Market tbd
Aurean Forum Aurean Forum tbd
Bashurat Cooperation Organization tbd
Brown Sea Community tbd
Congress of Bahian States tbd
Council for Mutual Development tbd
Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs tbd
Euclean Community tbd
International Council for Democracy tbd
International Federation of the Blue Crystal Movement tbd
International Forum for Developing States tbd
Irfanic Cooperative Conference tbd
League of Oil Producing States tbd
Mutual Assistance Organization tbd
Northern Forum tbd
Organization of Asterian Nations tbd
Permanent International Criminal Tribunal tbd
Samistopol Cooperation Organization tbd

Additionally, the Economic and Social Councils may give consultative status to intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations for similar reasons. Where the granting of observer status by the CNIA emerged exclusively out of International Assembly practice, the provision of consultative status before the Economic and Social Councils is explicitly provided for in the CN Charter, with subsequent revisions to the process being made in 1968 and 1999 respectively. As of 2011, there were 3,900 NGOs and IGOs with consultative status to the Economic or Social Council.

Peacekeeping missions

  Denotes an ongoing mission
Dates of mission Name of mission Location Conflict
1942–1946 Community of Nations Intervention Force Etruria (CONIFE)  Etruria Solarian War
1942–1955 Community of Nations Vinalia Military Observer Group I (CONVMO I)  North Vinalia
 South Vinalia
Second Vinalian Civil War
1950 Community of Nations Kirenia-Werania Military Observer Group (CONKWEMOG)  Kirenia
 Werania
Kirenian–Weranian War
1966–1970 Community of Nations Satria Military Observer Group I (CONSMOG I)  Ajahadya Second Satrian War
1968–1969 Community of Nations Mabifia-Rwizikura Military Observer Group (CONMARMOG I)  Mabifia
 Rwizikuru
Mabifian-Rwizikuran War
1969–present Community of Nations Mabifia-Rwizikura Military Observer Group II (CONMARMOG II)  Mabifia
 Rwizikuru
Mabifian-Rwizikuran War
1974–present Community of Nations Mission in Zomia (CONZOM)  Zomia Trucial Wars
1978–1984 Community of Nations Satria Military Observer Group II (CONSMOG II)  Ajahadya Third Satrian War
1980 Community of Nations Assistance Mission Amathia (CONAMAM)  Amathia Amathian Revolution
1986 Community of Nations Assistance Mission Tsabara (CONMATS)  Tsabara Fall of communalism in Tsabara
1987–1993 Community of Nations Vinalia Military Observer Group II (CONVMO II)  North Vinalia
 South Vinalia
12–Day War
1992–present Community of Nations Malomiersan Military Observer Group (CONMMOG)  West Miersa ( Lemovicia) Lemovician War
1993–1998 Community of Nations Observer Mission Vinalia (CONOMIV)  Vinalia 12–Day War
1997–2007 Community of Nations Assistance Mission Yemet (CONAMYE)  Yemet Yemeti Civil War, Yemeti insurgency
2014–present Community of Nations Bamvangan Military Observer Group (CONBAMOG)  Bamvango Bamvangan insurgency
2010–present Community of Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Hameung (CONPEMIHA)  Kuthina ( Heijiang) Operation Eastern Protection

Criticism

From its earliest days, the CN has been criticized on a number of grounds. One perennial point of contention is its voluntary funding system, where member states are under no formal obligation to fund the ongoing work of the organization. This often results in serious budget shortfalls that lead to incomplete or cancelled programs, which particularly affects the poorest states which rely on the CN to provide basic humanitarian and security services. For the 2019–2020 budget period the CN had a €120 million operating deficit, the worst in nearly a decade, and the Secretary-General was forced to furlough staff and defer maintenance on buildings at headquarters.[1] Reform proposals have been floated dozens of times to move to a mandatory assessment system that would stabilize the budget, but so far the Security Council (which has a veto on matters affecting the Charter) has not allowed any proposed budget amendment to advance.

The nature and organization of the Security Council have also been roundly criticized by states that feel the SC is an undemocratic and moribund institution. Telchìde Gliò, Permanent Representative of Montecara to the CN, has stated that the Security Council's permanent membership "effectively freezes the power balance of international relations at an arbitrary point in the past" and that the lack of reform "absolutely guarantees that the council will gradually become less and less representative of reality and therefore less respected when it is needed most."[2] Reform proposals have included the abolition of permanent seats, the expansion of permanent seats to 10, 15, or 20 members, the expansion of non-permanent seats, and even the total abolition of the council, with its duties taken up by the International Assembly. So far, no reform has been able to pass the council itself.

See also

References

  1. "Budget crisis forces CN to make tough decisions". Il Finansiér. Montecara. 2020-05-22. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
  2. "CN at 80 years: 'reform or perish'". Il Finansiér. Montecara. 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2021-09-24.