Federal Kingdom of Eibenland
Bundeskönigreich Eibenland (German)
Motto: Frieden und Wohlstand
Peace and Prosperity
|The location of Eibenland in Nordania.|
The location of Eibenland in Nordania.
|Map of Eibenland|
Map of Eibenland
and largest city
|August 11, 561|
• Creation of Parliament
|11 May, 1304|
• Eibenlander Revolution
|24 October, 1795|
• Current Constitution
|3 February, 1826|
|450,392 km2 (173,897 sq mi)|
• 2010 census
|70.3/km2 (182.1/sq mi)|
|$1.404 trillion (PPP)|
• Per capita
• Per capita
Eibenland (pronounced /aɪ bɛn lænd/), officially the Federal Kingdom of Eibenland, is a nation located in the region of Esquarium, with a population of 31 million. It is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy divided into 7 states and one autonomous region. The capital and largest city is Holversahn.
Eibenland was named after the Teutonic tribe called the Eibel. Teutonic is spoken by about 90% of Eibenlanders as their first language. There is a small Tynic-speaking minority concentrated in Sylt, the northernmost region of Eibenland.
Eibenland today has a very high Human Development Index and possesses a developed, industrialized economy. The economy is largely powered by services and areas of industrial strength such as automobile manufacturing, shipbuilding, and electronics. The country does not have many natural resources, depending on imports of oil and gas and most metals. The country maintains a social security system, universal health care, and environmental protection. Eibenland is a member of the Esquarian Community and the Nordanian League.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
The name Eibenland is derived from the Teutonic word 'eiben', meaning 'yew trees', and the word land. The country was named for its forests that contain yew trees.
Eibenland was settled during the Teutonic Migrations as members of Teutonic tribes migrated south from Swastria. The first signs of civilization and stable living patterns appeared around 14,000 BCE, with several major tribes forming. These tribes were semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers who lived around lakes and rivers, progressing to a Neolithic society about 12,000 years ago, with agriculture and pottery beginning to develop. The first Eibenlanders spoke an early form of the Teutonic language.
Founding to Middle Ages
Eibenland was first founded as a united nation under the Kingdom of Eibenland in 561 AD/CE. The foundation of the kingdom was declared by King Adelhart the Bald in a ceremony at Königsstadt. The kingdom covered most of the territory of modern Eibenland. However, the nation soon fell to the rapidly expanding Valish Empire. Eibenland regained its independence during the 11th century. Parliament was established in 1304 following an attempted rebellion by feudal lords against an unpopular king. The franchise was limited to the aristocracy and Parliament was only required to be consulted on taxation. Eibenland prospered as a united state during the next two centuries until a civil war broke out during the 1520s due to a dispute over the throne.
Era of Tranquility and Enlightenment
A period of intellectual and scientific development occurred during the 17th and 18th centuries, influenced by similar developments in other parts of Esquarium. Political theorists of the time presented ideas of constitutional government, liberty, and greater equality between citizens. Technological innovations related to agriculture increased food production, which resulted in improved nutrition and population growth.
Eibenland and Swastria signed the Pact of Brotherhood in 1721 establishing a non-aggression pact and a preferential trading relationship. The pact remains in effect to this day.
Upheaval and the Eibenlander Revolution
King Hans Olaf I launched a series of expansionary wars in 1767 that culminated in 1788. Eibenland came to encompass its current territory at the end of the wars but high debt led to inflation and tax increases on peasants. Many struggled to get by during this period and trust in the monarchy was damaged due to reports of opulent spending on the royal court. The economic difficulties coupled with dissatisfaction in the newly acquired territories soon resulted in the outbreak of the Eibenlander Revolution in 1795.
On July 19, 1795, a group of influential aristocrats issued a declaration expressing their concerns about the state of the kingdom, which became known as the July Declaration. Peasants began to protest as well sensing that the king's position was weak. The protests continued to spread in the following months despite attempts by the government to quell them. Violence broke out in Tiefwasser in September 11, 1795 with 6 protesters shot dead by police. The shooting was followed by riots in several cities and towns. Growing civil unrest led to the abdication of King Hans Olaf I. Crown Prince Adolf I attempted to go into hiding before his coronation but he was identified and killed by a mob. The monarchy was abolished and the Eibenlander Republic was established, lasting from 1795 to 1811. The Republic abolished the traditional privileges of the aristocracy and established an elected legislature and president. Several violent incidents occurred when mobs attacked nobles and wealthy landowners. A coup d'état was carried out by well-connected military officers allied with several major landowners in 1811.
The coup plotters restored the monarchy under King Adolf II and Army General Karl Dobrindt was appointed prime minister.
Though new parliamentary elections were held, the king was given the power to veto legislation with a three-fourths supermajority required to override a veto. Adolf II died in 1823 and was succeeded by his more liberal cousin Christian Alexander. King Christian Alexander dismissed Dobrindt and agreed to public demands for a constitutional convention. The Constitution of 1826 was adopted as a result, limiting the powers of the monarch, increasing civilian oversight of the military, expanding the franchise, and establishing a federal system.
Significant resentment persisted towards the monarchy throughout the next decade. An intruder breached the royal palace on February 12, 1827 in an attempt to assassinate the king. Christian Alexander nevertheless placed considerable importance in working to build trust in the monarchy. The king embarked on a national tour and held public events to meet with the public. Prime Minister Wolfgang Kohl formed a national unity government composed of the largest political parties in 1827, which remained in office until 1832.
The restoration of political stability during the 1820s laid the foundation for the Industrial Revolution in Eibenland. The textile industry experienced significant gains in productivity due to mechanization.
Coal and iron mining began in eastern Eibenland during the 1830s. The first freight railway began operations in 1842 and opened up new markets for products. Legal reforms were implemented to make the registration of patents and corporations simpler. The paper, cement, and glass industries began to prosper during the 1850s, with factories opening in many cities. The development of factories in cities resulted in a rapid pace of urbanization as farmers migrated to urban areas in search of opportunity. However, many low-income workers lived in crowded, unsanitary conditions. Living standards for the poor improved during the late 19th century as cities paid greater attention to public health and housing. Governments of this era focused on increasing exports and protecting domestic industry through tariffs.
Eibenland fought in the Continental War from 1918 to 1923 on the side of the Concorde.
The Syndicalist Front of Eibenland was founded by a group of radical trade union leaders and academics in 1927 during a period of labor unrest. The Syndicalists gained support among a share of disaffected workers and participated in the organization of strike action. After several strikes were broken, the Front became more strident in its arguments against capitalism. The Front participated in the 1930 local elections in industrial cities, but it refused to participate in national elections, alleging that "oligarchs" had corrupted the process.
A bombing attack occurred at a Conservative Party rally on April 16, 1934, killing 32 people. An investigation found a group of Syndicalist Front members to have been responsible for the attack. Parliament promptly passed legislation banning the Syndicalist Front. The Front, though condemning the bombing, insisted that it would defend its existence by force if necessary. Federal police swept in on Syndicalist headquarters and were met with violence in the industrial quarters of Holversahn, Tiefwasser, and Konigsstadt. Six months of guerrilla warfare resulted in 70 deaths and hundreds of injuries. The conflict ended when the Syndicalist Front surrendered and announced that they would put down their arms.
The conflict paralyzed a large portion of industrial activity and Eibenland's economy experienced a recession as a result. Unemployment increased in 1934 and 1935 though the country began to recover in 1936.
Eibenland's first Social Democratic Party government was elected in 1938 with strong support from urban workers. Prime Minister Ludwig Fischer was a proponent of a welfare state and collective bargaining rights. Old-age pensions were increased, pensions for widows were passed, and income-based child allowances were created. Subsidies for affordable housing were passed to improve living conditions for the working class. Legislation was enacted to protect the right of workers to organize. Taxes on high incomes were raised.
The party was reelected in 1942 and continued to implement a program of reforms. The duration of free public education was extended and state-funded adult education centers were established. The final term of the Fischer government was elected in 1946, though Fischer would die the following year. He was succeeded by Finance Minister Wolfgang Meyer, who pushed universal health care legislation through Parliament.
Eibenlander politics experienced a realignment during the 1970s as the Liberal Party, a small market liberal party, elected a new leader who pledged to extend the party's appeal. In 1973, the Liberal Party renamed itself the Moderate Party and adopted a more centrist platform. The government announced an early election in 1975, hoping to limit the Moderates' seat gains. Nevertheless, the Moderate Party won 43 seats and 11% of the vote. The party would increase its support in future elections, establishing itself as a major party.
Eibenland was affected by the Recession of 1980. The recession was followed by several years of high unemployment and higher budget deficits. Strong economic growth returned during the second half of the 1980s.
The 1980s and 1990s marked a more conservative era in Eibenlander politics. Public spending and taxes were cut, several state-owned companies were privatized, and eligibility requirements for certain welfare programs were tightened.
A Social Democratic-Green coalition was formed in 1998 and governed until 2006. The government made investing in education and infrastructure a priority while balancing the budget by 2002. Funding for renewable energy was increased. In other policies, the government pursued a socially progressive agenda, passing legislation protecting LGBT rights, promoting the participation of people with disabilities in society, and expanding parental leave. Divisions emerged within the Social Democrats between those who desired to reverse the economic reforms undertaken by the Conservatives and those who argued in favor of maintaining most of the tax cuts and privatizations.
A government of the Conservative Party with outside support from the Moderate Party was in power from 2006 to 2010 and a formal coalition was formed for a second four year term. Eibenland became a member of the Esquarian Community in 2011, following a vote in Parliament.
The most recent elections in 2014 led to a formation of a coalition between the Moderate Party and the Social Democratic Party.
Eibenland is located in northern Nordania, bordering Swastria to the north, Ferhard to the south, Varienland to the northeast, Elfland to the southeast, and the Tynic Sea to the west. The country is geographically diverse. The coastal areas of Eibenland are largely flat with rolling hills. The highest mountain is Wildspitze (3,211 m), located in northwestern Eibenland. The Witten Valley in the central part of the country is a low-lying region known for its fertile agricultural land. There are several rivers and many lakes of differing size in the country.
- Witten Valley.jpg
The Witten Valley in central Eibenland
Eibenland has a warmer climate than the other Tynic countries. Most of the country experiences a temperate oceanic (Cfb in the Köppen classification) or a warm-summer Mediterranean (Csb in the Köppen classification). Areas at high elevations experience a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc and Cwc in the Köppen classification).
Summers are generally sunny and warm, though the southeast can experience hotter and drier conditions. Coastal areas are cooler due to the influence of the ocean. Winters are cool and often see abundant snowfall at high elevations. The central and mountainous parts of the country see harsher winter weather. Autumn is cloudy and rainy. Spring experiences less rain than autumn and has less cloud cover. Flooding can occur near rivers in late autumn and during the winter. The warmest temperature ever recorded was 40°C near Adelstor. The coldest temperature ever recorded was -14.8°C in Rintel.
Eibenland largely consists of the temperate coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf forests, and temperate grassland biomes, as in many other parts of Nordania. The plant life found in Eibenland is very diverse. Cedar, yew, fir, pine, spruce, oak, and maple trees are common. There are large forests in the north of the country that are known for their yew trees. Various grasses and shrubs are found in grassland regions. Animals found in Eibenland include cranes, golden eagles, deer, gray wolves, moose, and brown bears. The gray wolf and brown bear are protected species and there are ongoing conservation efforts. Endangered species are protected under the Conservation Act. Whales can occasionally be spotted off the coast during the migration season.
Eibenland is a Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The head of state is Queen Alexandra and the head of government is Prime Minister Frederick Mainzer. The government is based on the Constitution of Eibenland, adopted in 1835. Legislative powers are vested in Parliament and the court of last resort is the Constitutional Court.
The federal legislature of Eibenland is the bicameral Parliament, composed of the Bundestag and the Nationalrat. The Bundestag is the lower house and the Nationalrat is the upper house. Only the Bundestag has the right of legislative initiative; the Nationalrat can return legislation to the Bundestag for further consideration or propose amendments. The Bundestag is elected under the mixed-member proportional electoral system. The Nationalrat is elected by state legislatures and has 70 members, with the number of representatives varying by state population. The majority in the Bundestag is currently composed of a coalition of the Moderate Party and the Social Democrats.
Executive powers are carried out by the Cabinet and the monarch. The Cabinet consists of all ministers, including the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints all other ministers. The Cabinet and the civil service are responsible for the implementation of laws. The role of the monarchy is strictly ceremonial. The king or queen presides over opening sessions of Parliament, swears in ministers, receives foreign dignitaries, and bestows honors.
Eibenland's judicial system is composed of state and federal courts. State courts hear the majority of civil and criminal cases, with federal courts dealing with matters of federal law and disputes between individuals or entities based in different states. The court of last resort is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has the power of judicial review and can examine the constitutionality of legislation passed by Parliament or actions of the Cabinet. An independent committee is responsible for drafting lists of candidates for judicial openings. The Prime Minister (for federal courts) or the Minister-President (for state courts) nominates a candidate from the list to their respective legislatures, who can confirm the nominee with a 60% supermajority.
The National Police is the national law enforcement agency. It enforces federal law and provides support to state law enforcement agencies. The National Police also performs riot control, counter terrorism, and disaster relief functions. The National Police cooperate with state police forces and provide assistance. State-level police forces primarily enforce state and local law. State police forces carry out traffic policing.
Eibenland is a member of the Esquarian Community, Nordanian League, the Tynic Commission, and the Nordanian Space Agency. The country actively participates in Nordanian organizations though it does not have many close relations with nations outside of Nordania. Eibenland is not a member of any military blocs or alliances. However, the country has never officially stated a position of armed neutrality, preferring to leave the option of joining a military alliance open. Eibenland's closest foreign relations are with other Nordanian nations and EC members. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for the conduct of the nation's foreign policy.
Eibenland has a small military because it faces no nearby threats. There have been proposals made by some politicians and experts to further scale down or abolish the military due to the absence of any serious threats to the country. The military is made up of four branches: the Royal Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, and the Royal Coast Guard. There are 22,000 servicemembers in total and the majority are in the Army.
The Ministry of Defense is responsible for providing civilian oversight of the military. The commander-in-chief is nominally the monarch, though this power is exercised by the prime minister, who makes key decisions on the use of the armed forces. The defense budget is approximately 1.1% of GDP as of 2017. Conscription has not been practiced since 2007.
Eibenland has a prosperous social market economy. The economy is predominantly market-based while having a welfare state along with measures to protect fair competition. The service sector makes up 73.8% of GDP, manufacturing 25%, and agriculture 1.2%. The largest industries are financial services, manufacturing, and information technology.
Eibenland's banks provide a wide range of consumer and investment banking services. The Tiefwasser Chartered Bank is the oldest bank in the country. Automobile manufacturing and shipbuilding are the largest components of the manufacturing sector. Kubicki Shipbuilding is the country's largest shipbuilding company, specializing in medium and small-sized container ships. Military support and medical vehicles are produced in the country. Eibenland's largest agricultural products are wheat, potatoes, onions, cabbage, and beets. Animals including chicken, cows, sheep, and pigs are raised. The dairy industry is large.
The unemployment rate was 5.2% as of 2017. The inflation rate is 2%. The Gini index is 0.321 and the poverty rate is 11.9%. Around 61% of the workforce is a member of a labor union. Collective bargaining plays a significant role in Eibenland's economy, though labor laws are flexible, making it relatively easy to hire and fire.
Tax revenue in Eibenland was 42.1% in 2017. The rate of taxation in Eibenland is relatively high in order to support the range of public services provided by the government. Taxes are collected by the Department of Revenue within the Ministry of Finance. Approximately 30% of revenue is transferred to the states through transfer payments. Income tax is progressive, ranging from 0% to 50%. There are income tax deductions for children, certain insurance payments, and charitable contributions. Corporate tax and capital gains tax are charged at a rate of 25%. The standard rate of value added tax is 18%. A lower rate of 13% is applied to agricultural products, rents, and books. A Social Insurance Tax is assessed on employers and individuals to fund retirement and disability pensions, as well as unemployment benefits and parental leave. Local governments levy property taxes or land value taxes. Eibenland has other types of taxes including inheritance tax, petrol tax, and liquor and tobacco tax.
The Eibenlander mark is legal tender in Eibenland. The mark is pegged to TO BE DETERMINED. Banknotes are issued by the Bank of Eibenland and coins are issued by the Royal Eibenland Mint under the authority of the Royal Eibenland Mint Act.
Eibenland has among the cleanest energy grids in Nordania. 50% of the electricity generated in Eibenland is produced through hydroelectricity. Nuclear energy accounts for 28% of electricity generated. Fossil fuel power plants account for 19% of electricity generated in Eibenland. There is currently an effort to reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase renewable energy capacity. The majority of fuel is imported as the country is poor in oil and gas resources. However, Eibenland has coal deposits in eastern Eibenland. Wind power makes up 2% of electricity generated, with geothermal making up most of the remainder.
Eibenland has an extensive road and railway network. Roads are maintained by the federal government and state and local governments. The roads are funded through general taxation, vehicle registration fees, petrol taxes, tolls, and a carbon tax. The National Motorway Network (Nationales Autobahnnetz) connects all states and major urban areas in the country. The motorway network underwent significant expansion during the 1960s and 1970s. All major metropolitan areas are accessible via high-speed railways. Most railways are operated by the state-owned Eibenland Rail.
Public transportation is generally well-developed, especially in major cities. Several major cities have metro systems connecting most of the city. Light rail networks are common in Eibenland. Local bus services are run by municipalities and intercity bus services are operated by private companies. A water taxi network provides service along sections of major rivers.
Almost 90% of the population speaks Teutonic as their first language and almost all can speak it fluently. Teutonic is the primary language of official business though services in other languages may be requested if necessary. 7% speak Tynic as their first language and the remainder speak other languages. Two-thirds of Eibenlanders are able to speak French and Tynic fluently due to a policy of multilingualism in public schools adopted in the 1970s. Eibenlanders are encouraged to learn and practice multiple languages.
Eibenland is a fairly homogeneous society, though it has increased in diversity in recent years. About 87% of Eibenlanders identify as ethnically Teutonic. The second largest ethnic group is Tynics, who compose 7% of the population. Other ethnic groups include Monic peoples who make up 2% of the population, Arabs at 1.3% of the population, mostly descendants of refugees escaping wars in Nautasia, and 0.7% of Luziycans. The remainder are of other or mixed ethnicity.
Trinitarianism is the most commonly practiced religion in Eibenland. The origins of the religion are uncertain though it is believed to have developed out of pagan faiths practiced by Teutonic people. Trinitarianism was the dominant religion in Eibenland for much of its history. However, its prominence has significantly declined in recent decades, with less than half the population now identifying as Trinitarian. Trinitarians believe in a trinity of a creation goddess, a destruction goddess, and a mediator goddess. Eibenland has small communities of Saturnists, Norcists, Khaturvists, and Muslims.
Saturnism and Norcism have been practiced in Eibenland for centuries. There are several large Saturnist temples where worshippers often gather. Khaturvism and Islam were brought by recent immigrants from East Borea and Nautasia.
Eibenland is a secular state. The freedom of religion is respected and the government has been de jure secular since 1905. Secularism was established with the Law on Separation of Church and State passed by the Liberal government.
The average life expectancy in Eibenland was 82.0 years as of 2016. The life expectancy for women was 84.0 years and the life expectancy for men was 79.8 years. The infant mortality rate was 3.1 deaths per 1,000 live births as of 2016. Health care in Eibenland is provided under a universal framework.
The universal health care system is a multi-payer system based on the sharing of costs between the state, individuals, and employers. All Eibenlanders receive coverage through National Health Insurance (NHI). NHI covers 80% of the cost of primary and specialist care, with in-patient hospital care fully covered. Individuals may purchase additional private insurance to cover co-payments. People on low incomes or those with disabilities receive government assistance for out-of-pocket costs. National Health Insurance is primarily funded through a payroll tax on both employees and employers. NHI also provides in-home social care for individuals who require assistance due to age or disability but do not need a nursing home.
Education is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 17. Approximately 95% of students are enrolled in public schools. Private fee-paying schools are typically run by religious organizations, though there are non-denominational private schools. Preschool is free for children aged 3 to 4 and parents are highly encouraged to enroll their children in a preschool. Students attend primary school from the ages of 5 to 11. <imgur thumb="yes" align="left" w="220" comment="A typical primary school classroom">tBxZmXi.jpg</imgur> Secondary school is divided into middle school and high school. Students attend middle school from the ages of 12 to 14 and high school from age 15 until age 18. At the high school level, students may opt to specialize in the STEM fields, social sciences, or the arts. Students who do not choose to specialize receive general career education. In limited circumstances, a student who has found an apprenticeship or an internship and demonstrates strong academic performance may graduate at age 17.
The majority of school funding is provided to states by the federal government, while states are in charge of administering education under the framework of a national curriculum. Due to Eibenland's federal system of government, the national curriculum is a general guide for schools to follow. Teachers and schools have flexibility in their teaching methods.
Higher education is heavily subsidized by the state and the Eibenland Higher Education Grant covers the cost of books and living expenses for students from low-income families. Interest-free loans for living expenses are available for all students. There are 110 universities in Eibenland and hundreds of colleges and vocational institutions. University tuition for residents of Eibenland is very low, while foreign students are charged higher fees.
Eibenland has a very free media. The largest broadcasters are the publicly-owned ARE and the private Kanal 4. There are dozens of other television channels and Eibenland also receives Teutonic language broadcasting from Swastria. The newspaper with the largest circulation is Die Holversahn Zeitung. Other large newspapers are the Osteibenland Zeitung, Die Nation, and Sonntag. There are more than 300 radio stations in Eibenland broadcasting various genres of content. Video games have recently become a part of the media scene and popular games have been developed in Eibenland.
The cuisine of Eibenland is similar to that of other Teutonic cultures, though seafood features more prominently in Eibenlander cuisine. The staple foods of traditional Eibenlander cuisine are bread, pasta, meat, seafood, potatoes, and cheese. Bread is most commonly made with wheat and rye and is typically leavened. Potatoes are a common side dish and are also used to make dumplings. Root vegetables are also common components of Eibenlander dishes. The cuisine is primarily based on local ingredients though international cuisine has gained in popularity in recent decades, particularly in urban areas.
A breakfast typically includes sausage, eggs, or fish served with roasted vegetables. Eibenlander breakfasts tend to be more substantial than those in many other Nordanian countries. Lunch is often an open-faced sandwich, a stew, or a salad. Fish or beef stews are popular. Noodles or dumplings may feature with a larger lunch. Lunch was traditionally the main meal of the day though this tradition is rarely followed today. At work, Eibenlanders eat food packed from home or go to a restaurant. Most children of school-going age eat a school lunch. Dinner is generally the largest meal of the day, most often chicken, beef, or cod with potatoes, bread, and a vegetable side. Lobster and shrimp are common on special occasions.
Famous Eibenlander dishes include Holversahner schnitzel, a breaded pork cutlet; Gefülltnudeln, dumplings filled with potatoes and mushrooms or spinach; Pichel, a stew of seafood and vegetables; Sauerkraut, a classic side dish of pickled cabbage; Metzgete, a breakfast mixed grill dish; and Kochklopse, meatballs in cream sauce.
Association football and tennis are the most popular sports in Eibenland. Basketball, volleyball, and golf are moderately popular. Matches of the Eibenland Premier League tend to have high attendance. Eibenland participated in its first Coupe d'Esquarium in 2018, reaching the quarter-finals where it lost to Senria. The Holversahn Open is a tennis tournament that takes place in Eibenland annually.