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• Establishment of the Ottonian Empire
|April 17th, 1811|
|September 21st, 1872|
|January 1st, 1950|
• 2020 estimate
Ottonia, known by many inhabitants as Eona, is an area in the world on the northwestern edge of the continent of Belisaria. Although in the present day this refers primarily to the territories occupied by the Ottonian Federal Republic and Union of Ottonia, historically the term referred to the whole of the Ottonian Empire and its successor realms, including the modern nations of Erishland, Sudmark, and, more controversially, Valgtea. Historically the Empire, the Pan-Ottonian Alliance (1811 - 1872) and the Union (1872 - 1918) were all centered on the city of Ottonia, founded by Otto the Invincible as his capital in 826 CE.
The area currently known as Ottonia is known by several names; Ottonia is the most commonly used name in an international and official context. The name comes from the Ottonian Empire, the name for the conquered realm of Otto the Invincible and his descendents, although there is no evidence to suggest the area was known by its inhabitants as such contemporaneously.
Going back further, the area was known
Due to the nature of Ottonia as a historical and cultural zone rather than a distinct geographical area, its borders are a matter of some debate. Although historical definitions tend to include Valgtea (once known as Ostmark), most modern definitions place the eastern boundary of Ottonia at the [To-Be-Named River]] which separates North Ottonia from Valgtea.
Prehistory & Antiquity
During the centuries immediately before and after the turn of the Common Era, the area was inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples (Corvae in the north and east, Eoni in the south and west). In the late first century of the common era, forces of the Latin Empire encroached into the area, reaching Sudmark, the modern Union of Ottonia, and parts of Torrslynd, incorporated as the provinces of Eona Superior and Eona Inferior. The Latin presence in the area grew weaker in the 4th Century CE as the Germanic-speaking Allamunnae migrated into the area, partially subjugating and partially displacing the Latin and Celtic-speaking peoples. By the dawn of the 6th Century CE, Latin authority in the area had evaporated, and the area was ruled by an assortment of Allamunnic, Corvaik, and Eoni-speaking petty states.
The Ottonian Empire
Christian missionaries in the south of modern Ottonia were fairly effective in converting a large share of the population entering the 8th century CE, and a local ruler named Otto, who had established a hegemony over much of what is now the state of Onneria in the Union of Ottonia, began a series of conquests aimed at spreading Christianity to the pagan inhabitants of the area. By the time Otto died in 831 CE, the modern areas of all five modern states were within his empire. Although Otto's eldest son Theodurik and his direct descendants attempted to continue to rule the massive realm, territory to the east began to break away almost immediately. By the time Theodurik's last direct heir died in 1159 CE, the empire had functionally ceased to exist. The area would be dominated by a large number of states over the next several centuries.
Nationalism & Unification
In the 1700s, seeking safety against outside threats, several of these states began to ally with one another, culminating in 1811 with the foundation of the Pan-Ottonian Alliance. In addition, the alliance as well as a general revival of the arts and history of the Empire caused a swell of pan-Ottonian nationalism over the course of the century. Key in this trend was the development of Over the ensuing half-century following the establishment of the POA, the central body of the Alliance grew in power, causing fear of several of the sovereign members of the alliance that a take-over might be attempted.
In an attempt to head off this threat, constituent states dispatched forces to the central city of Ottonia to disperse a proposed multinational force being formed to serve the entire alliance. The Siege of Ottonia kicked off the Ottonian Wars of Unification which would finally conclude in 1872 with the signing of the Treaty of Ottonia which established the Ottonian Federation under a central republican government over the various constituent states.
The Royalist Reaction
This state of affairs would last until 1915, when an alliance of the ruling families of Ottonia's constituent monarchies attempted a coup to overthrow the central government and replace it with a pan-Ottonian dynasty. This resulted in the Ottonian Restoration, which lasted from 1915 to 1918, ending in the overthrow of the Republican government (which went into exile in Ostrozava) and its replacement with a reestablishment of the unified Ottonian dynasty.
Although the country rebuilt and experienced a small economic boom in the following decade and a half, that would come to an end when Ghant invaded in 1935. Although the invaders were repelled by 1939, it was not before the country's industrialized and prosperous western coast was devastated.
The Ottonian Revolution
The economic fallout, as well as a corrupt recovery effort led by Premier Kaarlus Klaussunn, resulted in growing unrest and the formation of the Popular Front in 1943, and a general strike in 1945. Attempts to quash the strikes and protests with violence led to mutinies and further violence, and the Ottonian Revolution began. The Popular Front was nearly crushed at the outset, but between its popular support and outside support rallied by the exiled republican government, it survived, reorganized, and began to push back. By 1948, Popular Front and Republican forces held 3/4 of the country and were moving to crush the remaining Royalists. Foreign intervention pushed the Republican forces back and stabilized a front in late 1948 and early 1949, and negotiations began to bring the war, rapidly devolving into a bloody stalemate, to an end.
The resulting Partition of Ottonia, which took effect on the first of the year 1950, set the final front lines as the border between the Republican & Popular Front-led "North Ottonia" and the Royalist-led "South Ottonia".
Post-War to Present
The separated nations took different paths to rebuilding following the end of the Revolution. Although rationing occurred in both nations, outside aid to both saw this state of affairs end by the late 1950's.
In the south, the federal monarchy persisted, increasingly coopting a capitalist system to secure the wealth and authority of the royal and aristocratic classes. Meanwhile, in the north, a democratic government was established by the New Foundation of Ottonia, which also mandated a market socialist economy in which all businesses would be owned by the public, either through state ownership, employee ownership, or public ownership of equity to prevent the runaway economic (and ensuing political) inequalities that had helped create the conditions that caused the revolution.
The two successor states settled into a cold war relationship with a heavily militarized border and minimal diplomatic contact, maintaining only enough contact to prevent the resumption of hostilities. This persisted into the 1970's when The Unity & Reconciliation movement (which formed political parties in both countries) helped to push for talks between the countries. Although reunification did not result, a period of détente followed, and the countries have since partially normalized relations.
Although the countries are in the present day officially on much warmer terms, an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion still pervades Ottonia, and there are still fears that one day the tensions between the northern Ottonian Federal Republic and southern Union of Ottonia might boil over into renewed armed conflict.