Conservatism in Pardes

Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. Many conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity. Others, however, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were" (usually referred to as reactionaries).

The use of the term in politics is believed to have emerged in the Papal States in the 1790s, and by the 1810s was used across the civilized world, including Belfras, Emmeria, Belhavia, Arthurista, Nijdeland, and elsewhere. The term, normally associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a spectrum of beliefs, views, and values. There is no acknowledged set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, as the meaning of the word depends on what is the "traditional" stance in a context in a given place and time. Thus, conservatives from across the world - each upholding their respective traditions - may disagree on a large range of issues.

Globally, it is represented by the International Conservative Conference and the International Libertarian Alliance.

Development of Lusankyan conservatism

Industrialization

Arthuristan Illumination

18th and 19th century revolutions

Forms of conservatism

Moderate variants

Liberal conservatism

Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines conservative values and policies with classical liberal stances. As these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism also has a wide variety of meanings. Historically, the term often referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values. It contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres.

Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments, and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism. This is also the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition, such as the URE, and are thus considered conservative. The liberal conservative tradition in Belhavia combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a classical form of conservatism.

A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in North Akkadiya and Central Lusankya is a combination of more modern conservative (less traditionalist) views with those of social liberalism. This has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. Often, this involves stressing what are now conservative views of free-market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on the defense of civil rights, environmentalism and support for a limited welfare state.

Currently, this stream of conservatism is centered among the political right in Arthurista, Prestonia, Tippercommon, Anikatia, Eagleland, along with factions of the former National Liberal Party (Rodarion), the Federalist Party (URE), and the Old Republic Party (Estovnia).

Conservative liberalism

Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, the right wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the Twenty Years' Wars, in most civilized countries the political class was formed at least in part by conservative liberals, from Belfras to Prestonia.

It is centered presently in Belfras, controlling a majority consensus in the ruling Unitary Democrats (generally centrist-to-center-right) as well as in Anikatia and Austrasia. It has strength in a faction of the National Democratic Party (Rodarion).

Progressive conservatism

Progressive conservatism incorporates progressive policies alongside conservative policies. It stresses the importance of a social safety net to deal with poverty, support of limited redistribution of wealth along with government regulation to regulate markets in the interests of both consumers and producers.

This stream has influence among the political right of Arthurista, Anikatia, Tippercommon, Nijdeland, Eagleland, Prestonia, and Emmeria.

Economic variants

Libertarian conservatism

Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within Emmeria, Belhavia, the former Western States, Tippercommon, Nijdeland, Eagleland, and (to a much lesser extent) Arthurista which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism. Its five main branches are constitutionalism (mainly Emmeria and Belhavia), paleolibertarianism (largely Estovnia), neolibertarianism, small government conservatism (largely Emmeria, Belhavia, the former Western States) and Christian libertarianism (mainly in the URE, Nijdeland, and the Eagleland). They generally differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom.

Some theorists have called libertarian conservatism "right-libertarianism."

In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare, subsidies, and other areas of economic intervention.

Many conservatives, especially in the URE, Belhavia, the former Western States, believe that the government should not play a major role in regulating business and managing the economy. They typically oppose efforts to charge high tax rates and to redistribute income to assist the poor. Such efforts, they argue, do not properly reward people who have earned their money through hard work.

Fiscal conservatism

Fiscal conservatism is the economic philosophy of prudence in government spending and debt. Most conservatives believe that government action cannot solve society's problems, such as poverty and inequality. Many believe that government programs that seek to provide services and opportunities for the poor actually encourage dependence and reduce self-reliance. Most conservatives oppose affirmative action policies - policies in employment, education, and other areas that aim to counteract past discrimination by giving special help to members of disadvantaged groups. Conservatives believe that the government should not give special treatment to individuals on the basis of group identity.

Many conservatives, especially in the URE, Belhavia, the former Western States, believe that the government should not play a major role in regulating business and managing the economy. They typically oppose efforts to charge high tax rates and to redistribute income to assist the poor. Such efforts, they argue, do not properly reward people who have earned their money through hard work.

Nationalist and sociocultural variants

National conservatism

National conservatism is a political term to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism as well as upholding cultural and ethnic identity, while not being outspokenly nationalist or supporting a far-right approach.

National conservatism is heavily oriented towards the traditional family and social stability as well as in favor of limiting immigration. As such, national conservatives can be distinguished from economic conservatives, for whom free market economic policies, deregulation and fiscal conservatism are the main priorities. National conservatism is also related to traditionalist conservatism.

This stream is centered in the political right of Rodarion (among the National Democratic Party) as well as in Basileria, the right-wing elements of the New Democratic Party (Prestonia), Eagleland, and the WaardenUnie (Values Union) in Nijdeland.

Traditional conservatism

Traditionalist conservatism is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of natural law and transcendent moral order, tradition, hierarchy and organic unity, agrarianism, classicism and high culture, and the intersecting spheres of loyalty.

Some traditionalists have embraced the labels "reactionary" and "counterrevolutionary", defying the stigma that has attached to these terms since the Arthuristan Illumination. Having a hierarchical view of society, many traditionalist conservatives defend the monarchical political structure as the most natural and beneficial social arrangement.

This stream has influence among the political right in Basileria, Rodarion, Belhavia, Eagleland, some right-wing elements of the Federalist Party (Emmeria), the Traditionalist Coalition (Arthurista), and the WaardenUnie (Values Union) in Nijdeland.

Social conservatism

Social conservatism is a group of political ideologies centered on preserving traditional beliefs, attitudes and philosophy, in the face of social progressivism. The aims of social conservatism vary from organization to organization, and from country to country. Thus, there are really no policies or positions that could be considered universal among social conservatives. There are, however, a number of general principles to which at least a majority of social conservatives adhere.

Among current and historical center-right and moderately right-wing nations such as Belhavia, Emmeria, Belfras, and Eagleland, social conservatism since the mid to late 20th century has referred to a movement that arose as a response to national or central government-level action on social issues, which conservatives perceived as a threat to conservative values. This form of social conservatism is generally skeptical of social change, and believes in maintaining the status quo concerning social issues such as gay movement issues and abortion.

Alternatively, in countries that have never had periods of social liberalism, such as Rodarion, Basileria, Westonaria, Dacia, and elsewhere, social conservatism is primarily a reaction to the spread of social liberalism across the developed world, including in Arthurista, Nijdeland, Estovnia, and elsewhere. Modern conveniences such as television and radio were often banned or heavily censored (and many times still are) out of fear that it would reduce the influence of domestic socially conservative norms, institutions, and beliefs from the outside, liberal world.

Social conservatism is distinct from cultural conservatism which focuses on cultural aspects of the issues, such as protecting one's culture, although there are some overlaps.

This conservative strain of thought has influence across the globe, but largely through the NCP and NDP in Rodarion, the Conservatives and the New White movement in Belhavia, the Traditionalist Coalition in Arthurista, and the WaardenUnie (Values Union) in Nijdeland.

Cultural conservatism

Cultural conservatism is described as the preservation of the heritage of one nation, or of a shared culture that is not defined by national boundaries. Other variants of cultural conservatism are concerned with culture attached to a given language such as Rodarian.

The shared culture may be as divergent as "Western culture" or Westonarian Boer culture. In the URE, the term cultural conservative may imply a conservative position in the culture war. They believe strongly in traditional values and traditional politics, and often have an urgent sense of nationalism.

Examples of this conservatism can be found in Rodarion, through both the NCP and NDP as well as outside institutions such as the Patriotic Society of the Papal Republic and the ethnic Rodarian Fatherland Reunification Front in Bariya. Other examples include the Manus Dei's alleged participation in the Bogorian Civil War on behalf of "Christian unity" (Basileria) or the Neo-whites' defense of the White Terror laws in Belhavia.

Religious conservatism

Religious conservatism principally seeks to apply the teachings of particular religions to politics, sometimes by merely proclaiming the value of those teachings, at other times by having those teachings influence laws.

In most modern democracies, political conservatism seeks to uphold traditional family structures and social values. Religious conservatives typically oppose abortion, homosexual behavior, drug use, and sexual activity outside of marriage. In some cases, conservative values are grounded in religious beliefs, and some conservatives seek to increase the role of religion in public life.

Religious conservatism often overlaps substantially with social and cultural conservatism, but it can also deviate from either of these similar ideologies depending on the country, period of history, and local culture.

Countries with strong religiously conservative forces include Rodarion, Basileria, Belhavia, Eagleland, the Bogorian Christian Republic, Ugala under the Lord's Liberation and Resistance, the Ankaran Union, Madrastan, and Nazali. Religious conservatives make up or have elements in the Federalist Party of Emmeria, the Traditionalist Coalition (Arthurista), the WaardenUnie (Values Union) in Nijdeland, the Conservatives in Belfras, and elsewhere.

Characteristics of conservatism in major powers

This is a broad checklist of modern conservatism in 5 major countries.

23x15px Rodarion 23x15px Belhavia Arthurista Arthurista Template:Country data Emmeria United Republic of Emmeria Template:Country data Tippercommon Tippercommon
Main parties National Catholic Party, National Democratic Party, Unity and Justice Party Conservative Party, Libertarian Party Liberal Party, Freedom Party, Traditionalist Coalition Federalist Party Party of Parliamentarians, Unity Party
Government Strong defenders of the Ecclesiastical Republic.
Opposed to federalism and decentralization.
Strong defenders of monarchism and empire.
Rejects republicanism.
Defends first-past-the-post voting system.
Proponents of liberal conservatism, status quo, stability, and gradualism. Strong defenders of republicanism and federalism. Supports semi-presidentialism, federalism and republicanism.
State control National Catholicism and Statism.
Moderate-to-Large-sized heavily-centralized state
Small, minimal, decentralized state (on economic and fiscal issues).
Large, centralized state (on sociocultural issues).

Moderately-sized centralized state.
Small, decentralized state particularly at the federal level.
Strongly influenced by libertarianism.
Moderately-sized decentralized state particularly at federal level.
Strongly influenced by libertarianism and limited welfare statism.
Social views Rule of law, traditionalism, authority, state unity, public unity, communitarianism, defense of traditional family, public healthcare, social solidarity.
Strongly supportive of Rodarian and Carpathian cultures and against Emmerization.
Rule of law, authority, traditionalism, law and order, hierarchy, individualism, defense of traditional family, criticism of multiculturalism, against euthanasia, abortion, and gay marriage. Hierarchy, rule of law, liberty, freedom, traditionalism, Arthuristan stoicism. Freedom, liberty, individualism, traditionalism, law and order, gun ownership, defence of traditional family, against euthanasia, abortion, and gay marriage.
Strong supporters of the Emmerian Articles of Constitution and the separation of powers.
Freedom, individualism, liberty, traditionalism, law and order, republics' rights.
Religious views Romulan Catholic Church
Guided by Catholic social teaching.
CP: Support traditional and modern Jewish elites, Jewish religious and sociocultural laws, traditions, and customs, and the role of Torah, Talmud, and Yiddishkeit guiding and centering Belhavian society.
LP: Promotes secularism.
LP, FP: Defends secularism. Influenced by High Church of Arthurista.
TC: Elevate Christianity to a prominent public role in the state.
Promote Abrahamic faiths and heritage. PP: Elevate Christianity to a prominent public role in the state.
UP: Defends secularism.
Economic views NCP, NDP: Patriotic Capitalism, distributism, moderately influenced by neoliberalism, moderate welfare system.
UJP: Nationalisation of major industries, protectionism and moderate re-distribution of wealth.
Neoliberalism, low taxation, very limited economic interventionism, regressive, flat, and indirect taxes, opposition to wealth, income, investment taxes, supports free trade but with low custom duties. Mixture of state regulation and market freedoms, continued state control or major public role of strategic industries, moderate re-distribution of wealth, rejection of social democracy. Neoliberalism, low taxation, flat tax, privatization, free trade, small welfare state. PP: Neoliberalism, economic liberalism, free trade, low taxation
Opposes government-run healthcare.
UP: Mixture of state regulation and market freedoms, continued state control or major public role in strategic industries, moderate re-distribution of wealth, supports state-provided public healthcare.
International bodies NCP, UJP: Critical of the WC, CDI, PMF, PTA.
Moderately supportive of the WCGT.
Supportive of the RCO and UDB.
NDP: Skeptical of the WC, CDI, PMF, PTA.
Moderately supportive of the WCGT, UDB, and RCO.
CP: Supportive of the WC, CDI, WCGT, PMF, PTA, and SOPCOMM.
Critical of the UDB.
LP: Moderately supportive of PMF, PTA.
Critical of the WC, WCGT, CDI, RCO.
LP: Supportive of the WC, WCGT, CDI.
Moderately supportive of the PTA and PMF.
Critical of the RCO, UDB.
FP, TC: TBD.
Supportive of the CDI, PTA, PMF.
Moderately supportive of NOCTA
Various factions moderately supportive or skeptical of the WC and WCGT.
Critical of the RCO and UDB.
PP: Supportive of the WC, WCGT, SOPCOMM.
Moderately supportive of the CDI.
Various factions moderately supportive or skeptical about the RCO, UDB, PTA, PMF.
UP: Supportive of the WC, WCGT, SOPCOMM.
Skeptical about the CDI, PTA, PMF. Moderately supportive of the RCO, UDB.
Military Issues Supports Nuclear Disarmament. Factions are variously opposed or supportive to Nuclear Disarmament. Opposed to Nuclear Disarmament. Opposed to Nuclear Disarmament. TBD.
International affairs NCP, UJP: Interventionist.
NDP: Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionalist.
CP: Interventionist.
LP: Non-interventionalist.
LP, TC: Interventionist.
FP: Non-interventionist.
Interventionist. Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionalist.

See also