Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire
Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire
Dà Tiān Xiǎodōng Dìguó
Yuàn wú shèng guó xīngshèng qiāndài
May our heavenly state blossom for a thousand ages
Heavenly Majesty (1870-1922)
Ten thousand nations celebrate the imperial throne's prosperity (1922-1935)
|The Heavenly Empire at its height in 1928 Inner Xiaodong Occupied territory Satellite state|
|Yao Shusheng (first)|
|Xu Deming (last)|
|Legislature||Imperial Deliberative Assembly|
|14th February 1858-24 th May 1864|
|12th May 1894|
|7th April 1927|
• Treaty of Keisi
|8th August 1935|
|Today part of|| Xiaodong|
The Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire (Xiaodongese: 大天晓东帝国; Dà Tiān Xiǎodōng Dìguó, literally "Great Celestial Xiaodongese Empire") was a historical Xiaodongese nation state that existed from the overthrow of the Toki dynasty in the Restoration War from 1857-1864 to the Treaty of Keisi in 1935 when it was replaced by the Republic of Xiaodong.
The Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire came into existence after the general decline of the Toki dynasty, a situation exacerbated by a devastating famine in 1855 and the success of Gaullica, Etruria, Werania and Estmere in the xxx which saw Xiaodong subjected to numerous unequal treaties and forced to cede several port cities to Euclean powers. A resurgence of fervent ultranationalism led to the Six Province Alliance under the command of warlord Yao Qinghong who launched the Restoration War in February 1858 after the signing of the Tienwei Island Treaty after the Six Province Alliance captured the city of Baiqiao and promulgated the Edict of Sovereignty which saw the declaration of the creation of the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire with the Yao being conferred as the Xiyong Emperor. The Toki dynasty were absorbed into Xiaodong in May 1864 when Toki forces were forced to sign the Edict of Surrender, ending the Restoration War.
Under the rule of the Xiyong Emperor Xiaodong sought to economically, politically and culturally entrench its status as a sovereign state. Xiaodong also moved from a feudal into a semi-industrial state with tepid industrialisation pursued by industrial conglomerates known as Caihong's. The aristocracy were undermined by the Zhengfeng, or Great Cultural Rectification Movement that aimed to modernise Xiaodong. During the national renaissance Xiaodongese culture reached its apex and by the turn of the century Xiaodong had established itself as a sovereign state intent on modernisation, whilst developing authoritarian, xenophobic and social Darwinist traits.
During the 1860's-1880's Xiaodong established a empire consisting of annexed territories, satellite states and colonies. A series of vassal states such as Tinza, Lainan, x and x were created whilst parts of other countries such as Sakata in Senria were annexed into the empire. The creation of the empire was fuelled in part by the belief of the need to create a "Greater Xiaodongese Order".
Following the death of the Xiyong Emperor his successor, the Qingzhuo Emperor, initiated political reform in the form of the creation of formal constitution and an elected legislature, an act known as the "Constitutional Revolution". Economic development was pursued as was a close alliance with Gaullica, whose economic and social system Xiaodong emulated highly.
In 1920 rising far-right sentiments due to the economic effects of the Great Collapse led to the Jiayun Uprising by a group of lower ranking officers led by Zhao Hongjun who overthrew the Qingzhuo Emperor and installed his son, the Shanrong Emperor, to the throne. During the 1920's the Xiaodongese state dramatically militarised which increased further as the Shanrong Emperor purged his opponents in the government and ruled as a de facto absolute monarch similar to his grandfather.
In 1926 Senria launched the Second Sakata Incident triggering Xiaodong to invoke its alliance with Gaullica starting the Great War. Xiaodong invaded Senria as well as Euclean possessions in Satria initially performing well. By 1932 however Xiaodong was pushed out of Senria and was invaded by Senrian forces throughout 1933-1935. The Shanrong Emperor died in a plane crash in 1934 with his brother being enthroned as the Taiyi Emperor. The Taiyi Emperor sued for peace and in 1935 an armistice was signed after XIaodong unconditionally surrendered ending the Great War with Xiaodong being the last major Entente nation to surrender. The resulting Treaty of Keisi formally abolished the Xiaodongese monarchy in favour of a liberal republic ending over 2,000 years of imperial rule.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Foreign relations
- 4 Military
- 5 Persecution
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Legacy
Prior to the creation of the Heavenly Empire, Xiaodong under Toki rule was economically undeveloped being under a system of agrarian feudalism in nature. This move was deliberate - the Toki used Xiaodong as a base for agricultural production of rice, soy and cotton rather then for industry despite tepid moves in that direction during the 1830's-40's after contact with Euclean traders. The Baiqiao Revolution however saw the removal of many feudal landlords, resulting in their land to come under direct ownership of the central government rather than be redistributed to noble families. These areas as such saw a dismantling of the feudal system and the creation of industrial capitalist enterprise such as textile mills and coal mines, with foreign technologies being imported from abroad. These policies were advocated by Rao Qiaonian, one of the early advocates of industrial capitalism in Xiaodong and a close adviser of the Xiyong Emperor who developed them alongside Gaullican banker Jérôme André Murat who proposed several rationalisations to the Xiaodongese financial system.
A meeting at the Chiangqi Palace in 1860 saw the Xiyong Emperor announce that the government would embark on fiscal and economical reform, most prominently the creation of the Reserve Bank of Xiaodong which combined separate banking and fiscal institutions owned by the Treasury into a single central bank. The government also began a programme of import substitution industrialisation that collectively sought to dismantle feudalism and create a capitalist economy. Noble lands were reformed along provincial and prefectual lines ending the feudal system and creating capitalist modes of production and use of labour, with the government utilising indicative planning. The government via the Ministry of Finance directed investment into new industrial conglomerates known literally as "fiscal professions" (财行; Cáiháng, sometimes called Ts'aihong) commonly known as Caihongs which were dominated by business owners and nobles who supported the Southern Army during the Baiqiao revolution which subsequently began to produce industrial goods.
The dismantlement of the feudal system and rapid industrialisation in the 1860's soon saw the government relax its interventionist attitude, championing a more laissez faire approach to economic management. Agriculture however remained largely unreformed on the few feudal remnants left over, with the influence of nobles over decision making leading to economic liberalism in most affairs with the exception of tariffs, which remained high due to protectionist attitudes.
Xiaodongese industrialisation rapidly developed following the colonisation of Narmada which was used as a resource base for core Xiaodong. Large amounts of industrial workers' were imported from Narmada into Xiaodong to work in Xiaodongese factories whilst Narmadi agriculture was used to feed industrial workers'. Economist and historian Viswanatha Krishnamacharyulu stated that without using the resources Xiaodong gained through the colonisation of Narmada and Duljun the country would not have been able to industrialise nor develop a modern capitalist economy due to the retention of feudal structures in non-colonised territory.
The relation between the government and the Caihongs were especially close during this period, with Caihongs being the de facto handlers of the economy. According to Senrian historian Yokohama Tarokagyu the government's finances were largely handled by Caihong managers over government bureaucrats and elected ministers. As such the Caihong system evolved over time from supporting laissez faire to directly colluding with government creating a system of state monopoly capitalism. Under Zhao Hongjun in 1912 the Economic Co-ordination Ministry was created, which placed more government regulations on Caihongs and the economy re-organised on corporatist lines . Economic planning was re-implemented as the economy was remodelled to fit a more statist attitude, leading to the military to take direct ownership via nationalisation to promote a program of military Keynesianism.
During the Senrian-Xiaodongese War the government implemented a full-blown command economy. Although private firms existed they had little autonomy as the Economic Co-ordination Ministry directly controlled the economic affairs of the nation.
Opera and theatre
The Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire and its legacy continues to define the contemporary Xiaodongese politics and culture. According to Xiaodongese historian Rong Xuchen the Heavenly Empire was "a state of contradictions; admiring traditionalism, yet ensuring economic and social modernisation; appealing to a native set of values and philosophy, yet also embracing western style racialism and concepts of the sovereign state; both liberating the Xiaodongese people from Min colonialism, yet overseeing a brutal imperialist policy that ultimately led to the murder of over one and a half million people". The Baiqiao Revolution which birthed the Heavenly State is still celebrated as the most important event in Xiaodong's history, paving the way for Xiaodong's independence. However, the fact that the same popular nationalism that spurred the Baiqiao Revolution ultimately led Xiaodong down the path to authoritarianism, war and eventually genocide continues to be a source of controversy in Xiaodongese society. Template:Xiaodong Topics