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The Citizenry Uprising Hétumogerian: Állampolgári Felkelés was a civil war that lasted two years and five months, and was officially ended 3 years and almost 4 months after the beginning. The war was fought by the primarily pro-Nemesseg faction which controlled the Second Noble Republic; and the pro-Polgarsag Blue Movement Party and several other radical elements within the country. The Blue Movement, also known as the Blue Nationalists, grew in size to fully commit to a formal war effort between two different factions, the western nationalist faction and the eastern republican faction. The war was officially ended in 1929 after the Congress of Nagymező which was mediated by Vistulzka. The Congress of Nagymező established two separate countries, the Citizens Republic of Hetumoger and the Third Noble Republic of Hetumoger.
The background of the war dates back to 1874, in the establishment of the Third Kingdom of Hetumoger and the coronation of Zgismond Kohary III as King of Hetumoger. Zgismond and his administration was very unpopular between the Nemesseg and Polgarsag. In 1879, Zgismond launched an attempt in reforming the government in the Rendszer-Helyreállítás. Modernization attempts being made by the First Noble Republic alongside new infrastructure projects were all halted. The government had also reallocated funding from several different departments, more notably the Department of Transportation. Many important projects that were critical to repairing or making new infrastructure to replace the dated infrastructure within Hetumoger were delayed or cancelled entirely. This caused discontent among the two primary political classes, the Polgárság and the Nemesség. The continued rule by the monarchy was marked by the era known as the Néma Forradalom. The Néma Forradalom involved a steady rise in population, more concentration of population groups towards urban areas, and the emergence of a new political ideology named Blue Nationalism.
1908 saw the collapse of Zgismond's government due to very low popularity and potential threats to revolting by both the Nemesség and Polgárság. Zgismond abdicated and called for the establishment of a new Noble Republic. During the Provisional Government of Hetumoger, the 1909 Nepkormany election was held to fill in the new Nepkormany. The emergence of Blue Nationalism inbetween Zgismond's rule resulted in a new, powerful anti-Nemesseg party known as the Blue Republican Party. The election resulted in the Blue Republican Party holding a party majority, the first time in Hetumoger history that a single party held full control of the Nepkormany. The Polgárság had dominated the government over the more pro-Nemesseg parties.
Over time, the Blue Republican Party made more political moves that expanded their political influence and power. In 1915, the Blue Republican Party moved their political headquarters from Nagymezo in Deli to Komaron in Kisigmand. Following this move, they started the 1915 Democratic Bloc Merger, which unified their party with other Polgarsag parties in the Nepkormany. The merger had been in discussion since 1912, but were finally formalized in 1915. This made the Blue Republican Party the most powerful party within the country and made the government staunchly pro-Polgarsag. Lóránt Esterházy, the Primor Nemesseg of the Országgyűlés engaged in a political stalemate with the Nepkormany. In 1925, the Nepkormany passed the National Transportation Renewal Resolution. This took several large Hetumoger railroad companies, notably the Veszprémic-Sió Rail Trust, and nationalized them into the National Railway Committee.
The war began in the Militia Storming of Komárom in 1927, which was preceded by the Kisigmand Emergency and the Kisigmánd Agricultural Strike. Started and planned by the Big Four, the launching of militia action soon expanded within Kisigmand. The war progressed with success for the militia for a variety of reasons, most notably the lack of support for the Noble Republic. In 1928, a faction of the Blue Nationalists rose in rebellion in Hegyhat, creating a new western front. In 1929, an armistice was declared between all three factions as a result of the climbing death toll, the overarching economical devestation of the war and pressure from Vistulzka and East Nassau. The Congress of Nagymezo was called into effect and resulted in the separation of the Citizens Republic of Hetumoger and the Third Noble Republic of Hetumoger.
Both governments of Hetumoger were viewed skeptically on the international stage, and many different noble families suffered. Most notably the House of Kohary and the House of Akos lost the most amount of prestige, money and power. Blue Nationalism as an ideology eventually evolved into Blue Republicanism, based on both Blue Nationalism and Orthodoxist Republicanism. In 1946, the two separate countries eventually merged together into the Fourth Noble Republic of Hetumoger, the current government of the country. Signed under the Unification Treaty of Hetumoger, several political and social elements were covered in the treaty from issues that had been mentioned since the beginning of the Uprising.
- 1 Background
- 2 Kisigmánd (1927)
- 3 Oroszlány (1927)
- 4 Vámosoroszi (1927-1928)
- 5 Rácmecske (1928)
- 6 Hegyhát (1928-1929)
- 7 Sió (1928-1929)
- 8 First Congress of Nagymező
- 9 Second Congress of Nagymező
- 10 Aftermath
- 11 Post-War Politics
|Citizenry Uprising Background|
The background of the Citizenry Uprising can be traced back to the 1873 Coronation of Zgismond II and the ascension of the Kohary dynasty as the ruling family of the Third Kingdom of Hetumoger. A referendum taken back in 1873 Országgyűlés over the dissolvement of the government of the First Noble Republic of Hetumoger was approved, which came as a political self-destruct button as a majority of the noble class disliked the Noble Republic's style of government. This led to the dissolvement of the Népkormány and the First High Citizens Court, later replaced with more stylistic Noble Nepkormany and the High Nobles Court. Zgismond II's move into power was internationally disliked, especially by the Third Kingdom of Vistulzka and the United Nassau. On the brink of several modernization efforts undertaken for the eastern administrative governments and improvements for the agricultural-focused economic efforts were thwarted by Zgismond II for being interpreted as being too burdensome on the Nemesseg. In 1879, Zgismond II and his regime initiated the Rendszer-Helyreállítás, a internal government reorganization which replaced most of the original noble republican aligned members with monarchist aligned members. This primarily targeted public-sector workers, most of which were replaced by members or subordinates of Nemesseg houses. The departments of transportation, agriculture, development & conservation were the most affected by the roleout, all losing over 50% of their workforce due to cutbacks in funding and layoffs direct from Zgismond II's government.
Modernization efforts of the eastern administrative governments proved to be disasterous after the effects of Rendszer-Helyreállítás kicked into effect. Infrastructure efforts proved to be in vain due to a lack of maintainence that would have been provided by the Department of Transportation. Regional economies that relied on agriculture production and upkeep began to produce less and less. Several times during 1879 to 1885 Hetumoger relied on agricultural imports from Vistulzka in order to prevent a potential famine. More programs were established, most notably the Agricultural Development Administration. The Agricultural Development Administration, several times over failed to meet quotas established by regional governments concerning development prospects. The Department of Development & Conservation recieved major cutbacks on funding led to various land development projects to stop or be cancelled. The Department of Development & Conservation was created under the First Noble Republic to help in managing newly leased land that belonged to the Noble Republic. In 1886, the Department of Development & Conservation was eventually dissolved by Zgismond II due to internal concerns that the department was too taxing on the Nemesseg.
The rollout of the Rendszer-Helyreállítás proved to be disasterous for the modernization of the eastern districts and also caused problems with the local governments of urban centers. The failure to fund the Department of Agriculture and restore its staffing numbers to sufficient capacity caused the development of the eastern districts to suffer as their economies were focused on the production and upkeep of agriculture. Government-sponsered programs attempted to ease the damage caused by the Rendszer-Helyreállítás by establishing the Agricultural Development Administration, however most of these government-sponsered programs with a focus on agricultural were failures. The ADA became a failure as it could not meet its quota on agricultural development prospects. Alongside the modernization efforts ruined in eastern districts, the Department of Development recieved a major funding decrease which set back land development prospects that were initially approved by the First Noble Republic in western urban areas to improve overall living conditions. The Department of Development and Conservation was responsible for the management of federal land that belonged as resource areas or natural reserves according to Resolution 33-055. The cutting of funding also meant that many different workers and administrators were never recalled by their respective adminstration.
The Andrassy Riot was a major civil conflict that occurred in the city of Andrassy under the adminstration of the Third Kingdom. Feeling the effects of the Rendszer-Helyreállítás and its subsequent shortcomings, Zgismond II's government levied heavier taxes on the Polgarsag. These taxes were formulated to ease economic pressures that were placed on the eastern administrative regions, which were underpreforming in agricultural quotas to prevent potential lack of food. Pressures on the urban populations cause the Great Exodus of Hetumoger in 1883, which resulted in over 21% of recorded urban populations, which included Andrassy, Kossuth and North Pest. Paired with this was a hiked tax rate that did not include the Nemesseg, who instead paid a lower, pre-hiked tax rate. Polgarsag who lived in the city who could not afford to move out became homeless and the overall unrest began to become more obvious.
In April 16, 1883, a large crowd formed around several Polgarsag men being arrested from a house invasion being conducted on an apartment by the Andrassic Rendorseg Division. These orders came from Horvath Akos, the son of Császár Akos and the Overseer of the First Estate of Andrassy. The crowd began to panic as the orders came clear that those who underpaid their hiked taxes would be arrested by the Rendőrség and prosecuted by the law.
In the aftermath of the riots, the city government of Andrássy began to run a case to prosecute the Ákos dynasty and Horváth Ákos personally. The case, known as Ákos v. Citizens of Hétumoger, Andrássy, Noble Rendőrség and etc., sued for the compensation of the families of people killed during the riot, alongside compensation of both Polgárság or Rendőrség injured in the riots.
The Citizens High Court issued a ruling that the Noble Rendőrség, its respective divisions and their respective district governments, whether they belonged to a specific Nemesség family, cannot be issued any mobilization commands or be commandeered by a Nemesség or a Nemesség family, regardless of the rule of estate. It furthermore found that Horváth Ákos personally responsible as he had issued the orders in his role as the overseer of the First Estate of Andrássy
Second Noble Republic
Hunyadi Civil Riots
The Hunyadi Civil Riots were a series of riots that were contained in the city of Hunyadi in Csönge that occurred from July 19 to November 28 in 1917. The main reason for the riots was outrage at Operation Noble Trident, a covert information operation that was carried out by the Committee on State Information on several professors and students that had affiliated themselves with the anti-Nemesség Blue Movement Party in Hunyadi. Operation Noble Trident was ended and considered a failure after the Murder of János Rákosi, the brother of András Rákosi. When news of the murder and the subsequent leaking of documents about Operation Noble Trident to local newsources, discontent in the local Polgárság rose. The first protests began in July 19 where students and residents gathered to protest against the Nemesség rule. Several local leaders from the Blue Movement Party were also present, most notably Dezső Pattantyús, who was at that time, the chairman of the Csönge Blue Movement Party.
The protests recieved little attention until the protesters broke into the Hunyadi Municipal Courthouse, where the local Csönge Rendőrség Department arrived and attempted to contain the situation. Armed with loaded .03 Puskák, the Rendőrség ended up firing on the protestors, known as the Hunyadi Courthouse Massacre. After the first killing, the Rendőrség continued to fire into the crowd until it was dispersed. Ending in 22 deaths and 86 injured protestors, alongside 195 arrests, the Courthouse Massacre is believed to be where the protesting turned into a riot. The Civil Riots would be marked by two other massacres that were committed against the protesting Polgárság, the Hunyadi University Massacre and Halmos's Massacre.
The protests ended in November 28 when the Governer of Csönge, Ferenc Halmos, was arrested by the Csönge Rendőrség Division and the Pro-Polgárság Népkormány called for a reorganization of the Csönge government alongside local Hunyadi city government. The Civil Riots are considered to been one of the biggest events that occurred during the Néma Forradalom, and is considered to be a huge embarrassment by the Nemesség-led government as the Országgyűlés engaged in a legal gridlock with the local Népkormány representatives alongside with ignoring the legal implications of the events in Hunyadi. Before the Civil Riots, Csönge was strongly against Blue Nationalism and for the Nemesség. However the silence of the Országgyűlés and the presence of Blue Nationalist members helped boost Blue Nationalism's popularity. By the end of 1918 after the reorganization of the Csönge government, many of its political offices had been filled by Blue Nationalists, with the Nemesség losing several other representatives in the Népkormány.
Resolution 65-094 was the 94th Resolution that was passed by the 65th Nepkormany on a large scale. Resolution 65-094 was a resolution that was meant to nationalize the Veszprémic-Sió Rail Trust, which was at that point under the private ownership of the Kohary. Originally veto'd by the Parliament, the Nepkormany then overruled the
Militia Storming of Komárom
The Militia Storming of Komárom was an event that marked the end of the Kisigmánd Emergency and the beginning of the Citizenry Uprising. The Storming was initially organized by the planning of the Four Vanguards to be led by Edvárd in the polgárság markets of Komáron. At this point in the emergency, riots and clashes with the Noble Rendőrség had become expected. Earlier within the week on the fourth day, the Blue Movement Party had acquired a shipment of weapons that were siphoned off from the Noble Rendőrség, with logistic planning from Magdolna and Szálast as to their use and armament. Their agent who had helped armed them had then deserted his regiment. Vilmos Mátyás was originally the Szállásmester of the 3rd Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment and had falsified reports that allowed the Blue Movement Party to acquire approximately 30,000 rounds of ammunation and 750 guns.
Under the command of the Four Vanguards and the strategic help from Vilmos, they began to plan around the ongoing emergency that had essentially placed the state in martial law and prevented any road travel from coming in. On the seventh day, it was decided that Magdolna and Teodóra would begin a rally on the southern industrial sector of the Komáron that would quickly grow violent. About 150 rioters would be armed with some of the guns siphoned out by Vilmos and would be used to escalate the situation and allow for Edvárd and Szálast to begin a march of partisans and militia that would march from the northeastern agricultural communal sector into the central heart of Komáron to attack the central authority of the city and take control of the government buildings.
As the storming began on the eigth day, Magdolna and Teodóra almost failed as their untrained partisans had began to fire on the Rendőrség much earlier than expected, causing a larger panic among their own protestors that were organized. The Rendőrség fired back and began a small-arms urban firefight between the partisans. Initially outnumbered, the Rendőrség were also outgunned, as the guns that were siphoned to the partisans were Katonai grade, while the Rendőrség were limited to Rendőrségi grade. The timing and overall chaos of the event allowed for a larger amount of Rendőrség to be drawn to the southern sector, and the Rendőrség quickly outnumbered the armed partisans from 3-to-1 ratio. After the arrival of the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment taken control of the planning as Magdolna and Teodóra were cut off from the armed partisans.
- Note for later: YYYY Ákos (Female Akosian who died)
Battle of Komárom
In the ensuing aftermath of the initial Militia Storming and the following rout of the Rendőrség, the Battle of Komárom began. Intelligence recieved by farmers that had lived in the west of Kisigmánd had alerted Mátyás on horseback. The Riders of Kisigmánd, as they were called, delivered the message of the 1st Noble Armed Division carving a path through to Komárom in order to reinforce the battered Rendőrség divisions in Komáron. The remainder of the 1st Kisigmánd Rendőrség Division also tagged along with the Noble Armed Division in order to concentrate on reinforcing the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment.
The incoming intelligence had given Mátyás the information he needed in order to inform the Four Vanguards. The unorganized militia that had succeeding in defeating the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment had done so at a massive manpower cost. The need for extra manpower was imminent in Mátyás's mind, and could be organized from the Komáron Legislative Office Complex.
A meeting with the Four Vanguards began within the complex alongside the rally of Mátyás. The Four Vanguards determined that the vanguards lacked the capacity to fully lead a war or organize a militia with the lack of military leadership. It was determined that Vilmos Mátyás would become the head of the militia for the time being, sided alongside two other notable members of the Rendőrség who had deserted and turned to the Blue Movement: Donát Tót and András Rákosi.
XXXX Ákos turned as the general of the 1st Noble Armed Division alongside the Ákos Noble Népekvihar. The reasoning for his usurpation of leadership is unknown but is theorized to have been the death of his daughter YYYY Ákos who was in the Legislative Complex at the time of the storming.
Government & Nemesség Rout
Suffering major losses, Dávid Pataki and the Noble Army were forced to rout from Kisigmánd in late April of 1927. The overall initial strength of the Blue Nationalists and their ability to counter the offensive at Komárom allowed the Blue Nationalists to begin forming an organized structure of their army with the National Militia. From here, they hired to help lead the National Militia as the Marshal of the Militia. After the structuring of the National Militia with the help of Vilmos, plans were set out to begin an offensive in Oroszlány by the National Militia with help from local partisans and expected farmers and agrarians to come help the war effort in Oroszlány. The establishment of a Blue Nationalist government was also underway in Kisigmánd. István, Izidóra and Vilmos focused their efforts on planning the war effort while Magdolna and Edvárd focused on restructing the government.
Operation Vilmosian Storm
Nagyatád Polgárság Revolt
The Nagyatád Polgárság Revolt was a battle that was part of the Vilmosian-Árpádic Strategim that was developed mainly by Árpád Szakasits and was assisted in planning for the military operation by Vilmos. The revolt was planned by planting partisan members to infiltrate the city and the polgárság communities to rally support. Alongside this was a plan by Magdolna to plant a cell that would act as part of the Magdolnist Network, that would act as the westmost cell in Vámosoroszi.
The plan was put into motion at the same time as the launching of the Battle of the Győr Estate.
Battle of Kaposvár
Operation Soaring Eagle
Koháry Peace Offer
Rácmecske Agricultural Revolt
The Rácmecske Agricultural Revolt was an armed insurrection that was initiated under the leadership of András Rákosi after the proposal of the Koháry Peace Offer. The Agricultural Revolt came after the Battle of Dunaújváros that had been stuck in a military stalemate. The Agricultural Revolt was given its name due to the fact that the majority of the polgárság resistence fighters within the revolt were made of farmers and farmhands. The Battle of Dunaújváros had cut off the Ninth Militia Artillery Regiment and the Ninth Militia Infantry Regiment away from the rest of the Second Militia Army.
During the concentration of forces between both forces in Vámosoroszi and Rácmecske, the Western Nationalist Party began to make preparations for double-pronged uprising in the states of Hegyhát and Sió. Plans were drafted up by the Western National Council, the leaders of the party in both political stance and militiary stance after the Koháry Peace Proposal that was rejected by the Transitional Council. The eight members of the Western National Council began the necessary prepartions for mounting an offensive in their respective districts in order to draw away the Noble Army from their overstretched position.
Sió Indigeneous Revolt
Stalemate at Csongrád
The Citizens Republic could not extend any more help concerning logistics and supplies with Sió and Hegyhát due to their enclaved positions. The Second Noble Republic's economy was failing drastically due to the amount of the industrial force drafted into the army and suffered from a lack of proper military equipment due to sabotage efforts by the National Militia.
First Congress of Nagymező
The First Congress of Nagymező, originally called the 1929 Congress of Nagymező, was the first action taken towards peace talks that came as a result of the passing of the Andrássic Petition and the subsequent actions taken by both government to uphold the Csongrád Peace Agreement. Split into five different groups of representatives with a foreign group to help oversee the Congressional meeting, the Congress involved Polgárság and Nobles discussing for the first time since the beginning of the war when the Népkormany was dissolved by Parliament.
Taking place over the course of four weeks and hosting 10 plenary sessions, the Congress ended in the drafting, writing, and ratification of the Armistice of Nagymező by all representatives at the Congress. The congress was cooperatively chaired by both Fidél Égető and Zoltán Somogyi. The Armistice of Nagymező was signed to become a framework for a future treaty that would be negoigated by the Citizens Republic and the Noble Republic, as the Armistice was signed with the expectation of a full peace treaty to be ratified in a year.
The First Congress