Crethia

Republic of Crethia

Refoli af Krøtin
Flag of Crethia
Flag
Emblem of the State of Crethia
Emblem of the State
Motto: "Til mi Fædrelande"
"For My Fatherland"
Crethia (green) located in Asura (light grey).
Crethia (green) located in Asura (light grey).
Political Map of Crethia.png
Capital
and largest city
Donhaven
Official languagesCrethian
Recognised regional languagesEilnish
Ethnic groups
Crethian (88.3%)
Eilnish (5.6%)
Other (6.1%)
Demonym(s)Crethian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• State President
Mia Hall
• Chancellor
Donal Menzies
LegislatureFolketing
Establishment
• Unification
1448
• Union with Ronnland
1598
• Kingdom of Crethia and Crylante
1775
• Independence from Ronnland
1787
• Annexation by Hallania
1799
• Independence and republic
1916
Population
• 2018 estimate
5,200,000
• 2014 census
5,093,757
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
• Total
203.04 billion
• Per capita
39,862
Gini (2015)23.7
low
HDI (2015)0.934
very high
CurrencyPund (₱) (CPD)
Date formatdd-mm-yy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+21

Crethia (Crethian: Krøtin), officially the Republic of Crethia (Crethian: Refoli af Krøtin), is an island country located in Hallania. It shares a maritime border with Tuskval and Ronnland. Crethia is a small country, with an area of square kilometres. It has an estimated population of 5.2 million and a low population density of inhabitants per square kilometre. Most of the population is located in urban centers on the main island along the banks of the River Hvid and the River Til, with approximately 75% of the country residing in urban areas.

Foranic people have first settled in Crethia after migrating from the continent of Asura, with the Albi tracing their ancient origins back to Peripheral Forans. The Albi were a tribal people and established early confederations throughout modern day Crethia. Over time, Hallic raiders in the early eleventh century. Over time, a fusion of the native Albi and the Nordic cultures and ethnic groups occurred. A number of petty kingdoms, dominated by a Hallic nobility that adopted many local customs, emerged. Eventually, the country was unified by Alexander II, Duke of Donhaven, often remembered as Alexander the Great of Crethia. The First Kingdom of Crethia was established, bring all of the islands of the Crethian archipelago under the control of Donhaven. Following a succession crisis in 1598, a personal union was established under Ronnland. This lasted until 1775 when the Ronnish monarch attempted to annex Crethia to Ronnland. This move was met with broad opposition in Crethia and many prominent nobles, merchants, and clerics opposed the union. Rebellion began soon after in 1776 when Vilhelm Noble-Surname was crowned King of Crethia. It spanned nearly two decades until Crethia regained independence in 1787. However, Vilhelm was killed during the revolt and the movement was left with no clear leader.

The Second Kingdom of Crethia was in regency for the entire duration of its existence. Two rival factions sat in the riksdag and were unable to agree on a suitable candidate to sit on the throne. The regency council, led by Crethian nationalists, was regularly undermined by pan-Hallic nationalists. After famine struck the islands, the pan-Hallics gained support and ultimately took control of the regency council, offering to crown to the King of Tuskval-Svaldheim. Crethia entered into a personal union and became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Hallania in 1812. The Hallic period saw a repression of Crethian nationalism, with a general de-Foranization taking place as the Hallic-installed government sought to remove Foranic influences from the language and culture. This caused controversy among many nationalists, who staged multiple failed uprisings throughout the century. The last and arguably most successful took place in 1872, which won concessions from the Hallic government and the process of de-Foranization came to an end. Crethians participated in the Continental War despite agitation from nationalists. Amid the defeat and collapse of Hallania, a nationalist revolt began and a royalist government-in-exile was established. A rival republican faction emerged and conflict between the two ensued Crethia descended into crisis and civil war, which resulted in the victory of the republican faction and the establishment of a republic and constitution.

The country saw a renewed period of significant industrialization and urbanization during the beginning of the twentieth century. As a part of this process, there was a growing divide between provinces located on the main island (Fastlande) of the Crethian sub-archipelago and that make up the udreøer (outer-islands). The PKR established itself as the dominant-party of Crethia, securing an uninterrupted absolute majority in the Folketing from 1902 to 1966. Economic stagnation and rising unemployment, coupled with social issues, saw the PKR defeated for the first time. Crethia remained neutral during both the Second Great War and the Cold War and stills maintains a policy of neutrality. The country has close relations to its Hallic neighbors, maintained through the Council of Hallic States of which it is a founding member.

Crethia is a federal parliamentary republic, consisting of twelve provinces. The capital is Donhaven, which has an urban population of 944,667 people. The current president is Mia Hall, an Independent, who serves as head of state. Executive power is exercised by the Government, which is led by the chancellor, a post currently held by Donal Menzies (SP), and the cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Folketing. Each province has its own legislature and a provincial governor, which exercise devolved authority. Starting in 2014, the country was governed by a fragile coalition of the Progressive Conservatives and Republicans and the right-wing National Alliance, a right-wing party, led by chancellor Craig Kerr for four years. The government, which had been dogged by scandals, was defeated in the 2018 general election. The victory of the Social Democrats put Menzies' Social Democratic Party back in power as a minority government, propped up by a supply and confidence agreement with the Liberal Party.

Etymology

The name Crethia has its origins in the Gaelic name for the Albi people, Cruthaen, which is thought to relate to the Gaelic word cruth, meaning "form, figure, shape" It is generally accepted that Cruthaen is the Goidelic version of Critani, which is the Britonnic name for the most powerful ancient Albi confederation. From Cruthaen, the Crethian Krøtin was derived. Crethia is the anglicized version of Cruthaen.

History

Early history

Middle Ages

The Mairdic High Kings were elected at the Stone of Fiv.
  • Crethia is divided into a number of Mairdic tribal confederations
  • There is a titular High King with no real authority, realm is divided and prone to fighting among the tribes
  • Alydian missionaries begin proselytizing on the Mainland's southern coast, met with some success
  • Islands are raided extensively by Navish sea raiders, eventually they launch a campaign to establish their authority over the island
  • Sandish are able to establish control over the islands, bringing them under a semi-cohesive authority under the United Kingdom of Navack known as the pending
  • Defeat of the Sandish by the TRIBE in YEAR, sees the fall of PENDING. Nearly a dozen petty kingdoms are established after its fall. The titular high king returns and is elected, but still has no authority
Abbey of Constanze the Blessed, the first stone building in Crethia built in 1046.

Unification and the First Kingdom of Crethia

Tower of Donhaven, located on the River Hvid, was built over 700 years ago by the Clarke monarchs.

Union with Ronnland

Second Kingdom of Crethia

Hallic period

Independence and Civil War

Republic and industrialization

Modern history

Politics

Governance

State President Mia Hall
Chancellor Donal Menzies

The governing doctrine of Crethia is its Constitution, which was drafted and ratified in 1837. It defines the federal system used to govern Crethia. It establishes three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Likewise, it outlines the roles of provinces and their devolved branches of government.

The executive branch consists of the president, the chancellor, and the cabinet. The president is the head of state, meaning the role is largely ceremonial. The current President is Mia Hall, an Independent, and has held the post since 2015. Terms last for five years and presidents are popularly elected using a plurality vote. Typically, president's three primary tasks are conducting official state visits, receiving diplomatic credentials, and formally appointing the chancellor, cabinet, and other federal positions. However, all of these roles are filled by the government in the legislature. The largest party, or coalition of parties, in the Folketing form the government. The chancellor, the head of government, is chosen from among the MPs and puts together his or her cabinet. Donal Menzies is the current chancellor and is a member of the Social Democratic Party. He has served as chancellor since the 2018 general election. Likewise, chancellors nominate candidates to fill all federal posts, including those in the judiciary and various federal agencies. At least 75% of cabinet ministers must be sitting MPs and serve at the pleasure of the chancellor. Ministers oversee the fourteen federal departments.

The Parliament of Crethia (Folketinget af Krøtin) is the federal legislature and is unicameral. It has 175 members known as Members of Parliament who are elected through proportional representation. MPs serve a maximum four year terms and then it is mandated by the Constitution that fresh elections must be held. Snap elections may be held between the regularly scheduled elections. Federal elections always take place on the first Wednesday of September and under Crethian law voting is mandatory. Election day is also a federal holiday and is observed throughout the country in order to make it easier for citizens to comply with the mandate. There is a 5% threshold for parties to achieve representation in Parliament. In total, there are 175 seats, 88 of which are needed for a majority. Seats can be adjusted after the census if the government deems it necessary. Traditionally, for every 300,000 citizens there is one seat in parliament. Currently there is a minority government formed by the Social Democratic Party. The government is supported by the Radical Liberals. The Speaker of the parliament presides over the legislature and is responsible for ensuring the agenda is kept. The government is always seated to the speaker's left. After the government is seated, parties are placed according to their location on the political spectrum from the speaker's left to right. The legislature is housed in the Folketinget-Hos, located in Donhaven.

The judicial branch at a national level is made up of various levels of federal courts. The highest court of Crethia is known as the Landsret. It has appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over provincial court cases involving issues of federal law, plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Landsret alone has the final say on constitutionality, although it may only act within the context of a case for which it has jurisdiction. There are seven judges, known as Dommere (sin. dommer), that serve on the court. It is presided over by the Vigtigste Dommer while the remaining six judges are known as Medarbejderske-Dommere. They are appointed by the Furste and confirmed by Parliament. Once appointed, dommere have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment. Other national courts are known as Folkesret. The country is divided into five circuits, officially known as Folkesrondrejse. Provinces are grouped into circuits based on population, and jurisdiction may change with each census.

Political parties and elections

Foreign relations and military

Elizabet Angusdoher, the current foreign secretary.

Crethia maintains permanent diplomatic missions in over forty countries. Dozens of foreign countries maintain an embassy in Crethia, all of them are located in the capital, Crethia. There are also a number of consulates present in Crethia. When a new ambassador or consul is sent to Crethia by a foreign nation, they are received by the president to whom they present their letter of credence. Foreign policy is coordinated through the Department of Foreign Affairs, currently led by Secretary Elizabet Angusdoher. Traditionally, Crethian diplomats have been advocates for the creation and use of international institutions. As a small state, Crehtia relies heavily on these institutions to to carry out its foreign policy goals and ensure its security. Crethia is an advocate for inclusive international processes that bring national governments together.

Crethia is a founding member of the Hallic Commonwealth and several prominent prime ministers have advocated for increased cooperation among the Hallic countries. It is also a participating member of the Aeian Environment Agency, the Aeian Public Health Organization, and the World Educational and Cultural Organization. International treaties are negotiated by the prime minister and voted upon by the Folketing, which in turn validates the terms of the treaty and binds the government to them. Following a failed referendum to join the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, Crethian governments have been vocal critics of the organization. Former Crethian foreign secretary Jakob Ross called the CDN "one of the greatest setbacks since the Great War" as the CDN has authority it often exercises over countries who are not members or can not qualify as members. Crethia instead supports an international body in which all nations may participate and receive equal representation.

Administrative divisions

As a federal republic, Crethia is divided into ten provinces, known in Crethian as område. Each province has its own constitution, governor, and legislature. Devolved powers are granted to the provinces and their standing is made permanent by the 1901 constitution. Provincial legislatures differ in the organization, which is laid out in the constitution of each individual province. Each province is required to maintain an official flag and coat of arms, which it reserves the right to alter or replace by passing legislation. Provinces in the Fastlande (mainland) region of the country tend to be densely populated, while those in the Udreøer (outer-islands) are sparsely populated. Many of the provincial borders are rooted in the borders of the old counties (borgs), the former subdivisions of the monarchist states. Many have been condensed into larger provinces, while some such as Leteborg and Søborg maintain their old borders.

Map Name and shield Administrative centre Most populous municipality Population
Crethian Provinces Labeled.png
Province (område)
Arms of Galbraith of Culcreuch.svg Blareborg Blare Clud 461,485
Macduff arms.svg Donhaven-Moseskove Donhaven Donhaven 1,169,821
Blason George Dunbar.svg Fiveborg Fiv Hjeme 504,780
Arms of Skene of Skene.svg Hjortelande Heteslande Inverkombu 333,125
Riddell of that Ilk arms.svg Kintail Melkirke Melkirke 176,749
Mackie of Larg arms.svg Kragesborg Tilvæg Tilvæg 619,897
Calder of Calder arms.svg Krombugt Robertebur Robertebur 289,828
Maxton of Cultoquhey arms.svg Leteborg Invermose Rokesburg 425,829
Arms of Livingstone of Bachuil.svg Søborg Angulborg Duntopmøde 209,858
Basic Stewart arms.svg Stratborg Strat Dunbroke 902,385

Economy

Transport

A Longskib ferry departing from Stenhvid.

As a result of low population density, the scattered nature of the islands, and narrow shape and long coastlines of Crethia, its public transportation infrastructure is less developed when compared to many other nations in Asura. The country has a long history of maritime traditions, stemming from its geographic location. Many of its traditional transport routes are sea-based, connecting the islands that make up the Crethian archipelago. In recent decades, the government has worked to expand links between major population centers and with neighboring countries through a combination of road, rail, and air travel. The Department for Transport and Infrastructure oversees government policy for transportation. A recent trend of privatization as seen a scaled back role for the department, as public ownership came to an end.

Ferry services play a crucial role in Crethian public transport. Dozens of ferry links link the nation's many islands together, providing access for residents of remote islands to major urban areas such as Donhaven and Tilvæg. Ferry connections also allow for easy travel through the four major rivers, along which many major cities are located. Regular ferry services operate between the main islands and the outlying islands. Longskib is the largest of provider of services, focusing primiarly on routes linking the western islands with the rest of the country. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect Crethia to the Asuran mainland, the Mardin Isles, and Hallania. Some provincial and local authorities operation additional routes.

Domestic rail services are operated by Krøtjernbane.

The main railway network of 2,733 km standard gauge lines, of which 122 kilometres are double-tracked and 53 km is high-speed rail. The majority of the Crethian network is concentrated on the main island, with some smaller lines operating else where Krøtjernbane operates all intercity, commuter, and freight railway services in the country. Donhaven is the center of the network with its large station, Sistend, linking to the cities and main towns on the main island. Several small companies provide regional freight services. Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the national budget, and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations. Subsidies are provided for passenger train operations, especially for less frequently traveled lines. The provincial government of Donhaven-Moseskove operates an inner-city light rail network in conjunction with local authorities.

In total, there are 74 airports in Crethia, many of which are small airports in remote areas with limited operations. Provincial and local governments operate 47 airports. The gateway to Crethia by air is Donhaven International. However, a number of other airports receive over one million passengers annually. A total of 35,105,969 passengers passed through Crethian airports in 2010, of whom 10,713,201 were international. Donhaven is the hub for Krøtinsk Flyselsannrer, a subsidiary of Skytrain. There are departures to most Asuran countries in addition to some intercontinental destinations.

Demographics

Ethnicity in Crethia
Ethnicity Percentage
Crethians
88.3%
Eilnish
5.6%
Other
6.1%

The first Foranic people arrived in Crethia following the migration of early Foranics northward. The Albi were the first native Foranic group and lived in modern day Crethia. They were later conquered by migrating Mairic peoples, who assimilated the Albi. Hallic peoples from Hallania conquered the region in the early eleventh century. Over time, a fusion of the native Albi and the Hallic cultures and ethnic groups occurred, resulting in the creation of the modern day Crethian people. The Crethian language also has its origins in this cultural fusion. As such, Crethia is considered a Foranic-Hallic state. When discussing Crethian culture, one prominent academic said that it is "Foranic when convenient, and Hallic when convenient".

Today, roughly 88% of the population identifies as ethnically Crethian as of the 2014 census. The biggest minority group within Crethia are the Eilnish, with 5.6% of the population identifying as such. The majority of the Eilnish population, which as of 2014 is 285,250, resides within the province of Leteborg, which has historically exchanged hands between Ronnland and Crethia. In recent years, Eilnish political movements have been launched, with the most notable being the Eilnish Interest Party. Other significant ethnic groups are x and y.