Mongol Uls

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Khanate of the Mongol Uls
Mongol Ulusyn Khanlig (Khalkha Mongolian)
Flag of Mongol Uls
Coat of arms of Mongol Uls
Coat of arms
Anthem: Chinggis Khaanii Magtaal
Mongol Uls Updated.png
and largest city
Official languagesKhalkha Mongolian (working)
Recognised national languagesTuvan
Ethnic groups
GovernmentAsymmetrical federal parliamentary real union
Manduul Temüjin
Sherig Toka (acting)
• Onon Kurultai
1206 CE
• Qing Conquest
1758 CE
• Soviet Occupation
• Coronation of Manduul Temujin
• Total
6,400,000 km2 (2,500,000 sq mi)
• 2023 estimate
• 2020 census
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$199 billion
• Per capita
CurrencySum (mns) (MNS)
Date formatdd-mm-yy
Driving sideleft

The Mongol Uls, officially the Khanate of the Mongol Uls (Khalkha Mongolian: Mongol Ulusyn Khanlig), and sometimes referred to by the erroneous metonym Mongolia, is a nation located in Central Asia, bordering Russia, China, and the Turkic Union. Composed of its heartland, referred to as Mongolia, as well as the federacy of Gurkaniyan, the city of Kharkhorin, and areas under the jurisdiction of the militant Second Golden Horde, the Khanate claims the legacy of the ancient Mongol Empire.

While a Mongol state in some form has existed since the Onon Kurultai in 1206 CE, the present-day Khanate was created in 2019, when Nyamaagiin Khaltar was recognised by the 14th Dalai Lama as the 10th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, and hence the Bogd Gegeen, heir to the Bogd Khan. After a lengthy public debate, a referendum led to Khaltar being installed as Manduul Temujin, the 10th Bogd Gegeen and Khan of All Mongolia, the head of state of a new Mongol Khanate. In 2021, the Mongol Uls announced plans to form a real union with the newly-established Turkic state of Gurkaniyan, and with a previously-sovereign militia known as the Second Golden Horde. Together, the three entities formed what became known as the current Khanate of the Mongol Uls.

The Khanate of the Mongol Uls is the world's second-largest country by land area, although it is very sparsely populated. Its wide jurisdiction and strategic location have led to its controlling a powerful military position, and it is beginning to be considered to be a great power. Its assumption of the administration of Russia in 2022 and its significant sway over both the Turkic Union and the most prominent Chinese military faction have led to it increasingly becoming an international powerbroker.


The term "Mongol Uls" can be roughly translated as "Mongol State". The Mongol Uls is often referred to by the pars pro toto metonym of "Mongolia"; however, this is neither the Khanate's official name nor an accurate description, as the Khanate controls territories in areas that are far from the Mongol steppe. Rather, "Mongolia" is a designation for a geographical region within the greater Khanate, which is used for demographic and electoral purposes.


Ancient History

Early Modern History

Modern History



The Mongol Uls is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, with a figurehead monarch as the Head of State and a supreme parliament, the Kurultai. The Kurultai is elected every two years, and serves to pass legislation and provide confidence and supply to the Cabinet. The Cabinet, and the executive branch as a whole, are both led by the Prime Minister (Khalkha Mongol: Yerönkhii Said), who is the Head of Government. The judiciary is independent of the other branches; a technocratic model of judicial appointments is used, with the Judicial Appointments Board recommending magisterial candidates at all levels of government.

Administrative Divisions

The Mongol Uls is divided into four main subdivisions: Mongolia, the City of Kharkorin, the Emirate of Gurkaniyan, and the Golden Horde Jurisdictional Areas.


Mongolia is the largest subdivision, but has no autonomy; regional issues are dealt with at the aimag level. There are 6 aimags: Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva, and the Altai.


The City of Kharkorin is the Mongol Uls' capital city, governed separately from the Mongolia region, which surrounds it. Most of its affairs are dealt with directly by the Kurultai, but a City Council deals with some local governance issues.


The Emirate of Gurkaniyan is the most autonomous subdivision; it is considered to posses its own sovereignty and rights to self-determination, in a setup similar to that of the associated states of New Zealand. It is a constitutional monarchy with characteristics of sharia law, with an Amir as the Head of State, and an Islamic Khalifa as the chief executive. Its legislature, which deals with both sharia and secular law, is the Majlis ash-Shura (literally "Consultative Council").

Golden Horde Jurisdictional Areas

The Golden Horde Jurisdictional Areas (Khalkha Mongol: Ulug Uls Zakhirgaany Büsüüd; UUZB), meanwhile, are under the jurisdiction of the Second Golden Horde, a militant group loyal to the Kurultai, albeit with significant autonomy. While the Second Golden Horde retains authority over the military, security, and judicial affairs of the UUZBs, civil governance is exercised over each ethnic group within the UUZB area by four ethnic councils: the Council of the Uyghur Community, the Council of the Tibetan Community, the Council of the Chinese Community, and the Golden Horde Mongol Authority. Each council governs the affairs of its respective ethnic group, holding power over a designated list of local government areas.

Foreign Relations and Military


Ethnic Groups

A plurality – about 34% – of the Khanate's population identifies as "Mongol (Mongolia)", a designation covering Khalkha and Inner Mongols, while a further 5% belong to "Mongol (Buryatia/Kalmykia)", covering Buryats and Kalmyks. 33%, concentrated in Gurkaniyan, are Uzbeks, while 10% are Uyghurs, mostly living in East Turkestan. 7% belong to other Turkic populations, such as Tuvans and Kazakhs. Tibetans and Han Chinese comprise 6% and 5%, respectively, while "Others", mostly Russians, comprise 1-2%.


Khalkha Mongolian (including its Inner Mongolian dialect) and Uzbek are the Khanate's official languages, both spoken as first 35% of the Khanate's population, respectively. Around 37% of the Khanate's population speaks Khalkha Mongolian as a second language. Tuvan, Buryat, Uyghur, Oirat, and Tibetan are recognised national languages.


Buddhism is the majority religion among ethnic Mongols and ethnic Tibetans; it is practised 38% of the Khanate's entire population. 37% of the Khanate's citizens are Muslims, concentrated in Gurkaniyan and East Turkestan. The remaining quarter of the population is divided among atheists/agnostics (17%), Christians (4%), Böns (3%), and others (1%).



Education is free and compulsory until the age of 18 in Mongolia, Kharkorin, and the Uyghur, Chinese, Tibetan, and Mongol communities of the Golden Horde Jurisdictional Areas (UUZBs), and is offered in a secular and co-ed format. In Gurkaniyan, education is free but not compulsory, and public education for Muslim citizens is religious and gender-segregated. Education is a devolved issue; in Mongolia, is is dealt with directly by the Kurultai, but in Kharkorin, it is a competency of the City Council, while in Gurkaniyan and the communities of the UUZBs, it is dealt with by the relevant devolved Ministry of Education.






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