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Kembesa

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Kingdom of Kembesa

Ye'kembesiya Meseyoumeti
Flag of Kembesa
Flag
Royal Seal of the House of the Yegidonochi of Kembesa
Royal Seal of the House of the Yegidonochi
Map of Kembesa
Map of Kembesa
CapitalAzwa
Official languagesKembesan
Recognised regional languagesGharbaic
Swahili
M'bweni
GovernmentConfederal unitary constitutional monarchy
• King
Selemaw XIV Yegidoni
• Lord Duke
Biniam Wolo
• Speaker
Abreham Aklilu
LegislatureRoyal Councils of Kembesa
House of the Rasochi
House of the Commons
Establishment
• Kingdom of Yebwi
299 BCE
• Nazarization
358 CE
• Kingdom of Kembesa
433 CE
• Constitutional reform
1948 CE
Area
• Total
508,224 km2 (196,226 sq mi)
• Water (%)
6.5
Population
• 2018 census
26,299,273
• Density
51.75/km2 (134.0/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
$491 billion (2018)
• Per capita
$18,672.02
Gini (2018)Negative increase 61.9
very high
HDI (2018)Steady 0.76
high
CurrencyWerik () (KBW)
Calling code+530

Kembesa, officially the Kingdom of Kembesa, is a country in Eastern Scipia. It is bordered to the north by Fahran, to the west by Charnea, to the south by M'biruna, and shares a maritime border across the Strait of Muketi to the east with Bemiritra in the Ozeros Sea. The capital city of Azwa is located in the country's north. Kembesans are the dominant ethnic group in the country, but there are major Gharib, Janubi, and Imbesu enclaves within its borders.

Kembesan national identity is rooted in both linguistic and religious differences from its neighbours. The Kingdom of Kembesa became a Nazarist state in the 4th century CE. Over the next millennium and a half it remained independent from the Adzarin conquests and even the expansion of Mutulese Ochran. In the present, the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church is the state religion and is not in communion with Fabria. While a prosperous nation for much of its history, Kembesa declined in the 19th century. Under King Isayasi III, the country liberalized in 1948, forming a constitutional monarchy.

The Kembesan economy is dominated by agriculture and mining sectors, exporting and importing goods north and south through Fahran and M'biruna respectively, as well as across the Ozeros. The country saw major a demographic expansion after the 1940's. Much of the country's power infrastructure was developed in that era and at present there is insufficient electrical production in many cities and villages.

History

Antiquity

Nomadic groups have inhabited the region of modern Kembesa for tens of millennia, though the oldest evidence of human settlement dates back to the fifth millennium BCE. The region fell under the influence of ancient Fahrani polities in the third millennium BCE. Speakers of ancient She'dje, the predecessor of modern Kembesan, formed the independent Kingdom of Ke'sem in the mid-10th century BCE. Ke'sem expanded over the next two centuries but collapsed around 750 BCE. For the next half-millennium warring states, each led by a Ras (duke), vied for power in the region. This era was known as the Rule of the Rasochi. Throughout this period, a king nominally ruled in Ke'sem, though the degree to which the Ke'semite kings exerted influence over the region waxed and waned.

Aizan dynasty gold coin c. 100 CE

The Rasochi were unified in 299 BCE by the House of Aizan which founded the Kingdom of Yebwi. The royal court was based in the ancient city of Me'lewa. The institution of the Rasochi was solidified in a permanent council, though the local rulers and the king were frequently at odds through this period and Yebwi succumbed to civil war numerous times in this era. The Aizanochi dynasty maintained power intermittently in the region until the 2nd century CE. During this era, Yebwi expanded and conquered the Tongo-Tongo Kingdom of M'bala to the south, expanding onto the coast and into the sphere of the Ozeros. When King Aizan VII died in 132 CE, the kingdom collapsed. King Girma V Endis consolidated his power in Yebwi, though M'bala wouldn't be restored until the mid-4th century CE.

Classical era

Nazarist proselytizers had ventured to Kembesa since the 2nd century, though it was not until after 320 CE when it became the state religion of the Latin Empire that missionaries began to arrive in droves, many from the Diocese of the East. While many local lords were hostile to Nazarist, the Ras of Anibesa accepted the first Nazarist community in Yebwi. As the faith gained traction in the region, the Ras was baptized as "Kaleb Yohoni" (known in Anglic as King Caleb John) and launched a war of unification which brought together Yebwi, M'bala, and the more arid northeastern reaches under the Nazarist Kingdom of K'idanibesa. King Kaleb I would be succeded by his son Kaleb II though the latter died without issue in 433 CE.

The Ras Nagash of Kaleb II's court, a man named Selemaw Gidoni (Solomon Gideon), received the assent of the Rasochi to assume the throne. King Selemaw came from uncertain origins and even the duchy he rules is lost to history. After assuming the throne, the legendary lineage of the judge and prophet Gideon was proclaimed. Prior to his ascension, Selemaw's identity and the location of his duchy are uncertain. Kembesan historiography regards the Nazarization under the Yohonochi and early Gidonochi dynasties as the end of the classical era in Kembesa and the beginning of the middle ages.

Middle ages

Saint Gidon, painted in a church c. 1450.

Under the first Gidonochi rulers, the western borders of the kingdom were expanded into the realms of Hatherian Gharib tribes in the eastern reaches of the Ninva Desert. By 526 CE, the region was consolidated into the Hatesha kilili. The rise of Azdarin in the latter half of the 10th century CE marked the beginning of a new era in Kembesa's history. Through Mubashir's reign, Kings Kaleb V and Kwastantinos I had to contend with Yen campaigns from the north. The latter experienced a great degree of success in repulsing these incursions and even gained ground after Mubashir's realm was sundered. After the proclamation of the Almurid Caliphate in 993, the Yen turned their attention to reclaiming lands lost to the Kembesans. After assuming the throne from his father in 1003, Kwastantinos II set about constructing a line of forts roughly along the line of the present-day border between Kembesa and Fahran. Hostilities between the Azdarin caliphates and Nazarist Kembesa persisted for centuries. Over the next three generations of Kembesan kings, the Kwastantinos Wall was reinforced in massive labour projects. To supply lumber for these projects, massive parts of the Me'balan jungle were deforested.

While the north was being shored up against the Yen, the expansion of the Tahamaja Empire to the south in the Ozeros posed another threat. Despite previous tensions with the maritime empire, the 11th century brought heightened hostilities and incursions by Kaiponu Tauā mercenaries, paticularly in the coastal swamps of southern Me'bala. Tahamaji settlers followed the mercenary warbands and set up forts and trading posts across the Kembesan coastline. The local Rasochi often tolerated or even cooperated with the Tahamaja, purchasing goods from across the Ozeros and selling their own goods for export as well. The Kembesan kings did not take the violation of their sovereignty lightly. Tahamaji forts were often sieged and captured by Kembesan land armies, only for Tahamaji fleets to retake them, perpetuating a rotation in custody of the forts. The Siriwang eruption at the end of 1353 ushered in the end of the Tahamaja empire. Most of the forts were destroyed by the tidal impacts of the blast. While the eruption wrought immense destruction in Me'bala and even into Ye'wenizi, in the kingdom's heartland of Degama the event was seen as divinely inspired. King Gidon XII was canonized by the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church within his own life, a process which drew the ire of the church in Fabria and other Nazarist denominations.

The collapse of the Tahamaja Empire may have led to the expansion of Kembesa's influence. However, only seven years after the Siriwang eruption the kingdom was invaded by Ihemod and the Imuhaɣ. Hatesha was overcome within the year and the tenuous defences in the western foothills of Degama were overcome by 1361 CE. The royal court fled the ancient capital of Me'lewa in early October of 1361 and it was sacked by the Imuhaɣ by the end of the month. The court established itself at the citadel of Azwa where it gathered it strength. Over the next decade, the Kembesans launched several campaigns to restore their lands and the Imuhaɣ tried to push further into the kingdom. Neither side could break the stalemate. Saint Gidon died in battle againt the Imuhaɣ in one such incursion in 1367 CE. His son, King Gidon XIII scaled back military campaigns against the Imuhaɣ and settled into an uneasy peace with the Ninvites. Upon the death of Ihemod in 1409, the Imuhaɣ hold on the region collapsed. King Selemaw XII restored Degama in 1412 CE and Hatesha in 1415 CE. The ancient capital of Me'lewa remained in ruins and the citadel of Azwa remained the new capital.

Early modern era

King Gidon XVI leads Kembesan warriors in the Ozeros War.

In the first part of the 16th century CE, Mutulese merchants and explorers expanded their influence to Ochran and eventually the southern reaches of the Ozeros by 1560. Two decades later and Mutulese influence in Barriset was growing. The new merchants received tacit rights to trade with Kembesa, bypassing the laws which discriminated against the Yen. The increasing influence of the Mutulese on Barriset and the erection of White Path temples angered the local Azdarin clergy who called for any worship aside from 'Iifae to be banned. The caliph's governor conceded to the demand, but was forced to retreat from it after protestation from the Mutulese who raised militias and warships as a threat. An insurrection of 'Iifae imams proclaimed their own caliph and led a war against the original governors and the Mutulese. By 1661 CE, the Mutulese officially undertook the administration of the island and proclaimed the Yajawil of Barriset.

During this period, the Kingdom of Kembesa became concerned by the expansion of Mutulese power. In 1646, King Isayasi I attempted to ban the presence of Mutulese traders in Kembesan ports after their victory in the First Shamabalese Great War. However, Mutulese merchants flaunted the laws and local dukes and administrators overlooked them out of fear of reprisals from the foreign traders. Fearing further expansion and marginalization, King Gidon XVI was persuaded to join the Azdarin states of Fahran and Vardana against the Mutulese, beginning the Ozeros War in 1670. Kembesan knights and soldiers joined the Yen invasion of the Island of Barriset, landing and helping to establish a beachhead in the north. Poor communication and weather led to the Nazarist forces being caught unawares and repelled from the island, however. King Gidon XVI was killed in the retreat while leading his men. The late king's son, Gidon XVII, continued to prosecute the war against the Mutul, but Mutulese reinforcements from further south in the Ozeros forced the Nazarists to abandon the blockade of Barriset. Piracy and naval skirmishes persisted against the Mutulese for a number of years with little effect. In 1677, the Treaty of Samosata was signed leaving Barriset under Mutulese control and allowing the destruction of the 'Iifae Imamates.

Modern era

The late-17th and early-18th centuries in Kembesa were relatively peaceful, though the kingdom fell from prominence in the region compared to trading hubs to its east and north. Free from external conflicts, a succession of kings invested in civil works including castles and palaces but also paved roads and aqueducts. In 1711, a plague broke out which crippled the central regions. Thousands were killed before the epidemic broke in the late 1710's. While modern scholarship suggests that the disease was caused by local water contamination which spread through the newly constructed aquiducts, King Biniam IV apportioned the blame to foreigners and ordered the closing of Kembesa's ports and borders. The Tebaki'seyoum (Elect Guard) were reformed from the king's household guard to a standing army and separated into detachments to protect the borders with Fahran and M'biruna and to enforce the port closures despite the protests of the local Rasochi. In July of 1734, a cabal made up of over a third of the Rasochi executed a plot to overthrow King Biniam. Tebaki'seyoum barracks were burned in Arwas and Kima. The region of Me'bala effectively seceded from the kingdom as the local rulers appointed a Ras Tilik'u (Grand Duke) to lead the revolt. The civil war continued for several years before the leaders of the revolt were captured in 1737. Over 30 nobles were executed and condemned to have their names forgotten. Pockets of resistance to Kembesan central rule continued to cause problems for the state into the 1750's.

King Mika'eli Dam in Ye'wenizi

The subsequent century brought on the first waves of industrialization across the world. However, Kembesa remained relatively isolated from these changes; serfdom and manual labour remained the dominant economic modes. Early steam engines and mechanization rarely permeated Kembesa's borders. Furthermore, departures from the traditional ways of life for peasants and serfs could be sanctioned by the church.

Contemporary history

In the 20th century, Kembesa began to face mounting internal an external pressure to liberalize. King Mika'eli X was assassinated by a serf abolitionist movement. King Gidon XX suceeded to the throne and created a secret police detachment in the Tebaki'seyoum. The crackdown on dissidents was harsh but was followed by an era of industrialization. Electricity became more broadly accessible in the 1930s after a series of ambitious hydroelectric projects. Several of the dam projects had severe environmental impacts and displaced thousands of serfs, especially in Ye'wenizi and Me'bala.

Serious considerations began to be made by the Rasochi toward the end of King Gidon's reign, but the monarch remained obstinate. King Isayasi III ascended to the throne in 1945 after his uncle abdicated in poor health. The new ruler backchanneled with the Rasochi to draft a new constitution but publicly remained a staunch supporter of the old regime until the death of his uncle in 1948. On July 8, the day after his uncle's funeral, King Isayasi III unveiled the Kingdom of Kembesa's new constitution. While the constitution was broadly lauded by the commons, a majority of power remained consolidated with the monarch and the Rasochi. The constitution also failed to establish universal rights. These were devolved to the duchies where canon law from the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church is a major influence. However, the constitution did abolish serfdom and guarantee universal suffrage despite the limited power of the House of the Commons.

King Isayasi III died prematurely in 1966 and was succeeded by his brother, King Selemaw XIII. The new monarch had a troubled rule. The numerous defects, iniquities, and the multitude of inefficiencies in the new constitution had become increasingly apparent. By 1970, Kembesa's population had ballooned to 10 million where 50 years prior it was less than half that. Unrest, famine, and rapid urbanization after serfdom had been abolished put immense strain on the country's infrastructure. In 1981, a coup was attempted which led to a purge within the ranks of the military and the House of the Rasochi. The armed forces were reorganized in 1982 immediately following the outbreak of civil war in neighbouring M'biruna. The Tebaki'seyoum was de facto reorganized entirely as a secret police and intelligence service despite the motion having failed to pass in the House of the Commons. In early 1986, the House of the Rasochi reviewed the enactment of the bill which had failed to pass. The Ducal Arbiters determined that more than a dozen members of the House of the Commons had engaged in obstructionist activities and sentenced them to imprisonment. After reconsidering the vote with the proportion lowered, the bill was considered to have passed. This decision led to riots in the capital and other major cities. King Selemaw XIII abdicated on December 11, 1986 in an attempt to appease the masses even as the secret police was cracking down on dissidents.

Immediately after succeeding his father, the young King Selemaw XIV redirected the nation's attention outward by initiating a military intervention in M'biruna which had been embroiled in a civil war since 1982. Military aggression from Charnea beginning in 1985 brought Kembesan into further conflict. While formal hostilities ceased two years later in 1987, the nation would not fully return to a state of peace until 2006, with border tensions and terroristic violence from Ordosocialist Focus necessitating a high degree of state vigilance.

After the dismantling of Ordosocialist Focus, Kembesa was at relative peace for a decade. Beginning in 2016, however, the terrorist group reorganized and began launching new attacks against the Kembesan government. Kembesa was also embroiled in the Fahrani Civil War and recently announced annexation goals in that conflict.

Geography and climate

Kembesa Köppen Map.png

Kembesa is a country of hills and rivers. Tropical forests and highlands cover most of its area. The Kira River, which extends from Kembesa, through Fahran, Alanahr, and into the Periclean Sea, flows from Lake Gozzam, itself fed by several hundred rivulets in the Degama Region. The highest point in that Kingdom is at the peak of Mount Anibesa in the western reaches of the Degama Region. The greatest climatic variances are found in the Ye'wenizi region where tropical forests and marshes give way to savannah plains and even some areas of desert.

The Me'bala Region, which includes most of Kembesa's coasts, sees the most consistent rainfall of the three regions. The monsoon season is mitigated somewhat by calm winds and waters afforded by the island of Bemiritra which protects Kembesa's northern coasts from the open waters of the Ozeros. As the country is located in the northern hemisphere, most of its rivers drain southward toward the equator and the Ozeros. Much of the southern coastal area is saturated marshland.

Temperatures in the country vary by season and location. In Ye'wenizi and Me'bala, seasonal temperature variations are extremely low, averaging less than 5 degree centigrade. However, rainfall is very different. The more eastern and northerly region experiences more dramatic dry and rainy seasons. Most of the precipitation only falls in the midsummer. Ye'wenizi, by contrast, experiences steadier rainfall, though the summer months are considerably wetter than the winter. In the west, the Degama Region experiences a multitude of microclimates owing to the inconsistent mediating effect of water systems, valleys, and small rain shadows. Seasonal temperatures exceed those in the other two regions and can vary between 10 and 15 degrees centigrade seasonally. The rainy season is also about as long as it is in the Ye'wenizi Region - about 7 to 9 months of the year.

Government and politics

Branches of government

Entrance to the East Wing of Hagērī Palace in Azwa

The Kingdom of Kembesa in a confederal unitary constitutional monarchy. That is to say, it operates as a confederation of unified regions in which the central government has ultimate authority and a constitution defines roles for both the monarchy and democratic institutions. In effect, the monarchy and the traditional nobility of Kembesa wield the majority of the power. The commoners, the nobility, and the monarch are each represented in the tricameral parliament known as the Royal Councils of Kembesa. Any bill must receive the assent of all three houses to be enacted as law. The upper two houses (the Rasochi and the monarch) also enact the judiciary and executive functions of the government.

The lowest house is the House of the Commons. The Commons is made up of 150 representatives divided evenly among the 3 regions. Representatives are elected proportionally through a party list system in each region. A Speaker is subsequently elected by the Commons. Terms in the Commons last 8 years.

The House of the Rasochi (dukes) is the middle-to-upper house of the parliament. There are 62 seats in the house, one for each duchy. The title of Ras is hereditary and the monarch surrendered the right to unliaterally appoint new members to the Rasochi in the 1948 constitution. Instead, both the Rasochi and the monarch must assent to any new members. The House of the Rasochi is also the highest court of the Kingdom. In this function, the monarch keeps a panel of three Rasaki Danya (Ducal Arbiters) to hear cases. The monarch also appoints a Ras Nagash (Lord Duke) to manage the affairs of the house. Both the Ducal Arbiters and the Lord Duke serve 8-year terms before the monarch must make another appointment.

Though often not considered a house in the same sense as the Commons or the Rasochi, the Royal House of the Yegidonochi completes the tricameral structure of the Kembesan government. The monarch themself executes most of the functions of the house in providing or withholding assent for bills and functioning as the head of state. The monarch also appoints advisors and officers for the functioning of the executive branch of the government. In general, the monarch has a great deal of discretion in how they organize their government, though there are constitutional limits placed on their ability to make unilateral orders. Outside of the executive function and the ability to make appointments, the monarch has no unilateral means of enacting law.

Law

Kembesan law is a patchwork of customary, religious, and statutory laws. Royal edicts and bills passed since 1948 form the basis of the statutory regime which applies across the Kingdom, mostly in the domain of administrative law, criminal law, and employment law.

The Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church has little official government influence aside from the customary appointment of the Lique Aqabe Sa'at (Arch-Guardian of the Church Hours) in the court of the monarch. However, canon law informs many old customary laws and holds legal authority. Furthermore, Church ordinances on sumptuary matters and some moral crimes can be legally enforced independently of statutory provisions.

Customary law in Kembesa is unwritten and specific to certain regions and duchies and includes the domains of tort law, certain regulatory offenses, and property. In these areas, the court system has generally preserved local traditions rather than imposing a single law across the Kingdom. The interpretation of Kembesan customary law relies primarily on precedent.

Legal philosophy

Theoretically, Kembesan customary law adopts the philosophy of contextual primacy. The context surrounding an act is essential to the process of weighing culpability. As with many common or civil jurisdictions, killing in self-defense is regarded as different from a premeditated killing. The former is regarded as necessary while the latter is regarded as malicious.

In Kembesa, many contextual elements which may be considered frivolous or ancillary are still weighed in determining culpability. These elements include the social and material contributions of an accused to their community, their religious devotion, or their place of origin. For example, an individual who commits an offense outside their home community will customarily be judged more harshly. On the other hand, an individual who is shown to be a devout and vital member of a community may have their sentence commuted or altogether eliminated through a process known as constructed innocence.

This legal philosophy has been influenced by the traditions of the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church and the philosophy of consequentialism. In both secular and religious traditions, the social utility of the outcome of a policy, belief, or theory is of the ultimate importance. This stems from the belief that an ordered society is divinely ordained and therefore the maintenance of an orderly society is paramount. The maintenance of an orderly society cannot be manifestly unjust as a matter of corruption, but the exercise of lawful power must be concerned primarily with social outcomes, rather than a humanistic approach to universalism.

Administrative subdivisions

The Kingdom of Kembesa is divided into three kililochi, or regions which represent cultural, linguistic, and geographic polities. The three regions are Degama in the west, Ye'wenizi in the east, and Me'bala in the south. Each region admits 50 representatives to the House of the Commons. The area of the Kingdom also encompasses 62 ye'ras meretochi, or duchies, the borders of which do not readily correspond to those of the regions. Municipalities and incorporated communities must be established through tripartite assent between the Royal House, the House of the Rasochi, and the House of the Commons. As a result, only 5 new municipalities have been incorporated since the induction of the new constitution in 1948 and many people reside in unincorporated communities.

Military

The Elect Army (T’ori'seyoum) is the primary military force of the Kingdom of Kembesa. In addition, the Elect Gendarmerie (Janidarimarimī'seyoum) and the Elect Guard (Tebaki'seyoum) are paramilitary agencies that act as federal police, border agents, and provide intilligence services. Within the Elect Army, the Maritime Fleet Component and the Air Fleet Component protect the sea beside and the air above Kembesa, respectively. The Kembesan monarch is the commander-in-chief of the Elect Army and directly appoints the general's staff. Military service is only open to men. Women are barred from all roles in all branches of service.

Kembesan cavalry c. 1936

The Elect Army's ground component is by far the largest branch of service with approximately 206,600 members. Universal male conscription has been in effect since 1982. The Ground Component is also the recipient of the largest portion of the military budget.

The Maritime Fleet and the Air Fleet components are small in comparison to the Ground Component with approximately 15,000 and 12,000 service members respectively. The fleet is generally only equipped for littoral defense. It is divided into three squadrons based in Kima, Arwas, and Ne'welo. The Air Fleet is small but relatively modern and capable.

The Elect Gendarmerie and the Elect Guard are paramilitary groups. The Elect Gendarmerie has about 19,000 service members who serve as a federal police force, guard borders, and occasionally supplement ducal police forces. The Elect Guard was historically conceived as the kingdom's first standing army and border guard. Since 1982, the Elect Gendarmerie has performed border guard duties and the Elect Guard has become a de facto secret police. The number of service members in the Elect Guard remains confidential.

Kembesa has a strong culture of normative gender performance. Male service in the military both enforces cultural norms and is in turn reinforced by broader cultural norms around masculinity. Departing for the military at 18 years of age is culturally ingrained as a coming-of-age ritual for men, similar to marriage for women. People who are unable to serve are stereotyped as effeminate or weak. Conscientious objectors or even pacifistic rhetoric is considered ridiculous in open discourse.

Economy

Kembesa has a mixed economy with heavy reliance on agriculture and resource extraction. Subsistence activities also make up a significant part of the economy. Over the past decade, economic growth has stagnated but thus far an outright crash or recession has been averted. Present-day challenges include an insufficient electricity grid and barriers to movement. Income inequality is high with the vast majority of wealth concentrated with a small segment of the population. Over the 20th century, Kembesa's rapid population growth was a major driver of its economy but also a massive burden upon its infrastructure. Liberalization in the mid-century formally redefined property rights and private industry, but the substantive ordering of the economy resembles the pre-1948 status quo to the present day.

Land use

History and housing

Rural Kembesa operated on a formal serf-based economy until 1948. Land ownership resided with the local dukes or the king in the case of crown lands. After constitutional reform, land ownership remained with the ruling classes and serfs became formal renters. In cities, free merchants historically purchased much of the land from the nobility outright. As such, ownership of land in urban areas post-1948 resembles common real estate principles in many nations. After the reform, many free renters departed from rural agricultural communities for the cities. There was an immediate housing crisis and many slums have spilled out of urban residential districts into neighbouring ducal demesnes or crown lands. High-rise housing projects in the 1960s and 1970s helped to alleviate some of the housing pressure, but slums and underhousing in designated districts persist in the present day. The destruction and clearing of slums off of ducal and crown lands still occurs with some frequency.

Agriculture

Nearly 75% of Kembesa's area is used for horticulture and arboriculture. 68.8% of Kembesans maintain a way of life which is similar to how serfs lived pre-1948, albeit as agricultural renters rather than as servants. Subsistence farming and commercial food production are major activities along with cash crop production. Due to the large but fluctuating degree to which subsistence farming plays a role in the economy, disentangling different agricultural activies and their proportions in the agricultural sector is virtually impossible.

Common staple crops include cereals but also large scale vegetable and fruit operations. Major cash crops include coffee and tea. Livestock agriculture is less dominant than plant-based industry but plays an important subsistence role. Common livestocks include cows but farms gradually transition southward from Fahran to M'biruna.

Preserves

Several Kembesan crown lands are designated as preserves or met’ebabek’īyawochi. Preserves vary in size and purpose but are historically characterized by restricted access. The three largest preserves are the Madeni Menafeshawochi; historical hunting preserves which are more often constructed as nature preserve parks in the modern era. Historically, public entry into the Madeni Menafeshawochi was a crime. In the present, admission to the preserves may be purchased and royal wardens protect the environment and wildlife.

Other crown land preserves have been designated since the 1920s. These preserves frequently cover infrastructural installations including aquaducts, power plants, and water reservoirs. The formation of infrastructure preserves in the 20th and 21st centuries has been controversial as they have both displaced people and obstructed traditional rights of way.

Ducal preserves often exist either as easements for the crown's infrastructure preserves or as private installations that serve similar purposes and abide by similar legal frameworks. Ducal preserves can encompass both private hunting grounds and private power grids and water systems.

Water

Binama river tributary in Degama

Thousands of rivers run through the various valleys of Kembesa. The majority run south from the foothills in Degama into M'biruna. Others run east through Ye'wenizi, through Me'bala and into the Ozeros. The Kira River flows north from Lake Gozzam, ultimately emptying into the Periclean.

The Kingdom of Kembesa developed a unified water policy in 1993 following a major ecological disaster in the Utumi river valley. Water policy was previously devolved at a regional level, but the sole constitutional amendment passed in the country's history granted an easement to the crown and formed the Crown Riverlands, or Zhereti Mereti, as a special preserve.

The Crown monitors and ensures water quality and can designate different grades to river systems. The grading system can designate and protect systems which supply potable water for communities or create allowances for industrial activity. Several of the lower grade designations have been criticized by environmental groups and the international community for being permissive of pollution. Independent studies in the ensuing decades have called the effectiveness of the system into doubt, citing the interconnectivity of different water systems, especially in regard to several unmapped aquifer systems which have been found to linked water systems of different grades.

Energy

In the early stages of industrialization, biomass and steampower were the main sources of electrical generation in Kembesa. A national electrical grid was constructed in the 1930s. Hydroelectric stations were erected along Kembesa's various river systems which generate a majority of the power for the grid. There are over 200 dams in Kembesa, though most are relatively minor and can only power small communities.

The demographic expansion in the latter half of the 20th century has led to an energy crisis which persists to the present day. Biomass power plants have been built to attempt to mitigate the strain on the electrical grid, especially in the east where the hydroelectrical grid had less effect. The Kembesan government has also begun to increasingly rely on imported energy, especially from Fahran to the north. The Fahrani Civil War which broke out in 2019 is considered to be a potential threat to Kembesan energy stability.

Transportation

Historically, the hills and swamps of Degama and Me'bala presented networking issues. The two regions do not share a border and were only fully linked up by a paved roadway in the 18th century. In the present, roads are administered at a ducal level. Several duchies require tolls for access while others are funded through local taxation. Notably, all roadways on crown lands require tolls. As a side effect of the 1993 amendment creating the Crown Riverlands, all bridges are administered by the crown and require tolls for access.

Rail travel is managed by the three regions but is administered by a single state corporation; the Kembesan Regional Rail Network. The KRRN was established by the 1948 constitution which unified several existing rail networks which were operated by duchies and the Crown. Travel by rail is often cheaper than road travel but is inefficient. Trains are frequently delayed by as long as 12 hours, certain corridors maybe be closed by maintenance or seasonal flooding, and the KRRN's railcars are antiquated by modern standards.

Kembesa has major ports in Arwas and Kima; both in the region of Me'bala. The Kira River is also a major route for waterborne travel and transportation. The nation has three international airports. The largest is in the capital of Azwa with secondary hubs in Ed'a and Kima. Regular routes in and out of Kembesa include Haqara, Bemiritra, Adijan, Jegurjur, Perivolia, and Ikaria. Charter flights are also often available.

Demographics

The Kingdom of Kembesa has a population of 26,299,273 as of 2018. Birth rates in the nation have remained consistently high through history and advances in medicine and food security during the 19th and 20th centuries have led to high demographic expansion due to both increased lifespans and reduced infant mortality. Life expectancy has risen considerably to 66 years for men and 70 years for women. Birth rates over the past two decades have varied between 3.8 and 4.1.

Kembesa is less urbanized than many other nations with a rural to urban divide of 73.64% to 26.36% respectively. Much of the population is involved in agricultural work which poses several occupational risks. Leading causes of death are disease, accident, cancer, and old age related conditions.

Language

The primary spoken and written language of Kembesa is Kembesan. The traditional language of She'dje is still commonly used in liturgy and some local legal systems. Gharib speakers can be more commonly found in the nation's north near the borders with Fahran and Charnea. Komotu is likewise common in southern Me'bala. Latin and Anglic are growing in common use, particularly with younger Kembesans, though the great majority of the population is monolingual.

Religion

Yek’idisiti Šilasē Cathedral in Azwa.

The Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church is the state religion and majoritarian faith of the Kingdom of Kembesa. The Church is an eastern tradition church and is not in Communion with the Fabrian See. The Church is a unitary organization nominally led by three archbishops. In practice, the monarch of Kembesa nominates an archbishop to a cabinet position as spiritual advisor and this archbishop is often seen as the leading figure of the Church. The three Archbishoprics are Me'lewa, Bet Kebur, and Zema. There are 62 bishoprics beneath the three archbishoprics; one for each duchy.

Kembesan Orthodox traditions draw directly from the New Testament and the Old Testament. In distinction from other Nazarist denominations, particular reverence is paid toward the canon of biblical saints. Communion is only provided at the commencement of feast days immediately after periods of fasting. Only people who have participated in the fast may be given the eucharist.

Mass is conducted in She'dje; an old liturgical language which is not widely spoken by the common populace. Laypeople have minimal participation in mass save for on the few holidays when singing is permitted. Men and women must sit separately in church buildings and head coverings must be worn by both genders. Services are relatively short at around 30 minutes, but members may be expected to attend services on two days of the week depending on the parish.

Healthcare

The Kembesan healthcare system is a semi-private monopolistic network of healthcare providers. Healthcare is organized at a ducal level and each Ras is authorized to operate hospitals and other healthcare services for the population. These implementation of these systems varies but the majority are not single-payer and many operate as à la carte or effectively private services. In some duchies, ducal control over the healthcare system is monopolistic. In others, Church-operated healthcare networks offer alternatives. In major cities, private charter hospitals offer a third healthcare alternative.

Education

Public primary and secondary education in Kembesa is constitutionally placed under the jurisdiction of the three regions and the House of the Commons. In practice, each of the three regions devolves their authority to the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church. The public school curriculum is drafter by the Church but is subject to approval by the House of the Commons. Private institutions again provide alternative access to education.

There are four major post-secondary education institutes in Kembesa which offer undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral study programs. The Royal University in Azwa is the largest of the four. The National Orthodox Seminary is the second largest institute and is operated by the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church. Admission to the Seminary requires membership in the Church. The other two institutes, the University of Arwas and the University Colleges of Kinat, are private and secular establishments. The National Orthodox Seminary is the only institution that has an entry exam but tuition is subsidized by the Church.

Culture

Names

Naming conventions in Kembesa differ from elsewhere in the world. The royal and noble families utilize dynastic names which are used in different forms depending on the context. For instance, the royal family name is "Yegidonochi" which translates directly to "The Gideons". When written out as a name, the current king's name would be written "Selemaw XIV Yegidoni" or "Solomon XIV the Gideon".

Commoners and non-heriting nobles use patronyms instead of family names for surnames. For example, if a man named Biniam Yohoni had a child named Abreham, the child's name would be Abreham Biniami. Commoners do not have the article "Ye" or "the" compounded into the patronym.

Members of either the nobility or the commons who become members of the clergy of the Kembesan Orthodox Nazarist Church surrender their patronyms or family names. They are recognized by their given names and their positions only. If two clergymembers in close association have the same given name, one of them may assume a new name.

Art and music

Rock-hewn church in Degama

Kembesa has a long history of religious art and stonecraft. Ancient paintings and sculptures frequently depicted historical events but artistic patronage pivoted towards favouring religious subjects after Nazarization. Sculpting entire buildings from monoliths was a common architectural practice in medieval Kembesa. Numerous churches and palaces were entirely hewn from rock and decorated with elaborate carvings. The Belisarian tradition of illuminated manuscripts was also adopted in the second millennium CE. In more recent times, modern artists often push against religious art and incorporate different subjects.

Though music is only sparsely incorporated into traditional Kembesan church service, songs and chants are frequently core elements of religious festivals and celebrations. Modern music is composed with both modern electronic equipment, imported instruments, and endemic instruments such as the highland flute and the 10-string lyre.

Food

Kembesan cuisine is highly sophisticated and takes influence from its surroundings, mainly through the Ozeros. The central elements of the cuisine are three primary spice blends. The first of these blends is berbere; a mix of nine components. Berbere is most commonly cultivated and used in tradtional Degaman and Ye'wenizian cuisines. The second blend is mitmita; a sweet and spicy blend which is heavily influenced by the Ozeros exhange but relies on Kembesan products. The third blend is an Ozeri sambal but combined with endemic Kembesan spices such as korarima and koseret. Kembesan sambal is most commonly found in Me'bala.

Injera and wat are the two most iconic Kembesan dinner dishes. Injera is a spongy flatbread which is a staple in all Kembesan cuisine. Alternative forms of injera developed with the incorporation of maize flour which was introduced by the Mutul in the 17th century. Injera is almost universally used as a vehicle for other stews, sauces, or other dishes. Wat is a traditional meat stew with berbere. In Me'bala and along the coast in Ye'wenizi, fish can substitute beef or other meats traditionally used in the stew.

Lunches are usually cold, raw foods which can still include meats. Kifto is the preparation of raw beef or fish with lime juice and spice blends. It is often consumed alongside raw vegetables or flatbreads.

The traditional breakfast food of Kembesa is genfo, also called ga'at. It is a kind of porridge made from barley or wheat and incorporating one of the country's traditional spice blends. Tea, coffee, or spirezi are usually taken with breakfast. Spirezi is also Kembesa's national drink. It is produced by steeping tea in a hot cup of freshly brewed coffee.

Sports

The most commonly played sports in Kembesa are association football and cricket. Pitz was banned from 1733 CE to 1948 CE, but has gained traction since it was unbanned and is now the third most-played sport. Racing is also common. Foot and horse races were the two most common forms historically, but automotive racing has also gained traction in recent times.