|Political position||Right-wing (social) |
Birlikism (Chandan: 𑐧𑐶𑐬𑐮𑐶𑐎, Birlik, lit. "oneness") is a Chandan political ideology formed from the syncretism of Chandan nationalist movements that first arose during the independence of the West Shalegho Commandery in 1935. Unlike similar ideologies, Birlikism is a general set of ideals rather than a detailed set of principles and theories. The implementation of Birlikism in Chanda has differed greatly, but the country's ideology has been described as a mix of nationalism, militarism, and corporatism.
Birlikism promotes the formation of a pan-Chandan national identity based upon an adaptation of socialist patriotism and the legacy of the West Shalegho Commandery. It opposes the existence of ethnic nationalism, instead promoting social cohesion and cultural harmony between ethnic groups. In order to implement these ideals, the ideology supports the creation of a united front of Chanda's ethnic groups to govern the country. It promotes an ethnic federal to govern the country. Birlikism promotes a socialist and national syndicalist economy to unite the people of Chanda and develop the country. Birlikism espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society through corporatist political institutions.
Birlikism traces its origins to anti-imperialist sentiment when the region was a part of the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire. Various nationalist militias rose up during the Chandan War of Independence before they were integrated into the People's Liberation Army of Chanda who controlled the West Shalegho Commandery. Nevertheless, nationalistic feelings continued to grow as an alternative to the Pardal's pan-Coian ideology. Nevertheless, the Pardals promoted an inclusive multiethnic identity based upon socialist solidarity, declaring the birlik or "the oneness" of the people united to defend the Pardal cause. Birlikism would derive its fundamental principles, and its name, from this concept.
Beginning in the 1940s, many Chandans grew increasingly disillusioned with the Pardal ideology, especially the goal to create a pan-Coian state. As a result infighting in the West Shalegho Commandery and the PLA began between various factions. In turn the previous nationalist ideologies began to be adopted by an increasing number of Chandan intellectuals including the members of the PLA. Some of these members included Abdug'ani Yoʻldosh, Nurlan Sabir, Inomjon Alikhan, Wu Khar, and Kadri Badi together known as the Five Leaders of Chanda. The five men agreed that the Commandery no longer could fully serve the people of Chanda, and believed in the establishment of a republic. Influenced by the Imaharist concept of republicanism they embraced more authoritarian methods of rule.
The central concept of Birlikism is the creation of a pan-Chandan national identity. Birlik thought places the creation and continuation of a Chandan national identity as essential to the country's continued existence as an independent state. The Five Leaders sought to establish an national identity by adapting the socialist patriotism promoted by the Pardals into a pan-Chandan nationalism that could unite Chanda's culturally and religiously diverse population. They argued that since Chandan nationalism is a pan-nationalist ideology it would unite people into a common cause instead of dividing them. Furthermore it adopted the Nemtsovite concept of national liberation to argue that the Chandan people had to be united to defend against foreign imperialism.
Birlik nationalism explicitly rejects any kind of ethnic nationalism, labeling it as bourgeois nationalism and declaring it unworkable for Chanda's multiracial and multicultural society. Instead it promotes the multi-ethnic cultural unity of the people, and defines ethnic groups as "sub-divisions" of the Chandan people. Abdug'ani Yoʻldosh wrote in 1937 that "Chanda is of many races, languages, religions and cultures; to center an identity on any one would only serve to divide our country." As a result, he and other members of the Group vehemently opposed support of ethnic nationalism and especially separatism by any ethnic group. They believed that only with a single purpose, the country could achieve prosperity and defend its independence.
Another major component of Chandan nationalism is multiculturalism, as a united identity requires that there be no conflict between the diverse people of Chanda. It seeks to prevent ethnic tension by placing the state as the active guarantor and protector of it. In 1938, Yoʻldosh wrote, "to secure multiculturalism, the new Republic must guarantee the principles of freedom, equality, and equal representation." The principle of freedom is the basis that all the people of Chanda are able to express their own culture without facing restriction by the state or prejudice by their fellow citizens. Equality refers to the principle that all the cultures and religions of Chanda are of equal worth so they are all equal before the law and entitled to the equal protection of the law. Next, representation establishes the principle that the peoples of Chanda are entitled to fair representation in Chandan society. The latter principle is achieved through corporatist ideals such as functional constituencies in legislative bodies and diverse regulatory institutions.
The last major component of this Chandan nationalism was its emphasis on militarism. It places the survival of Chanda on the state being able to defend the nation's sovereignty from external threats and secure internal stability from internal threats. It argues that Chandan independence and security can only be accomplished by a sufficiently militarized and orderly society that is united under Birlikist principles. A major concept within Birlikist militarism, is the concept of dual function, which holds the idea that the armed forces should assist in maintaining Chanda’s political and social order as well as its territorial cohesion. Nurlan Sabir argued in a speech in 1951, that "a total people's defence is the ultimate goal of the Republic, where the military is completely dedicated to the strength and prosperity of Chanda". What roles the military should fulfill varied among the Five Leaders, but they universally agreed the military should focus on construction, especially of public works. Despite the integration of the military into domestic affairs, they opposed the creation of a military dictatorship or any kind of control over the civilian government. Rather they believed that the military should have a degree of independence from the government and they should only be given fair representation in the government, following corporatist ideals.
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Birlikism promotes its own interpretation of socialism, which it claims is adapted for Chanda's unique cultural and economic situation. It promotes a united trans-class society while opposing individual-class-based societies such as bourgeois or proletarian societies. Birlikism opposes class conflict and espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for assigning with negotiating between managers and workers. The ideology views the main purpose of Birlik socialism is to promote economic equality, which would help achieve a unified Chandan society. The goal of creating a classless society found in traditional socialism is only mentioned in Birlik thought in the context of unifying Chanda's people. It opposes the confiscation of private property, the seizure of the means of production, some aspects of class conflict, and leftist internationalism. Instead it embraces the principles of common ownership, distributism, and class cooperation.
Birlikism rejects capitalism, denouncing it as an individualist economy run by the international bourgeoisie. Furthermore it rejects state socialism, arguing that the state would only subjugate the worker to an inefficient means of managing the economy. Instead it promotes national syndicalism combined with socialist and market principles, known as the Peoples' Economy. Although the ideology does not elaborate further, it promotes the idea of "patriotic" organisations with significant liberty over implementing economic policy while remaining accountable to the people and the government. The structure of these organizations were never described in detail, but Alikhan argued for cooperatives governed by its workers and its consumers.
The partial rejection of class conflict is another concept divergent from traditional leftist thought. To a certain extent, Birlik economics has a less hostile view of the bourgeoisie in Chandan society, than traditional socialism. It views the Chandan bourgeoisie as petite bourgeoisie who were exploited by Xiaodongese imperialism and thus were an oppressed class. It still opposes the rest of the bourgeoisie and views the Xiaodongese as a fundamentally "haute bourgeoisie society" who exploited the people of Coius for millennia. To resist their influence, the ideology promotes the idea of a united front consisting of the petite bourgeoisie along with the working class, peasantry, and the intelligentsia.
However Birlikism recognizes that including the petite bourgeoisie in a Birlikist front, would continue exploitation between them and the rest of the classes. To end exploitation, Birlik socialism promotes a tripartite model that would establish fair labor regulations and strong collective bargaining for workers. Furthermore It supports an expansive welfare state implemented by various social programs.