Kheratia

People's Republic of Kheratia
붂읃 나이ᇐ암닿 카ᇐ앝 을읏

Bügud Nairamdakh Karat Ulus
Flag of Kheratia
Flag
Emblem of Kheratia
Emblem
Anthem: 든 니 엏어 오ᇐ온
Dun ni ekhe oron
Song of the Motherland
Capital
and
Ulankhot
Official languagesKheratian
Ethnic groups
(2015)
Turkic (52.9%)
Slav (41.4%)
Mongol (7.3%)
Other (2.2%)
Demonym(s)Kheratian
GovernmentConstitutional federal single party state
Ganbaatar Altangiin Züngar
Batukhan Naranbaatargiin Dunkhünüd
LegislaturePeople's Khural
Establishment
June 19, 1749
January 9, 1860
June 22, 1923
July 5, 1989
August 1, 1990
Area
• 
1,937,559 km2 (748,096 sq mi)
• Water (%)
3.3
Population
• 2017 estimate
44,038,440
• 2015 census
42,122,437
• Density
21.7/km2 (56.2/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$351.53 billion
• Per capita
$15,033
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
• Total
$181.17 billion
• Per capita
$7,747
Gini (2015)32.4
medium
HDI (2015)0.693
medium
CurrencySeber (KHS)
Time zoneUTC4 (Kheratian Standard Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+23
Internet TLD.kh

Kheratia (Kheratian: 카ᇐ앝 을읏, Karat Ulus), known officially as the People's Republic of Kheratia (Kheratian: 붂읃 나이ᇐ암닿 카ᇐ앝 을읏 Bügud Nairamdakh Karat Ulus) is a country located in West Borea. It is bordered to the west by Chokashia, to the north by x and to the south and east by Qaradalai. At 1.7 million square kilometres, Kheratia is the third largest country in Borea.

Kheratia has been continuously inhabited by humans for the last half million years with the first modern humans settling in what is now Kheratia 40,000 years ago. Paintings and pottery found inside the Ugkhündy Caves date back 20,000 years ago, marking the first evidence of native Kheratian cultures. These cultures would last until the third millennium BC, when Monic peoples migrated north from Namor. These groups formed the ancestors of the modern Kherat people. The arrival of the Monic peoples from Namor also heralded the arrival of nomadic pastoralism which evolved into the horse culture that is dominant today. As of 2017, 29% of the population is still nomadic or semi-nomadic.

Most of Kheratia's history has seen the country largely devoid of large scale polities, as the nomadic and tribal nature of the inhabitants prevented centralisation of political and economic power. The earliest state to be established in Kheratia was the Nogoongüren, which appeared in the central steppes around 280 BC. Unstable and plagued with internal conflicts, the Nogoongüren state would eventually collapse in 109 AD and be replaced by another period of tribal conflict. The second state, the Moringüren, would be more successful in its centralisation of power. Established in the late second century AD, the Moringüren would not only cover most of modern day Kheratia but also establish the khanates which would rule Kheratia for the next millennia. The Moringüren would eventually cease to exist around the 10th century AD, owing to divisions between the many sons of the last Khan.

Slavs first settled western Kheratia in the Middle Ages, with the first kingdoms being established sometime in the 1200's. Close to trading routes along the Dobrava River, these kingdoms thrived on trade with Chokashia and Luziyca and became wealthy. Under King Miroslav I, the western Slavic kingdoms united in 1309 into the Kingdom of Boratia and began pushing beyond the Khoërmüren River. This drew them into conflict with the western khanates who quickly formed a loose confederation, resulting in the opening actions of the Conquest of the Steppe, a two century long conflict that saw the attempted pacification of the central steppe. The Conquest of the Steppe ended in 1514 with a compromise between the khans and the Slavic king, where they would retain autonomy in return for allegiance and tributes to the Slavic monarchy. This arrangement lasted until 1559, when the Eastern Rebellion took place after the nomadic peoples rose up against their leaders. The rebellion would last for several years and would eventually end in 1566 with another compromise. Peace and stability reigned again, although the Slavic kingdoms became aware of the rise of Qaradalai to the east, and moved to address the threat. They formed a unified kingdom with the khanates, known as the Kingdom of Boratia and Kheratia, which would combine the powers of the Kheratian and Boratian forces. A predominantly Slavic force engaged Qaradali forces in the Transborean War between 1751 and 1753, resulting in a Kheratian victory as well as conquest of lands east of the Borean Rift Valley. Throughout the remainder of the 18th century and the 19th century, the Slavs and the Khans consolidated their power, introducing concepts of feudalism and embarking on settling nomadic populations permanently. In 1860, the Kingdom transformed into the Empire of Kheratia, effectively creating the modern, unified state.

The Empire of Kheratia would last for 63 years before a leftist revolution lead by Batbayar Khulangiin Ulkhümüs which overthrew the empire. Although Khulangiin would die during the revolution, the ideology and revolution he lead would go on to found the modern People's Republic of Kheratia. The first Supreme Leader, Ganbold Sükhbaatargiin Eljigiin, would rule between 1923 and 1950, establishing the totalitarianism for which the early people's republic became notorious for. Under the new Supreme Leader, Ganbataar Odgiin Shurdaankhan, Kheratia implemented democratic reforms which expanded participation of workers, peasants and other classes in the political system. Ogdiin's rule presided over a period of substantial economic and socio-economic growth which lasted until the mid-1970's. The problems with centralised economic planning and the lack of hard currency became apparent. These economic problems marked a curbing of democratic involvement and rising authoritarianism under the rule of Ganzorig Chuluungiin Atagan, who ruled between 1971 and 1984. These policies were continued by Chinua Yulgiin Temurchin until the People's Revolution of 1989 which reestablished the democratic reforms under Odgiins's rule in addition to market reforms, which were enacted under succeeding Supreme Ruler Choban Bugurulgiin Aatiinkhan. These reforms sparked economic growth not seen in three decades and would eventually launch Kheratia into the international spotlight as one of the fastest growing economies in Esquarium.

Kheratia remains one of the fastest growing economies heavily reliant on natural resources extraction and export of fossil fuels and raw minerals. It also remains decidedly authoritarian, although it has maintained a commitment to improving human rights within the country.

Etymology

History

Geography

Kheratia is approximately 1,737,559 square kilometres (670,875 square miles) in size, making it the third largest country in Borea and the fourth largest country in Esquarium. It can be divided into a number of geographic areas and has a variety of biomes and environments.

The historical region of Boratia composes western Kheratia, with the predominantly Slavic republic taking up around one third of Kheratia's total area. The republic forms Kheratia's western and northwestern borders with Katranijev, Luziyca, Slovunia and Ceresnia respectively. The border itself lies within the West Borean Range, a vast mountain chain running almost the entire length of West Borea. Several ranges of the West Borean Range are located in Kheratia, the largest of which is the Sagaanuula Range. It runs parallel to the central range of the West Borean Range, with a series of high mountain valleys and plateaus separating the two. Kheratia's highest point, Tuilaiuula, is located within the Sagaanuula Range. At 5,942 metres (19,494 feet), Tuilaiuula is one of the tallest mountains in West Borea. Much of Boratia is composed of the western portion of the West Borean Steppe, which provides the region with some of the most fertile and most productive agricultural lands anywhere in Esquarium. These agricultural lands are fed by numerous rivers and streams, the largest of which are the Dobrava, which runs through central Boratia and empties into the Gulf of Gelyevich, and the Khoërmüren, which forms the border between Slavic and Mongol Kheratia. Southern Boratia and much of southern Kheratia along the coast of the Gulf of Gelyevich is composed of a vast area of wetlands known as the Great Namag. They are considered to be one of the most important in West Borea as a stopover for migrating birds. In addition to birds, the Great Namag also provides homes to numerous species of insects, reptiles, fish and several species of mammals. These wetlands are the largest of their kind in central Borea, and one of the largest on the entire continent.

Central Kheratia is dominated by the West Borean Steppe, a vast area of rolling grasslands which can be found between the West Borean Range and the Central Borean Rift. It is very similar to that of the Great Borean Steppe east of the Central Borean Rift although much smaller in area. The land itself is similar to other steppes around Esquarium, with rolling or flat terrain predominantly and very little vegetation cover aside from grasses and shrubs. It is almost entirely composed of chernozem soil types making the land very fertile, but the predominant climate does not create conditions conducive for intensive agriculture. Towards the south of Kheratia, the steppe becomes much drier and losses most of its grass covering, becoming a transition zone between the arid areas close to the coast as well as the Great Namag. A number of lakes can be found within the steppe. Lake Dabhannuur is located in the north-central part of the steppe. It is notable for being the location of a series of internationally important wetlands. It is also the largest saline lake in Kheratia. The largest lake in Kheratia, Lake Doloonmüren, can be found in the southeastern steppe region close to the Central Borean Rift.

Northern Kheratia is an extension of the flat or rolling terrain found in central Kheratia. However, it is covered primarily in vast expanses of taiga forest. These areas are among the most sparsely populated in Kheratia. The taiga region composes slightly less than one third of the total area of Kheratia. The forest becomes more sparse towards the border with the central steppe. Permafrost can be found towards the northern border of Kheratia. In the northeast, Kheratia occupies the southernmost shores of the Belizaliv Gulf. Northwestern Kheratia is dominated by the Nangin Mountains, a large range that bisects northwestern West Borea from east to west. The range is relatively young geologically, forming within the last 100,000 years. It is seismically active, producing some of the largest earthquakes in continental Borea. The Nangin Mountains act as a partial barrier to the cold air masses from Hyperborea. The mountains have become famous for their hot springs and thermal pools, which allegedly have healing properties. Like the majority of mountainous areas in Kheratia, the southern slopes of the Nangin Mountains are heavily forested and are dotted with lakes fed by snow melt and freshwater springs. The region is dominated by east-west trending fault lines, including the eponymous Nangin Thrust, which has produced some of the largest earthquakes ever recorded on land in Borea. The highest peak in the Nangin Mountains is Khoitokhan, at 4,770 metres (15,649 feet).

The Central Borean Rift is one of the physical demarcations between western and eastern Borea. It is an active seismic and volcanic zone with over a dozen active volcanoes. Snow melt and rivers flowing into the subsequent valley created in the rift zone has created a number of lakes, the largest of which is Lake Müluhan. The Central Borean Rift Valley is one of the last locations of the mammoth steppe, the predominant biome that was present across most of Esquarium during the various ice ages, with two national parks in the valley preserving these areas. Volcanism in the region produces numerous hot springs and geothermal vents which give rise to the local name Manataigol which means "misty valley". The valley is flanked by two ridges, with dormant and active volcanoes located in and around these ridges. The largest of these volcanoes is Galuula at 5,109 metres (16,761 feet). Galuula is one of the most active stratovolcanoes in the Central Borean Rift zone, having erupted eight times in the last decade.

Kheratia also occupies significant portions of the Great Borean Steppe east of the Central Borean Rift, with these areas being lands that were conquered during the Transborean War in the 18th century. This part is more forested than the steppe on the other side of the rift as it is outside of the rain shadow of the Vajiragukta Mountains to the south and is also fed by seasonal snow melt and numerous fresh water springs. These areas contain arable farmlands which have been developed in recent years owing to the ease at which irrigation can be used.

Climate

Government

Kheratia is officially a constitutional, semi-presidential, single-party state that administers itself as a federation. Khulanism is the official ideology of Kheratia and of the ruling party, the People's Revolutionary Party.

The Constitution of Kheratia usually refers to either the 1923 Constitution which was previously in use between 1923 and 1990, and the current constitution, adopted in November 1991. The current constitution was drafted after the People's Revolution in 1989 which saw mass protests and demonstrations against the government. The People's Revolutionary Party and the Central Revolutionary Council approved legislation to draft a new constitution in response to the protests, with the process taking several months. The 1991 Constitution provides for greater freedoms and civil liberties for the Kheratian people, although in practice, these freedoms and civil liberties are either restricted or non-existent. Amendments to the constitution require the approval of both the General Secretary and the Central Revolutionary Council, the latter acting as a constitutional court in lieu of a separate branch within the judiciary. This often results in liberal interpretations of the clauses in the Constitution.

The People's Revolutionary Party is the sole legal political party in Kheratia. It was officially founded on June 19, 1919 and was the vanguard of the Kheratian Revolution in 1923. The People's Revolutionary Party has supreme political control over all aspects of public administration in Kheratia and at all levels of internal governance. Every public official at the federal, regional and municipal levels is required to be a member of the People's Revolutionary Party, and in order to stand for office, party membership is required. The party offers incentives for people to become members. These incentives range from vehicles, houses, and apartments to white goods, watches, and jewelry. Currently the People's Revolutionary Party claims a membership of over five million. Every seven years, the People's Revoluntionary Party hosts a People's Congress, where invited members of the upper echelons of the party appoint leaders and participate in decision making regarding party policies, as well as amendments to the party's ideology. In addition, congresses are held at the regional and municipal levels to approve candidates for regional and municipal elections.

The People's Khural is the unicameral legislature of Kheratia, with all 350 elected representatives members of the People's Revolutionary Party. The People's Khural acts essentially as a rubber stamp legislature, meaning that legislation, policies and decrees issued by either the General Secretary or the Central Revolutionary Council are automatically passed by the People's Khural. Each member of the People's Khural is elected from a list of eligible candidates from the People's Revolutionary Party, with people chosing their most preferred candidate in a ranked voting process. Members are elected from geographical constituencies which are split evenly among Kheratia's republics, with elections being held every five years. The People's Khural has set quotas of political representatives from all of Kheratia's native ethnic groups, allowing for proportional representation of Kheratians. The leadership of the People's Khural is collectively known as the Central Committee of the People's Khural. It is in charge of the administration of the legislature, has the ability to call for assemblies, and presides over voting processes.

The Central Revolutionary Council is the highest official body in Kheratia. It functions more or less as a presidium as well as a cabinet of ministers. The Central Revolutionary Council has the ability to control and shape government policy, including introducing legislation or decrees into the People's Khural for approval. It also has functions similar to a constitutional court where members are able to interpret and make rulings on the constitution as well as pass and approve amendments. The Central Revolutionary Council is composed of 18 members divided equally between the three main ethnic people groups of Kheratia. Members of the Central Revolutionary Council are either elected to their positions by the People's Khural or are appointed by the General Secretary. Members serve for five year terms, but can be reappointed or reelected. The head of the Central Revolutionary Council is the Chairman, who is appointed by the General Secretary. They function as a de facto head of government and are bound by the same term limits as other council members.

The General Secretary of the People's Revolutionary Party is the highest office in Kheratia. Officially it is the head of state, representing Kheratia diplomatically during state visits. The General Secretary has considerable powers such as setting government policy, proposing legislation, approving legislation, appointing and removing members of the Central Revolutionary Council, and issuing decrees. The General Secretary is elected to their position by the Central Revolutionary Council and is subject to a five year renewable term.

Judiciary

Kheratia's judicial system is primarily based on socialist law and features features from common and civil law systems. The Penal Code of the People's Republic of Kheratia serves as the collection of legislation, decrees and statutes that is intended on providing guidance to judges in the criminal court system during the application of justice. However, judges can make binding decisions which act as legal precedents.

Kheratia's court system is divided between the republics with each republic having its own supreme court, tasked with handling serious criminal cases and appeals, effectively ruling out the need for a supreme court at the federal level. Supreme courts within the republics are allowed to interpret laws and statutes of the Penal Code in accordance with the differences between individual cases. Judges have some leeway with sentencing in criminal trials and sentences vary by judge. Kheratia has no trial by jury, instead a panel of judges hears criminal and some civil cases.

District courts hear criminal cases of moderate severity, and most civil cases. With the latter, judges are free to make decisions regarding disputes and other issues if there is no relevant legislation providing guidance. Furthermore, these decisions act as precedents allowing for courts to establish legal precedents which can become part of the Penal Code. However, these precedents can be challenged either directly by legal action, or by directives issued by the Central Revolutionary Council. Districts courts are the lowest level of official regulated justice institutions in Kheratia.

Below district courts but outside of any official court jurisdiction, and outside of the justice system, are communal courts. These are often an assembly of members of a collective, be it a collective farm, village, or cooperative. They have powers to issue punishments against wrongdoers for minor crimes, and function similarly to burlaw courts. However, these courts are not used officially by the party, and were made illegal in 1992. However, they are often used to deliver traditional or tribal justice against wrongdoers. These courts are not regulated, and sometimes illegal punishments are issued, such as extrajudicial killings. However the remoteness of many communities and a lack of proper oversight results in few prosecutions of those carrying out traditional justice.

Administrative Divisions

Foreign Relations

Military

The People's Army of Kheratia (Kheratian: 아ᇐ미 니 훈욷 Armi ni Khünüd , Boratian:) is the armed forces of Kheratia. It is an evolution of the former Imperial Army of the Empire of Kheratia before the 1923 Revolution. Since it's foundation in 1924, the People's Army has undergone several restructuring processes, with its political influence progressively diminishing. It has also seen a decrease in personnel numbers from 415,000 in 1990 to 251,600 in 2017, owing to changing geopolitics in West Borea. Continual changes are likely to see an increase in personnel and military spending, which currently sits at $5.3 billion (3.0% of Kheratia's nominal GDP).

Currently the People's Army of Kheratia is divided between four branches: the Ground Forces, the Air Force, the Navy and the National Guard. Previously there were five branches, with the Air Defence Forces merged with the Ground Forces as part of military reforms and revisions implemented in 1995.

Conscription is currently enforced in Kheratia, with conscripts serving 24 months of service. This is split between 12 months in active service with front line units and 12 months in the reserves, maintaining the cadre units of the People's Army. Kheratia has enforced conscription since the inception of the democratic republic. The current term of mandatory military service dates from the military reforms of 1995, as the term was previously 18 months. Kheratia does not conscript women but accepts women as volunteers. Women who volunteer are subject to a mandatory minimum term of five years for all branches of the People's Army.

The National Guard (Kheratian: 꾸ᇐ언어 함까알까 Gürene Khamgaalga , Boratian:) functions as a paramilitary. It was created in 1997 as a replacement for the militia units maintained by the Ministry of National Defence, collectively known as the Army of Workers and Peasants. The National Guard was intended on being a more professional, better armed, equipped and better trained force to deal with internal security in Kheratia in the wake of the People's Revolution in 1989. Since it's creation, the National Guard has been expanded several times and its scope now covers counter terrorism operations as well as operational support of government agencies, such as the Kheratian Border Police and the Kheratian National Police.