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Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong
Baekjeong (Blue) in Coius (Light Blue)
|Recognised regional languages||Bumitic, Vijayla|
|Park Young Chul|
• 2018 estimate
• 2016 census
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Baean Mul (M) (BJM)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||BJ|
Baekjeong or Ansene, officially the Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong and often incorrectly referred to as Sangte, is a country located in Southwestern Coius, bordered by Xiaodong to the south, Chanda to the east, Ajahadya to the northeast, Arthakhand to the north, and the Bay of Bashurat to the west. Most of the country is located within the Geodaehan Basin. The de jure capital and religious center is Sangang while de facto capital and largest city is Ogbei. Over a third of the population lives in the Ogbei-Jinju-Gyeoljeong Metropolitan Region, one of the largest metropolitan regions in the world.
The Geodaehan Basin was first inhabited as early as the Early Paleolithic Era by migrants from the Proto-Southern Bashurat Valley Civilization to the north. The first centralized state in the region was noted by Xiaoan records in the early 8th century BCE. The Geodaehan Basin was first unified by the Sujanra Dynasaty of the Vayan Empire. The Vayan Empires, based on the Dansa River north of Geodaehan, originated near the modern city of Nolang. From the Sujarna Dynasty(c. 500BCE) to the collapse Pasupo Dynasty(c. 100BCE), most of the Geodaehan Basin was dominated by the Vayan Empire.
Following the collapse of the Vayan Empire, various kingdoms and city-states arose and collapsed in quick succession. The Kingdom of Eunyeon in the west of the basin expanded towards the coast, eventually conquering much of modern day Baekjeong's coastline. The Kingdom grew rich off of trade in the Bashurat, connecting the previous insular Geodaehan to the Bashurat trade network.
The modern state of Baekjeong traces itself to the Ansan City States Era (c. 400CE to 980CE). Several key institutions and cultural innovations central to Baekjeong developed during this era. The state religion of Cheongung spread widely during this time, combining elements of Baean folk religions, Ifranism, and Satyism.
The city-state of Sangang, the religious center of the Cheongung faith and seat of the Seonggol, formed an alliance with the powerful City-State of Ansan just before the dawn of the second millenium. With the religious authority of the Seonggol and military power of their two states, Jinggol Park of Ansan waged a decade long unification war that saw all of the Geodaehan and Haepyeong fall under the control of Ansan. This ushered in the Ansan Empire period.
The arrival of the Gaullicans in the 19th Century CE led to the rapid collapse of Ansan as a cohesive entity. The Gaullicans initially seized several ports from Eunyeon and Aiboli Gukdongs. By the second half of the century, all but Sangang itself and a few small feudal lands in the eastern ranges remained independent. For a century the region was ruled under the Gaullican Sangte. Local nobles largely retained their powers but heavy taxes were imposed and cultural imperialism by the Gaullicans was encouraged.
During the Great War, forces loyal to Sangang fomented rebellions in much of the country. Cheongung radicals and Baean Peasant and Socialist rebellions broke out in the final year of the war. Much of these local rebellions, having been covertly funded and stoked by Sangang, declared loyalty to the Seonggol. This led to the Baean Civil War, in which Sangang and Sangang-aligned religious and socialist factions under the Seonggol fought the remnants of the Gaullican colonial state largely under the authority of the Gukdongs. The Seonggol won the war and reasserted political authority over the new state of Baekjeong that had not been seen since the 16th Century CE.
Baekjeong is a moderately developed country and has one of Coius' highest GDP per capita. Baekjeong's citizens enjoy considerably more civil freedoms than the Coian norm, but only average political freedoms. Baekjeong is a major entrepot between ROSPO and COMSED nations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Healthcare
- 8 Cinema and television
- 9 Cuisine
- 10 Holidays
- 11 Music
- 12 Sports
The name Baekjeong derives from the word for Baeans' ancestral homeland, Baeke, and the Baean word for harmony, Jeonge. The term Baekjeong roughly translates to Ancestral Harmony. It was first used to refer to the parts of the Geodaehan Basin that remained under the control of Sangang during the Colonial Period during the 19th and 20th centuries. Ansene, the commonly accepted term for the nation in the Gaullican-speaking world, derives from the Ansan Empire, the last pre-colonial nation in the region. The name of the Gaullican colony, Sangtae, derived from a mistranslated Baean word. Sangtae is still commonly used among older Gaullican speakers, though its use is officially condemned by Baekjeong. The Seonghan officially encourages the use of 'Baekjeong' in all instances when referring to the country in an official manner. The term 'Ansene' is acceptable only in unofficial settings while 'Sangte' is banned inside Baekjeong and discouraged from use outside.
Warring Cities Period
Kingdom of Eunyeon
Ansan City States Era
The Temple of Cheonsan Talgeos was founded sometime in the 5th century by a convent of Priestess of the Cheongung faith fleeing the chaos on the coasts of the collapse of the Kingdom of Eunyeon.The temple proper was built on a large monadnock in the central Geodaehan. Originally named Hayansan for the sheer white of its granite visage, the mountain soon took on the same name as the temple, Cheonsan Talgeos. By the 8th century, the temple had risen in prominence among Cheongung temples, with most of the Geodaehan Yangrim making pilgrimages and the rulers of the local city-states, the predecessors to the Gukdongs and Hyeonnams of the Ansan Empire, seeking the High Priestess of Cheonsan Talgeos for their investiture. Around the mountain grew a large monastery, which provided services and food for the temple itself. Many Yangrim sent their children to the Temple for education and it was considered a great honor for many second and third born to join the temple.
Following the destruction of Baehang, and the Mother Temple of Cheongung within, during the Fourth Bumitic Invasion of Geodaehan, the Seonggol moved her seat to the Temple of Cheonsan Talgeos. The Seonggol was viewed as the Daughter of the Heavens and was the leader of the faith. With her came numerous retainers and members of the Cheongung bureaucracy. The monastery on the mountain was unable to cope and quickly a small city grew at the base. Seonggol Lee Ryeo, the first Seonggol to reign fully from Cheonsan Talgeos, named the settlement Sangang after the scenic river that flowed through the town from springs deeper in the mountain. Unlike in Baehang, where the religious and political powers were separate, in Sangang the faith reigned supreme. The Seonggol was both religious leader and Yangrim lord. In relations with the Yangrim of the Geodaehan, the Seonggol was afforded precedence over all else.
Following the Ansan-Palgan War of 982CE, Gukdong Park Jae-in controlled the two largest Jaesans in the whole of the Geodaehan, as well as the two main trading cities. To the other independent Yangrim, this was unacceptable. A vast coalition of city-states and petty kingdoms turned against Gukdong Park. At first the seemingly endless host appeared invincible, outnumbering Park Jae-in’s forces 10-to-1. However, the alliance had no clear leader and none of the major Yangrim trusted the other. Park was able to dismantle their forces piece by piece. In a bid of desperation, the retreating Yangrim pleaded with Seonggol Lee Bon-Hwa to step in and command the alliance. The Seonggol herself commanded a decent size force of levees and retainers, but she knew that it was unlikely that any of her commanders would be trusted by the Yangrim, nor did she possess the martial capacities to defeat Park on the field of battle.
Instead of fighting Park, she sent a missive to him carried by the High Priestess of Cheonsan Talgeos herself. Under the Seal of the Heavens, Park was invited to come to Sangang to entreat with Seonggol Lee. His safety guaranteed by canon law, Park readily agreed to make the trip. In Sangang, Park and Lee met for the first time.
By most accounts, both were readily impressed with the measure of the other. There Park laid forth his plans and goals for Seonggol Lee. He sought to first unify the Geodaehan and then eventually reconquer all the lands of the former Kingdom of Eunyeon. The centuries of infighting in the Geodaehan (Central hillands) and Haepyeong (Coastal plains) had reduced the culture and prosperity of all Baean peoples. From his seat in Ansan, Park had already secured routes into both Haepyeong and Geodaehan. With the power of the Geodaehan at his back, he would sweep into the coastal plains, brushing aside the crumbling remnants of Eunyeon and Bucheon. An end to the violence and the unification of the Cheongung world was something that Seonggol Lee could back. After a few days of discussion, the two reached an agreement that would alter the history of the region for a millennia. Lee Bon-Hwa would invest Park Jae-in as Jinggol, a newly created title that roughly meant “Defender of the Faith”. She would recognize him as the one true temporal leader of the Baean peoples and in turn he would recognize her as the one true spiritual leader. The new state would be called the Kingdom of Ansan, for the seat of power of Park.
The alliance Yangrim had mixed reactions to the new union. Many of major Geodaehan Yangrim broke with the alliance and returned to their estates, refusing to recognize either Park or Lee. Other lesser Yangrim sided with the Seonggol, many of them seeing her as the voice of the Heavens’ and thus possessing divine wisdom. Gukdong Song Cheon Rhee, who owned the largest independent Jaesan in the Geodaehan approached the Seonggol and Jinggol with a deal. He would accede to the union under two conditions. First, the Jinggol was to be appointed by the Seonggol for life from the Yangrim, not through hereditary means. As Jinggol Park had no children survive childhood, the terms were amenable to him. Second, Seonggol Lee was to appoint Hyeonnam Song Sang-hoon, the son of Song Cheon-Rhee, to be the next Jinggol. The terms were agreed to, joining Song’s Jaesan of Palgan to the Kingdom of Ansan.
From 986CE to 991CE, the armies of the newly minted Ansan Kingdom waged a war of unification through the Geodaehan. After the Siege of Goyang-do in 991CE, the whole of the Geodaehan had fallen under the control of the Kingdom of Ansan. In Haepyeong, political power was split between the rump Kingdoms of Eunyeon and Bucheon. Though the region was more populous than the Geodaehan, it was long in decline. The Ansan armies drove hard into the coastal plains, taking fort and city seemingly without resistance. Many local Yangrim defected to the Ansan, citing religious reasons in many cases. Neither Bucheon nor Eunyeon were able to set aside their own differences nor internal squabbling to mount an effective defense. According to the Official Records in Sangang, the armies of Ansan breached the walls of Yeollu and Jinju both on the first day of the new century. The veracity of this is doubted, but it is accepted that by the end of 1001CE, both Kingdoms had fallen to Ansan. Jinggol Park and Seonggol Lee then proclaimed the formation of the Ansan Empire.
Following the Second Sakata Incident, Xiaodong and Gaullica were poised for war with Estmere and Gaullica. General Jules Boucher, Commandant of the Gaullican forces stationed in Sangte, ordered a General Mobilization of both Gaullican and local Colonial forces.
Under the 1894 Treaty System, Gukdongs which received funding from the Gaullican Crown were obligated to raise their own troops to support the war effort. By law these soldiers were to be trained, equipped, and paid by the Gukdong they owed fealty to. The General Mobilization at the end of 1926 was the first time that all Gukdongs had been ordered to provide troops. Many of the north and eastern Gukdongs had seen their populations diminish following the 1924 Drought and Famine. The 1894 Treaty made no provisions for changes in population and thus these Gukdongs were burdened with a disproportionate recruitment quota. At the same time, unemployment and the famine had ruined the economy of Sangte as a whole. No Gukdong had the means to equip, pay, and deploy their quota of troops, let alone to other nations.
Baean Civil War
-Gaullican withdrawal of Colonial Forces during war -Peasant rebellions in major coastal cities -Seonggol vs Gukdongs -Seonggol victory with help of major industrialists/labor groups
Following the Treaties of Sangang and Invertwinc in 1937, the two-year Baean Civil War ended in a resounding victory for the Seonggolists. However much of Central Baekjeong was destroyed, with the city of Palgan all but destroyed. The Gaullican Colonies authorities had either been killed or fled the country. The Seonggol was faced with creating a nation from the ashes of war and colonial oppression. The Ansan state institutions were largely destroyed by Gaullica, or irreparebly damaged by their cooption into the Gaullican Sangte. The first act of Seonggol Lee was to resurrect the Office of the Jinggol. During the war, the Seonggol had exercised unprecedented and unrestrained personal authority. This was anaethema to Seonggol Lee, who immediately appointed her trusted general, Gwok Jin-sang, as Jinggol. Gwok, educated in Eastern Euclea, was tasked with organizing a new government and state.
Gwok called the Sindae Conference in December of 1937, summoning representatives from the Congress of Jinju, the surviving five Gukdongs, the surviving Yangrim, and the Singwon. There the conference debated on the future direction the state would take. The first order of business was deciding a name for the nation. Ansan was tainted and Sangte was almost a curse. The Singwon representatives proposed Baekjeong, which was accepted universally. Jinggol Park laid forth the Seonggol's plans for the organization of the state. There was to be a legislature with two houses. There were to be national and religious courts. The Jinggol would serve at the pleasure of the Seonggol, who would retain all powers in reserve and at her discretion. The Singwon and Congress largley supported the proposal while the Yangrim and Gukdongs were opposed. However, the nobility did not have the power to fully oppose the plan. They were able to secure seats for themselves in the upper houses and maintain their core estates. The vast majority of the feudal estates, however, were seized by the government. Many of their noble priviledges were lost as well. Nor, to the shock of the Gukdongs, would family of the eleven rebel Gukdongs or their retainers keep their titles. Only loyalist or neutral nobles would retain their titles, with vastly reduced powers. After two months of deliberation, a proposal was submitted to the Seonggol who promulgated the Heavenly Charter of the Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong.
The first major act of reconstruction enacted by the governemnt was a series of land reforms.
The end of the Satrian Wars brought about a new era in Baekjeong. The neutrality that had dominated national politics since well before the Ansan Empire was cast aside. After the ease of the Gaullican Conquest and the failures of the Dakian War, it was apparent to most of Baekjeong's political establishment that neutrality would simply not last. At the time, there were only two real options for alignment. Senria, to the west, was seen as the frontrunner. The powerful Kagemori clan, instrumental in defending Southern Vijayla during the Dakian War, spent much of their fortune advocating for closer ties to Senria. Many others felt similarly. The Senrian Mandate, though not recognized by Ogbei as legal, was nonetheless held up by many as an example of proper custondianship between a great power and lesser power. Senria's commitment to Baean independence and their lack of major internventions in the country after the Civil War endeared many to the country. Popular views of Senria only grew more affectionate after it became apparent that of all the Mandatory Powers, only Senria seemed truly committed to nation building. On the other hand, there existed a smaller faction that sought closer ties with Xiaodong. To them the logic was simple. Xiaodong was on Baekjeong's borders and could easily overwhelm even the post-Satrian Wars Baean Armed Forces. To them, the solution was join or die.
Ultimately, Xiaodong's support of Ajahadya in the end of the Third Satrian War had poisoned public sentiment to the point where any alliance was not feasible. In 1981, the Treaty of Sakata in Senria was signed, forming COMSED with Baekjeong as a founding member, now tied to Senria economically and militarily. COMSED was seen by many in Euclea as a Senrian-dominated alliance where all the other nations would be nothing more than puppets. In an effort to avoid this, Jinggol Kim and Seonggol Lee implemented the Ten Year Program for Baean Independence. The original Ten Year Program ran from 1982 to 1992 and focused on establishing Baekejeong as an independent state militarily and economically. Investments were made in education, industry, and infrastructure. BaeRail was built, connecting most major cities with high-speed rail. Major investments were made in the nascent Baean arms industry. Public education was reformed, with education reformers brought in from Euclea and Senria. Average international exam scores rose from below-average in 1977 to above-average in 1994.
The unpreparedness experienced by Baekejeong in the Dakian War wore heavy around the necks of the nation and measures were taken to prevent such a loss. Since the end of the 1960s, the Baean military had been slowly expanding. Alongside it, Baean light and heavy industry had expanded to provide for the military. The Ten Year Program invested heavily in these industries, encouraging them to seek export oppurtunities while simultaneously reducing Baean arms imports.
Baekjeong is a theocratic, unitary, parliamentary, illiberal republic. The Baean government's structure by the Heavenly Charter of the Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong. The government of Baekjeong is divided into four branches: executive, judicial, legislative, and Seonghan. The executive branch, headed by the Jinggol, operates through various ministries at a national level. The legislature, known as the Mulrim Senate, is composed of the Cheonrim Assembly and the Yangrim Council. The head of the Mulrim Senate is known as the Speaker of the Mulrim, while the Assembly and Council are led by the First Assemblymen and First Councilman respectively. The judiciary operates all courts in the country as one system - there are no separate provincial or local court systems. The courts are split into theocratic and state courts. Theocratic courts handle affairs of marriage, divorce, inheritance, family disputes, and other religious matters. The state courts handle criminal and non-religious civil affairs. The top theocratic court is the Cheonjeong while the top state court is the Serene National Court. The Seonghan are the offices of the Seonggol. The Seonggol (lit. Daughter of Heaven) is the religious authority of Baekjeong and the font from which all powers of state originate. In addition to the Seonggol, the Seonghan also has the House of Sarim. The House of Sarim is composed of all female-line members of the Seonggol's dynasty and serves as the Seonggol's advisory board. While the Seonggol has de jure absolute power over the state, by convention the Seonggol only interferes in government during times of emergency or for affairs of the faith.
The executive branch is headed by the Jinggol, currently Park Young Chul. By law, the Jinggol only has to be appointed by the Seonggol with the assent of the House of Sarim. By convention, the Jinggol has always also been approved by a simple majority of the Cheonrim Assembly. The Jinggol serves at the pleasure of the Seonggol and can be removed at any time for any cause. The Jinggol appoints the heads of the various state ministries, with implied assent of the Seonghan and the assent of the Yangrim Council. The State Ministries are the main organs of the executive branch. There are currently thirteen State Ministries, each headed by an Executive Minister. The responsibilities and role of the State Ministries are laid out in the Heavenly Charter of the Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong. Amendments to the Charter regarding the State Ministries are promulgated as Writs of the Seonggol by the Seonghan at the request of the Jinggol. The budget of the executive is set every two years by the Cheonrim Assembly.
|State Ministry||Executive Minister|
|Uniformed Services||Kyon Eun-Soo|
|Foreign Affairs||Tae Minji|
|Natural Resources and Agriculture||Park Young-Il|
|Labor and Unions||Ae Sun-Hee|
|State Security||Yu Ji-eun|
The Mulrim Senate is divided into two houses, the Cheonrim Assembly and the Yangrim Council. The Cheonrim Assembly is the lower and larger house, elected through direct and indirect elections. 200 seats, half of the seats, are elected directly from voting districts established by the Seonghan. 100 of the seats are elected by the provincial legislatures. The remaining 100 seats are allocated to the largest ten unions in the country, who are assigned seats based on their membership numbers. The Cheonrim Assembly is led by the Chief Assemblyman, currently Park Han-Joo, and a member is known as an Assemblyman. Assemblymen serve five year terms. Political parties are officially banned in Baekjeong; however, there are three broad voting blocs. The largest is the Labor Front, which votes for pro-worker laws. The second largest bloc are the more conservative members. The third broad group are those who vote in line with the beliefs of the Seonggol and are called the Cheongungists. These factions are not absolute and most members frequently break 'party lines' in their votes. The Cheonrim Assembly's primary power is that of purse and law. The Assembly has total control over the state budget, save that of the Seonghan. In addition to power of purse, the Assembly also creates most of the laws in Baekjeong. A majority of 60%, or 240 votes, is required for most acts of the Assembly. By convention, the Assembly appoints members of the State Courts.
The Yangrim Council is the smaller, upper house of the Mulrim Senate. The Council has 100 members. Ten members are appointed by the Seonggol directly. Forty members are elected from the Yangban, the hereditary nobility of the Baekjeong who lend their name to the body. Another twenty represent the ten largest Cheongung shrines. Ten seats are apportioned each to the State Corporations Board and the Industries Board. Five seats are held in perpetuity by the five remaining Gukdongs while the remaining seats are appointed by the Jinggol. The Yangrim Council is headed by the Chief Councilman, currently Kim Ji-Woo, and a member is known as a Councilman. Terms for the Council are dependent on the type of seat and range from one year to lifetime. The Council has powers to approve or reject government appointments in the executive and judicial branches. The Council can also force the Cheonrim Assembly to review and vote on a law twice. A law rejected twice by the Council requires a 75% majority, or 300 votes, in the Assembly. By convention, the Council approves all foreign deals and treaties.
The judiciary is divided into two court systems. The State Court system handles all judicial matters not considered under the purview of the religious courts. The State Courts operate at three levels. The majority of cases are heard in either the State Criminal Courts or the State Civil Courts. These courts are divided into National Districts that correlate to provincial boundaries. The State Appellate Court handles all appeals for Civil and Criminal Cases. The highest state court is the Serene National Court, composed of seven judges that hear cases appealed from the State Appellate Court at their discretion or upon recommendation from the Seonggol. The religious courts are divided into two levels. The majority of the courts are established along the major shrine and temple boundaries. They are generally headed by appointees from the High Shaman, with the approval of the Seonghan. The supreme religious court is the Cheongjeong, chaired by the Seonggol herself. Generally, there are no religious appeals but the Seonggol or her aides will evaluate lower court decisions and see what are in need of retrial.
The Seonghan is composed of the Seonggol and the female-descended members of the Lee Dynasty, called the House of Sarim. The Seonggol is the religious authority of Cheongung and the font of all authority in Baekjeong. All acts of government are done in her name and she retains de jure absolute authority. De jure the Seonggol is an absolute monarch operating under the Mandate of the Heavens. De facto, convention has restricted much of the powers of the Seonggol. The Heavenly Charter of the Most Serene Republic of Baekjeong, written by Seonggol Lee Jangmi in 1951, has divested most powers to the various organs of state. The Seonggol maintains her religious powers as the head of the state religion Cheongung. This primarily involves chairing the Cheongjeong and reviewing laws passed by the Assembly to guarantee their compatibility with the tenents of the Cheongung faith. In times of emergencies, or when the government is vastly unpopular or in stalemate, the Seonggol has the power to dissolve the government and call for new elections and appointments. This has happened only four times in the past, outside times of war, and each time the Seonggol ruled as an autocrat while reestablishing the government. Seonggol's Lee Jangmi nor Lee Seo-Yeon both established the convention of returning power to the government as soon as possible. The Seonggol is elected for life from the members of the Sarim. The Sarim are the female members of the Seonggol's family. In effect, this is the sisters, aunts, nieces, and other matrilineal female members of the House of Lee. The House of Sarim elect the Seonggol unanimously. The heir presumptive to the Seonggol is usually elected every decade, with a confirmation vote on the death of the Seonggol. In general, an action by the Seonggol is also considered an act of the Sarim and vice-versa. The Seonghan have powers to appoint the Jinggol and several other government positions.
Power production and supply is managed in its entirety by the state-run Baean Power Coporation. Baekjeong does not purchase power from its neighbors due to legally mandated power self-reliance. Excess power production is sold to COMSED allies. The majority of power produced in Baekjeong is generated from hydroelectric dams. Two such dams, Great Palgan Dam and Gyeolijeong Dam, are among the largest dams in the world. In additions to numerous hydroelectric dams, Baekjeong has invested heavily in the creation of tidal powerplants along its Bashurati coast, taking advantage of the relatively high tidal difference in the Bay. This relatively high reliance on water-based energy generation has lead to the phrase "Baean Electricity is wet".
Solar power supplies a small subset of the country with power, primarily in the cities where recent green-architecture regulations have required new construction to either have a solar roof or green roof. Baekjeong is a moderate producer of relatively advanced photovoltaic cells and associated large-capacity-and-long-term-storage batteries. In a bid to modernize its power infrastructure, several large scale battery stations have been built in areas that are unable to build pumped-water reserve stations, primarily in the north.
Wind energy is a controversial energy source in Baekjeong. Many ideal onshore wind farm locations are in the middle of Cheongung religious shrines that seek to harness the Tzi spirit energies of the wind dragons. The government has been loathe to force these politically powerful shrines to allow windfarm construction, and the Seonggol herself has opposed the idea on numerous occastions. The only major onshore windfarms are in the north, in primarily Ifranic, Badi, and Tulyati communities. Offshore wind farms have become more common in recent years, hamstrung only by the limited coastline of Baekjeong. Far away from the shrines, they do not face the challenges that onshore farms suffer from.
Nuclear power is a major, if declining source of power in the Serene Republic. From a peak utiliziation in the 1980's, nuclear power stations and their share of the national energy infrastructure have slowly declined. The government had long since favored the use of green and renewable energy sources, especially after Baean sources of uranium and thorium began to diminish. There are two remaining power plants operating at full capacity, supplying power to the Ogbei Metropolitan Region.
Fossil fuels have largely been abandoned by Baekjeong, for economical and religious reasons. A major tenent of Cheongung emphasizes the custodial nature of the state towards the environment, causing many politically powerful shrines to advocate against fossil fuel use. The last coal and oil fired plants were shut before the dawn of the 21st millenia, much to the chagrin of Senrian keitsu who had dominated the industry. Natural gas facilities remain in some parts of the state but are slowly being shut down and do not form a significant part of the energy infrastructure.
Baekjeong has a technologically advanced transport network centered around the BaeRail high-speed railway system and the National Expressway System. In addition, there exists an advanced network of air-and-heliports and ferry routes. The Ministry of Transportation, a division of the State Ministry of Infrastructure, manages all transportation networks through specialized state enterprises, the largest of which are BaeRail and the National Expressway Corporation.
BaeRail is the primary means of intercity travel in Baekjeong. It operates high-speed rail service to all provincial capitals and all major Baean cities. BaeRail also operates regular rail service to smaller cities and towns through its subsidiary, Baekjeong Regional Rail. In addition to passenger services, BaeRail operates a freight rail service that primarily runs along the north-south coastal axis and Ansan-Ogbei corridor.
The National Expressway System is a series of expressways that connect most Baean cities with a population greater than 200,000. The system is integrated with several provincial highway systems. Major expansions are underway to expand the system into the Northeastern Highlands. The National Expressway System is a toll-based system.
Baekjeong recognizes four domestic ethnic groups. Only members of these groups are eligible for citizenship via normal laws. The largest ethnic group, the Baean people, dominate all spheres of life in Baekjeong.
The second largest ethnic group, the Vijayan people, originate from the northern coastal provices. They are closely related to various peoples of the Great Steppe and many linguists have proposed adding Vijayan to the Great Steppe Language family.
The third largest ethnic group, the Bumite people, originate in the northeastern hill provinces. They are a Satrian people. They practice Tulyati and Badi faiths. Due to past insurgencies and the Satrian Wars, realtionships between Bumites and the government in Ogbei have often been strained. They are generally poorer and less educated than other groups, and many claim that the Ogbei government still represses them.
Hayans, also known as Galsan, are a mixed race group of descendants of marriages between Gaullican colonial administrators and locals in the Sangte period. Hayans are located almost entirely in the southern coastal cities, primarily Ogbei and Yeollu, and are the wealthiest ethnic group on a per capita basis. Many Hayans also play significant roles in politics and media. Hayans are the only group granted a blanket dispensation from requiring Cheongung membership to be a citizen.