Civil liberties in Pardes
The status of various civil liberties based upon constitutional protection and laws as well as legal precedent in various countries in Pardes. All figures are based on protections encompassing the total population of a given nation-state, not including specific privileges or liberties reserved for a given group or body.
- Affirmative (): Indicates a specific civil liberty is protected under constitutional law or legal precedent and are thus de jure and not de facto.
- Negative (): Indicates a specific civil liberty is not protected under constitutional law or legal precedent and are thus not de jure but may be de facto.
1. Social equality is defined as equality of social status. A socially equal regime does not permit differentiation among social status, rank, or prestige; for example, in such a regime, there exists no nobility or royalty. Another example would be that this regime would prohibit legal, political, or social significance, prestige, or respect to be afforded to white-collar professionals, such as lawyers, doctors, politicians, or business and religious leaders. This position holds that every single person, regardless of birth, education, intelligence, skill, talent, or sociopolitical rank, is equal and is not allowed to any special consideration by society.
- 1 Anikatia
- 2 Eagleland
- 3 Gratislavia
- 4 Belhavia
- 5 Prestonia
- 6 Westonaria
Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly and Expression
While the Anikatian constitution guarantees freedom of speech, press, and assembly for its nationals. The law allows the government to restrict freedoms of expression, press and assembly to preserve national security, maintain public order, protect the integrity of Anikatia, preserve the rights of others, maintain friendly relations with foreign States, protect public morals, and prevent insults to Yeosindo. As a result of these limitations along with the government application of law, bureaucratic regulation, have more recently pushed the press to maintain self-censorship and constrain its coverage of certain controversial issues. Multiple international organisation expressed concerns about Anikatia's deterioration of free speech, suggesting that the country is sliding back towards the totalitarian days of the DSRA. Since the Anikatian state continues to exert a considerable amount of control over media references to certain controversial events and political movements, as well as access to web pages considered by the government authorities to be "dangerous" or "threatening to state security", are blocked on the internet in Anikatia; and content disputed by or critical of the authorities is absent from many publications, and subject to the control of the government within Anikatia. International human rights groups claim that the Anikatian government exerts control over civil society through selective implementation of the law, restriction and censure.
Freedom of Religion and from Discrimination
The Anikatian constitution since the fall of the DSRA, provides for full freedoms of religion while professing the concepts of secularism. The Anikatian constitution does not cite a state religion. However, Article 10 says "The state shall recognise the special position of Yeosindo, within Anikatian society and culture giving it the foremost place, and accordingly, it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster Yeosindo". Article 11 mentions "The State also will also recognise and allows for all faiths and religions to be practiced in peace and harmony within any part of the Republic." The government pursues a policy of religious pluralism and tolerance in the country as stipulated in Article 12 of its constitution, "The State shall render assistance and protect as it possibly can the religions it recognizes." While Yeosindo is not a state religion in Anikatia, the government provides funding to Yeosindo temples and monks through programs to protect and support the cultural heritage of Anikatian culture both domestically and abroad. No nationwide protections, But legal protection against discrimination exist in many local jurisdictions particularly the special administrative regions of the Seulbyeni Islands.
Freedom from Torture, Due Process and Fair Trial
The law prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions. However, the National Security Act grants the authorities broad powers to detain, arrest, and imprison persons who commit acts the government views as intended to endanger the "security of the state." Critics continued to call for reform or abolishment of the law, contending that its provisions did not define prohibited activity clearly. The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) maintained that the courts had established legal precedents for strict interpretation of the law that preclude arbitrary application. The constitution forbids arbitrary detention, torture and ill-treatment. However Anikatian police are regularly observed practicing torture - including beatings, electric shocks, rape, asphyxiation - in interrogating arrested suspects. In the most extreme cases, hundreds of innocent people from the street were arbitrary arrested, beaten, tortured, and raped by special police forces.
Freedom of Speech and Expression
Being a socialy conservative country, the Eagleland has some limits set on freedom of expression and exercises some form of (limited-in-scope) censorship. For starters, all members of the general public are expected to uphold a nationally-mandated "dress standard", which explicitly prohibits specific obscene or unacceptable appearances, based on Eaglelander ethics, when in public areas (outside of private premises and private businesses). For instance, an excessive number of piercings, obscene tattoos or being naked outside of specific public areas or private premises is prohibited, and punishments can extend from verbal warnings and small fines, to substantially heavier fines and/or imprisonment with or without corporal punishment. These rules are federally-mandated.
What constitutes obscene are minute details on the laws that exist specifically for that purpose, and Eaglelanders are encouraged to express themselves within those thresholds as early as kindergarten. The bare-bone standard is enforced by federal regulations on all states, and the states are allowed to either retain these standards or enhance their austerity grade as appropriate.
Another such limit exists when the Greek language is used. Utilising a corrupted version of Greek ("Greeklish", i.e. Greek with latin characters) in all official documents, publications, commercials, and any written text displayed to the general public outside of the internet is prohibited. Greeklish is also prohibited in any way, in any written expression, within the states' education systems. Again, such limits are federally-mandated, and enforced on the states' education systems. Federal regulators from the Ministry of National Education reserve the right to scrutinise -and, if needed, punish- offenders, while equivalent regulators from the Ministry of Finance will perform the same task for corporations. Punishments can range from small fines for small-time offenders and natural persons, to prison sentences and very heavy fines for legal persons (i.e. corporations).
Limitations are set on freedom of speech as well. Firstly, the Eagleland is notorious region-wide for it's so called "anti-paparazzi laws", as these individuals are considered as stalkers are are punished as such, if their behaviour towards any person exceeds a certain threshold, as defined by law. Furthermore, inciting hatred between political, religious or ethnic groups is also a serious offence, punishable with lengthy sentences which exceed 10 years in Federal Penitentiaries. Finally, prohibited religions are not allowed to even provide interviews for legitimate news outlets, and are censored at every opportunity. Such censorship laws exist for child pornography, the exposition of military secrets, and some limited circumstances.
Right to Bear Arms
In the Eagleland, the right to bear arms is held exclusively by those who have completed their National Service Obligations. After that, those rights may not be revoked for any reason, unless said person has committed a crime, in which case her/her rights may be revoked temporarily or permanently depending on the offence. Legal resident aliens are exempt from such a ruling, and may legally apply for a weapon licence after attaining permanent residence; their muncipality shall issue such permits unless said person is deemed to be a security risk, based on that person's criminal background. Illegal aliens are not authorised to bear arms.
Much like Belhavia, the Eagleland respects the right of bodily integrity, but with some limitations. Euthanasia, suicide and voluntary contractual ownership by another are federally prohibited, based on Eaglelander moral ethics.
Freedom of Speech and Expression
In Gratislavia, similar to Belhavia, speech and expression have been mildly curtailed in certain situations regarding violent and/or dangerous political and social advocacy. However, while one can hold a dangerous or radical view (having freedom of conscience), one cannot advocate views, such as the overthrow of the Republican government. However, normal dissent - criticizing public policy, a leader, or something similar - is allowed and protected as a political and civil right.
Freedom of speech and expression
First, Belhavia has fairly strong libel and slander laws. However, the eligibility of these higher-burden tests are pared back in political speech, though even political speech in Belhavia is not as permissive of false information and character attacks as more liberal free-speech regimes in countries such as Emmeria or Arthurista.
Second, speech and expression have been mildly curtailed in certain situations regarding violent and/or dangerous political and social advocacy. However, while one can hold a dangerous or radical view (having freedom of conscience), one cannot advocate those views that are prohibited under the White Terror laws. The Imperial Senate and Imperial Supreme Court have laid out a narrow test for restricting advocacy, including speech that advocates political and social violence, the overthrow of the Imperial Government, or contradicts constitutional principles, such as private property rights.
Like its fellow minarchies, Belhavia has general bodily-integrity laws and principles of autonomy and liberty interests in protecting one's right to one's own body. However, pursuant to Jewish ethics and Torahic prohibitions, there are limits to bodily integrity, including a prohibition on suicide and euthanasia, as well as forbidding voluntary contractual ownership by another.
Freedom of Speech and Expression
Freedom of speech and expression in Prestonia has been enshrined in the 1913 Constitution as part of the common law legacy from which the nation's legal tradition descends. In the modern era, particularly during and as a result of The Terror, this right has been slightly curtailed concerning incitements to violence and utterances which foment religious animosities. For speech to be sanctioned under these provisions, it must be proven within a court of law that aforementioned speech has resulted in, or is likely to imminently result in, threat or damage to life, health, or property, or serious social disorder.
Slanderous and libelous speech is not protected under the law and considered a civil tort. Conviction under these laws requires that the speech be demonstrated to be both patently untrue and likely to cause disgrace, shame, humiliation, or loss of public esteem.
Right to Bear Arms
Prestonia's constitution guarantees the right to keep and bear arms; this law is drawn from the common law tradition of requiring all able bodied men to be well-armed and drilled for use in a levee-en-masse. While the Courts have generally been protective of this right, they have authorised various means of control as "common-sense" regulation. Accordingly, explosive devices are banned, and gun owners must undergo an initial background check and firearm safety course before purchase of their first firearm. The results of the initial background check are stored in a national database which contains no personal identifying information beyond name and status of check; there is no mandatory waiting period for firearms purchase. Felons, the mentally incompetent, and non-citizens may not own firearms.
Prestonian law is generally aligned toward individual sovereignty and "ownership of the self," with some restrictions. Suicide is not proscribed by law, though it is an offence to assist in a suicide or give direction on how suicide may be carried out; accordingly, euthanasia is not legal. Contractual ownership of one by another is not recognized as valid following the principle of law that a contract may not bind one's natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Due to Westonaria's Apartheid system, only white Westonarians are legally guaranteed rights afforded by most other Pardesi states to all of their citizens regardless of race or ethnicity, including suffrage, due process, a fair trial, and other political and civil rights.