President of Laeral
|President of Laeral|
Seal of Laeral
|Style||Mister/Madam President, or His/Her Excellency|
|Term length||4 years|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of the Second Allied Provinces of Laeral|
|First holder||Jean-Pierre Brienne|
The President of Laeral is the executive head of state of Laeral. The President is directly elected by the Laeralian people for a four-year term, which may be renewed once. Under Laeral's current semi-presidential system, the president governs in partnership with the Prime Minister. The President's powers are strictly limited under the constitution of 1954, although critics say that the power of the office has expanded past its constitutional boundaries. The President's role includes safeguarding the constitution, serving as the head of state of Laeral and being in command of the military. The current President is Liu Mei-han of the New Democratic Alliance, who was elected in 2018 for a four-year term.
The office of a President of Laeral, although first proposed in 1886 by those frustrated by the political gridlock and lack of a strong executive that characterized the First Allied Provinces period, was first written into Laeralian law under the Constitution of the Republic of Laeral (1922-1954). That constitution featured a strong executive president, directly elected, with the ability to veto laws passed by less than a 2/3 majority in the Assembly of Commons.
The modern role of the President of Laeral was established under the Constitution of the Second Allied Provinces of Laeral.
The President is elected directly via universal suffrage. In order to be placed on the ballot, the candidate's name must be submitted to the Laeralian Election Commission by a political party with over 10,000 members or an individual with over 10,000 signatures of citizens wishing to see his or her name placed on the ballot. The President must be over 30 at the time of inauguration, be a Laeralian citizen, and not be a member of the clergy of any religion.
Presidential campaigning is governed under strict laws to regulate spending, campaign financing, and means of advertisement. All candidates with over 5% of the vote in national polls is invited to a single public, televised debate before the first round of the election. Laeral employs a two-round system of election, in which the two candidates of the first round which received the most votes (assuming no candidate wins over 50% of the vote, which has never occurred under the Second Allied Provinces) move on to a second round of voting.
Duties and Functions
Under Laeral's semi-presidential system, where the President shared power with the Prime Minister, the President can wield great influence in areas such as national security and foreign policy. The President's roles and functions are enumerated by the constitution.
Appointing the Government
The President's greatest power is that of selecting a Prime Minister and approving his or her cabinet. Since a Prime Minister and his or her cabinet can be removed from office by the National Assembly, however, they must pick a person who has the support of that body. Due to the greater frequency of legislative elections than executive elections, however, there have been cases where the President and the Prime Minister have been of different parties. This can lead to a divided government and a diminished role for the President. However, most Presidents and PMs, even those of different parties, often learn to accommodate one another.
- If a bill passes the Assembly of Commons with a 2/3rds majority, the President can sign it into law, bypassing the General Assembly.
-The President may break ties in either house of the National Assembly.
- The President has the duty of approving all laws passed by the National Assembly with the presidential seal, and distributing them nationwide.
- The President is the commander-in-chief of the Laeralian armed forces, although his or her ability to deploy soldiers abroad is regulated by the National Assembly.
- The President can dismiss cabinet ministers and secretaries, although these dismissals can be vetoed by the National Assembly.
- The President can name ambassadors and many other civil servants, pending approval by the National Assembly.
- The President may pardon or grant amnesty to convicted criminals.
- The President is responsible for receiving foreign leaders and ambassadors, as well as approving treaties.
- The President may refer bills he or she believes to be unconstitutional to the Constitutional Court.
- The President is responsible for addressing the National Assembly and the people of Laeral annually.
- In the event of a national emergency threatening the security of Laeral and the Laeralian people, the President may declare martial law and rule by decree. This clause has never been put into action.
Absence and Vacancies
In the event of the President's death or incapacitation, the Prime Minister of Laeral, or the highest eligible member of the presidential line of succession, assumes the duties of the President until a special election is held (between 20 and 40 days after the President is incapacitated).
The President can be impeached by either the Constitutional Court or by the National Assembly of Laeral. If the Constitutional Court rules by a 2/3rds majority that the President is incapable of executing his or her office, or that they have abused the office, the President is impeached. Alternately, the Assembly of Commons may pass an impeachment resolution by simple majority, with the General Assembly and the Constitutional Court joining to vote on whether the President should be impeached. A 2/3rds majority vote is required. This is the path that was used to impeach President Maurice Fesnau in 2006. If the President is impeached, a special election is held to elect a replacement.
Jean-Pierre Brienne (1954-1958) Réne Gramont (1958-1966)