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Citizenry Uprising

Citizenry Uprising
Citizenry Uprising Collage.png
Clockwise from top left: A young revolutionary in Nagymeno; General Dávid Pataki standing in Kisigmánd; A cavalry patrol in Szolnok; Infantry patrol; Blue revolutionaries being arrested; Crowd of Blue revolutionaries standing in Szombathely
Date15 June 1927 - 17 November 1929
(2 years, 5 months and 2 days - de-facto)
15 June 1927 - 12 October 1930
(3 years, 3 months, 3 weeks and 6 days - de-jure)
Location
Result

Armistice of Nagymező

Belligerents

1927:
 Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger


1928:
 Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger


1929:
 Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger

1927:
 Blue Movement Party


1928:
Citizens Republic of Hétumoger
Hegyhát Citizens Government
Sió Citizens Army
Supported by:
Ostrozava Ostrozavan Revolutionary Army


1929:
Citizens Republic of Hétumoger
Western Nationalist Government
Sió Nationalist Government
Hegyhát Nationalist Government
Supported by:
Messidor Union Aix Brigade
Ostrozava Ostrozavan Revolutionary Army
Commanders and leaders
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Lóránt Esterházy
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Zoltán Somogyi
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Zgismond Koháry
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Donát Bálint
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Dávid Pataki
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Klára Kovács
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger László Piros
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Béla Zsedényi
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Erzsébet Szilágyi
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Sándor Hegedüs
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Alex Jani Tolvaj
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Rudolf Varga
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Tímá Vásáros
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Miklós Szilágyi
Sólyom Magdolna
István Szálast
Béla Edvárd
Izidóra Teodóra
Mátyás Rákosi
Árpád Szakasits
Fidél Égető
Dezső Pattantyú
János Szabó
Sári Ilona
Vilmos Mátyás
Donát Tót
András Rákosi
Juhász Gerencsér
Piroska Rickl
Dezső Kerekes
Ágnes Zsuzsanna
Béla Kaposvár
Messidor Union Gaspard Morçef
Strength
Second Noble Republic of Hétumoger Government Troops:
125,000 (1927)
132,000 (1928)
121,000 (1929)
Blue Movement Party Blue Nationals:
52,000 (1927)
89,000 (1928)
87,000 (1929)
Messidor Union Aix Brigade:
2,487 (1929)
Casualties and losses
1,000,000 civilians displaced
50,000 civilians purged
100,000 civilians killed


The Citizenry Uprising, (Hétumogerian: Állampolgári Felkelés) known also as the Hétumoger Civil War or the Blue Revolution was a civil war that lasted two years and six months. The war was fought between the pro-Nemesség Second Noble Republic and the Blue Movement Party and several radical elements within the country after the transition into the Second Noble Republic from the Third Kingdom. The insurrection of Blue Nationalists soon grew to a formal war effort that focused on eastern Hétumoger with an alliance of Blue Nationalist movements that revolted in Western Hétumoger. The war was viewed as mainly a class struggle as the sides were seen as polaric divisions, between the Nemesség and the Polgárság. The war ended in 1929 after the Congress of Nagymező, which established the sovereignty of the Citizens Republic of Hétumoger and the Third Noble Republic of Hétumoger.

In 1879, 4 years into the coronation of Zgismond Koháry II and the establishment of the Third Kingdom of Hétumoger, Zgismond and his administration attempted to reform the government in what is called the Rendszer-Helyreállítás. This resulted in the modernization attempts in the east that were underway in the First Noble Republic to be put on hold, reuslting in their inevitable failure. This also meant infrasturture projects to help transportation between the west and east of Hétumoger to suffer and fail alongside that. The ensuing failure created instability with the Kingdom and its rule by both the Polgárság and the Nemesség. Afterwards, the Néma Forradalom, began. A political movement against the monarchy marked by a growth in population and a rise in urbanization along with a new political ideology called Blue Nationalism. Originally thought of by the Blue Vanguards, Blue Nationalism saw a rise in popularity from the Polgárság as an anti-Nemesség party that would go against the rule of the Nemesség. In 1908, seeing the failure of his rule and the threat of both the Nemesség and Polgárság revolting against the Kingdom; Zgismond abdicated and called for the establishment of the Second Noble Republic. In 1910, the Second Noble Republic was formed with Zgismond as one of the members of the Országgyűlés. During the Provisional Government of Hétumoger, the 1909 Népkormány election was hosted alongside the 78th Appointment of Citizen Justice. The Blue Movement Party became the most popular party, and saw the Népkormány become dominated by the Polgárság.

After the 1909 election and the establishment of a Blue Nationalist majority in the Népkormány, the Blue Vanguards moved the majority of their base of operations from Nagymező to Komárom in Kisigmánd and established their headquarters there in 1915 which allowed them to commence the Democratic Bloc Merger, which unified their party with other Polgárság parties in the Népkormány. The discussion of this merger had been underway since 1912, but were formalized in 1915 as all non-Nemesség parties were merged with the Blue Movement Party under the 1915 Democratic Bloc Merger. The Népkormány was now entirely dominated by the Polgárság and was staunchly aligned with the Blue Movement Party. Lóránt Esterházy, the Primor Nemesség of the Országgyűlés engaged in a political stalement situation with the Népkormány, but ultimately continued to fail in preventing the Népkormány. In 1925, Resolution 65-094 was passed by the Népkormány, which enstated that the Veszprémic-Sió Rail Trust was to be nationalized as the National Railway Transport Committee.


Background

Prelude

The beginning of the Citizenry Uprising is traced back to the Coronation of Zgismond II, who was an Először Nemesség of Koháry. Zgismond was crowned in 1875 in a referendum by the Országgyűlés, leading to the dissolvement of the government of the First Noble Republic of Hétumoger and the establishment of the Third Kingdom of Hétumoger. The referendum came as a political self-destruct, dissolving the Népkormány and removing justiciars from the High Citizens Court to be replaced with those appointed by Zgismond himself. Zgismond II began his reign with a Hétumoger on the brink of modernizing the eastern administrative districts and improving the economy, but with an unpopular view from the Polgárság. Zgismond II and his cabinet at the time were aligned as conservatives, being pro-Nemesség, Zgismond announced his intent to begin the Rendszer-Helyreállítás. The Rendszer-Helyreállítás was a reset on the initially Noble Republic government to replace them with pro-monarchist members, which mainly targeted public-sector workers that operated directly with the government. The Noble Department of Agriculture, Noble Department of Transportation, and the Noble Department of Development and Conservation were the most affected by the rollout of the Rendszer-Helyreállítás, with listed departments losing over 50% of their total workforce due to cutbacks on funding by Zgismond.

The rollout of the Rendszer-Helyreállítás proved to be disasterous for the modernization of the eastern districts and also caused problems with the local governments of urban centers. The failure to fund the Department of Agriculture and restore its staffing numbers to sufficient capacity caused the development of the eastern districts to suffer as their economies were focused on the production and upkeep of agriculture. Government-sponsered programs attempted to ease the damage caused by the Rendszer-Helyreállítás by establishing the Agricultural Development Administration, however most of these government-sponsered programs with a focus on agricultural were failures. The ADA became a failure as it could not meet its quota on agricultural development prospects. Alongside the modernization efforts ruined in eastern districts, the Department of Development recieved a major funding decrease which set back land development prospects that were initially approved by the First Noble Republic in western urban areas to improve overall living conditions. The Department of Development and Conservation was responsible for the management of federal land that belonged as resource areas or natural reserves according to Resolution 33-055. The cutting of funding also meant that many different workers and administrators were never recalled by their respective adminstration.

Andrássy Riot

Horváth Ákos, the Elozor Nemesség of the Ákos.
Andrássy in 1917.

The Andrássy Riot was a major civil conflict that occurred under the Third Kingdom. After the failure of the Rendszer-Helyreállítás, Zgismond's government had levied extremely heavy taxes on city centers and urban areas in order to relieve the economic pressure on their eastern districts which were responsible for a large amount of food. Andrássy was the capital of the Third Kingdom. The pressure on people in Andrássy started the Andrássic Exodus, where 21% of the population of Andrássy had left the urban areas, creating an economic vacuum for jobs alongside causing the prices of housing in Andrássy to plummet. This occurred with other urban areas but was not seen to such a severe effect as in Andrássy. The Nemesség were also excused from paying into a hiked tax rate and were instead able to pay a pre-hiked tax rate that was irregular from the tax rate in urban areas. This caused a rise in unrest with the Polgárság living in the city who could not afford to move.

On April 14, 1907, a crowd formed around several Polgárság being arrested from an invasion conducted on an apartment by the Andrássic Rendőrség Division under the orders of the Horváth Ákos,Először Nemesség of the Ákos who acted as the overseer of the First Estate of Andrássy. The crowd began to panic as the orders came clear that those who underpaid their hiked taxes would be arrested by the Rendőrség and prosecuted by the law.

In the aftermath of the riots, the city government of Andrássy began to run a case to prosecute the Ákos dynasty and Horváth Ákos personally. The case, known as Ákos v. Citizens of Hétumoger, Andrássy, Noble Rendőrség and etc., sued for the compensation of the families of people killed during the riot, alongside compensation of both Polgárság or Rendőrség injured in the riots.

The Citizens High Court issued a ruling that the Noble Rendőrség, its respective divisions and their respective district governments, whether they belonged to a specific Nemesség family, cannot be issued any mobilization commands or be commandeered by a Nemesség or a Nemesség family, regardless of the rule of estate. It furthermore found that Horváth Ákos personally responsible as he had issued the orders in his role as the overseer of the First Estate of Andrássy

Néma Forradalom

Second Noble Republic

Hunyadi Civil Riots

Ferenc Halmos, the pro-Nemesség Governer of Csönge

The Hunyadi Civil Riots were a series of riots that were contained in the city of Hunyadi in Csönge that occurred from July 19 to November 28 in 1917. The main reason for the riots was outrage at Operation Noble Trident, a covert information operation that was carried out by the Committee on State Information on several professors and students that had affiliated themselves with the anti-Nemesség Blue Movement Party in Hunyadi. Operation Noble Trident was ended and considered a failure after the Murder of János Rákosi, the brother of András Rákosi. When news of the murder and the subsequent leaking of documents about Operation Noble Trident to local newsources, discontent in the local Polgárság rose. The first protests began in July 19 where students and residents gathered to protest against the Nemesség rule. Several local leaders from the Blue Movement Party were also present, most notably Dezső Pattantyús, who was at that time, the chairman of the Csönge Blue Movement Party.

The protests recieved little attention until the protesters broke into the Hunyadi Municipal Courthouse, where the local Csönge Rendőrség Department arrived and attempted to contain the situation. Armed with loaded .03 Puskák, the Rendőrség ended up firing on the protestors, known as the Hunyadi Courthouse Massacre. After the first killing, the Rendőrség continued to fire into the crowd until it was dispersed. Ending in 22 deaths and 86 injured protestors, alongside 195 arrests, the Courthouse Massacre is believed to be where the protesting turned into a riot. The Civil Riots would be marked by two other massacres that were committed against the protesting Polgárság, the Hunyadi University Massacre and Halmos's Massacre.

The protests ended in November 28 when the Governer of Csönge, Ferenc Halmos, was arrested by the Csönge Rendőrség Division and the Pro-Polgárság Népkormány called for a reorganization of the Csönge government alongside local Hunyadi city government. The Civil Riots are considered to been one of the biggest events that occurred during the Néma Forradalom, and is considered to be a huge embarrassment by the Nemesség-led government as the Országgyűlés engaged in a legal gridlock with the local Népkormány representatives alongside with ignoring the legal implications of the events in Hunyadi. Before the Civil Riots, Csönge was strongly against Blue Nationalism and for the Nemesség. However the silence of the Országgyűlés and the presence of Blue Nationalist members helped boost Blue Nationalism's popularity. By the end of 1918 after the reorganization of the Csönge government, many of its political offices had been filled by Blue Nationalists, with the Nemesség losing several other representatives in the Népkormány.

Resolution 65-094

Resolution 65-094 was the 94th Resolution that was passed by the 65th Nepkormany on a large scale. Resolution 65-094 was a resolution that was meant to nationalize the Veszprémic-Sió Rail Trust, which was at that point under the private ownership of the Kohary. Originally veto'd by the Parliament, the Nepkormany then overruled the

Kisigmánd Emergency

Kisigmánd (1927)

Militia Storming of Komárom

Kossuth Street in the Southern Sector of Komáron during the Storming

The Militia Storming of Komárom was an event that marked the end of the Kisigmánd Emergency and the beginning of the Citizenry Uprising. The Storming was initially organized by the planning of the Four Vanguards to be led by Edvárd in the polgárság markets of Komáron. At this point in the emergency, riots and clashes with the Noble Rendőrség had become expected. Earlier within the week on the fourth day, the Blue Movement Party had acquired a shipment of weapons that were siphoned off from the Noble Rendőrség, with logistic planning from Magdolna and Szálast as to their use and armament. Their agent who had helped armed them had then deserted his regiment. Vilmos Mátyás was originally the Szállásmester of the 3rd Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment and had falsified reports that allowed the Blue Movement Party to acquire approximately 30,000 rounds of ammunation and 750 guns.

Under the command of the Four Vanguards and the strategic help from Vilmos, they began to plan around the ongoing emergency that had essentially placed the state in martial law and prevented any road travel from coming in. On the seventh day, it was decided that Magdolna and Teodóra would begin a rally on the southern industrial sector of the Komáron that would quickly grow violent. About 150 rioters would be armed with some of the guns siphoned out by Vilmos and would be used to escalate the situation and allow for Edvárd and Szálast to begin a march of partisans and militia that would march from the northeastern agricultural communal sector into the central heart of Komáron to attack the central authority of the city and take control of the government buildings.

As the storming began on the eigth day, Magdolna and Teodóra almost failed as their untrained partisans had began to fire on the Rendőrség much earlier than expected, causing a larger panic among their own protestors that were organized. The Rendőrség fired back and began a small-arms urban firefight between the partisans. Initially outnumbered, the Rendőrség were also outgunned, as the guns that were siphoned to the partisans were Katonai grade, while the Rendőrség were limited to Rendőrségi grade. The timing and overall chaos of the event allowed for a larger amount of Rendőrség to be drawn to the southern sector, and the Rendőrség quickly outnumbered the armed partisans from 3-to-1 ratio. After the arrival of the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment taken control of the planning as Magdolna and Teodóra were cut off from the armed partisans.

  • Note for later: YYYY Ákos (Female Akosian who died)

Battle of Komárom

In the ensuing aftermath of the initial Militia Storming and the following rout of the Rendőrség, the Battle of Komárom began. Intelligence recieved by farmers that had lived in the west of Kisigmánd had alerted Mátyás on horseback. The Riders of Kisigmánd, as they were called, delivered the message of the 1st Noble Armed Division carving a path through to Komárom in order to reinforce the battered Rendőrség divisions in Komáron. The remainder of the 1st Kisigmánd Rendőrség Division also tagged along with the Noble Armed Division in order to concentrate on reinforcing the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment.

The incoming intelligence had given Mátyás the information he needed in order to inform the Four Vanguards. The unorganized militia that had succeeding in defeating the 4th Kisigmánd Rendőrség Regiment had done so at a massive manpower cost. The need for extra manpower was imminent in Mátyás's mind, and could be organized from the Komáron Legislative Office Complex.

A meeting with the Four Vanguards began within the complex alongside the rally of Mátyás. The Four Vanguards determined that the vanguards lacked the capacity to fully lead a war or organize a militia with the lack of military leadership. It was determined that Vilmos Mátyás would become the head of the militia for the time being, sided alongside two other notable members of the Rendőrség who had deserted and turned to the Blue Movement: Donát Tót and András Rákosi.

XXXX Ákos turned as the general of the 1st Noble Armed Division alongside the Ákos Noble Népekvihar. The reasoning for his usurpation of leadership is unknown but is theorized to have been the death of his daughter YYYY Ákos who was in the Legislative Complex at the time of the storming.

Government & Nemesség Rout

Nationalist Consolidation

Oroszlány (1927)

Nationalist Campaign

Suffering major losses, Dávid Pataki and the Noble Army were forced to rout from Kisigmánd in late April of 1927. The overall initial strength of the Blue Nationalists and their ability to counter the offensive at Komárom allowed the Blue Nationalists to begin forming an organized structure of their army with the National Militia. From here, they hired to help lead the National Militia as the Marshal of the Militia. After the structuring of the National Militia with the help of Vilmos, plans were set out to begin an offensive in Oroszlány by the National Militia with help from local partisans and expected farmers and agrarians to come help the war effort in Oroszlány. The establishment of a Blue Nationalist government was also underway in Kisigmánd. István, Izidóra and Vilmos focused their efforts on planning the war effort while Magdolna and Edvárd focused on restructing the government.

Operation Vilmosian Storm

Vilmos Mátyás, the Állampolgáritábornok of the National Militia

Operation Vilmosian Storm was a war strategy that Vilmos Mátyás introduced to the First Militia Army that was first demonstrated at the Battle of the Győr Estate.

Vámosoroszi (1927-1928)

Nationalist Campaign

Nagyatád Polgárság Revolt

The Nagyatád Polgárság Revolt was a battle that was part of the Vilmosian-Árpádic Strategim that was developed mainly by Árpád Szakasits and was assisted in planning for the military operation by Vilmos. The revolt was planned by planting partisan members to infiltrate the city and the polgárság communities to rally support. Alongside this was a plan by Magdolna to plant a cell that would act as part of the Magdolnist Network, that would act as the westmost cell in Vámosoroszi.

The plan was put into motion at the same time as the launching of the Battle of the Győr Estate.

Battle of Kaposvár

Operation Soaring Eagle

Rácmecske (1928)

Government Campaign

Important links: Second Militia Army Third Noble Army 17th Noble Cavalry Regiment Ninth Militia Artillery Regiment

Koháry Peace Offer

Rácmecske Agricultural Revolt

The Rácmecske Agricultural Revolt was an armed insurrection that was initiated under the leadership of András Rákosi after the proposal of the Koháry Peace Offer. The Agricultural Revolt came after the Battle of Dunaújváros that had been stuck in a military stalemate. The Agricultural Revolt was given its name due to the fact that the majority of the polgárság resistence fighters within the revolt were made of farmers and farmhands. The Battle of Dunaújváros had cut off the Ninth Militia Artillery Regiment and the Ninth Militia Infantry Regiment away from the rest of the Second Militia Army.

Polgárság Uprising

Hegyhát (1928-1929)

During the concentration of forces between both forces in Vámosoroszi and Rácmecske, the Western Nationalist Party began to make preparations for double-pronged uprising in the states of Hegyhát and Sió. Plans were drafted up by the Western National Council, the leaders of the party in both political stance and militiary stance after the Koháry Peace Proposal that was rejected by the Transitional Council. The eight members of the Western National Council began the necessary prepartions for mounting an offensive in their respective districts in order to draw away the Noble Army from their overstretched position.

Nationalist Campaign

Partisan Warfare

Government Intervention

Aix Brigade and Hégyhat National Militia posing in the Dózsa Estate

Sió (1928-1929)

Nationalist Campaign

Sió Indigeneous Revolt

Government Breakdown

Stalemate at Csongrád

The Citizens Republic could not extend any more help concerning logistics and supplies with Sió and Hegyhát due to their enclaved positions. The Second Noble Republic's economy was failing drastically due to the amount of the industrial force drafted into the army and suffered from a lack of proper military equipment due to sabotage efforts by the National Militia.

First Congress of Nagymező

The First Congress of Nagymező, originally called the 1929 Congress of Nagymező, was the first action taken towards peace talks that came as a result of the passing of the Andrássic Petition and the subsequent actions taken by both government to uphold the Csongrád Peace Agreement. Split into five different groups of representatives with a foreign group to help oversee the Congressional meeting, the Congress involved Polgárság and Nobles discussing for the first time since the beginning of the war when the Népkormany was dissolved by Parliament.

Taking place over the course of four weeks and hosting 10 plenary sessions, the Congress ended in the drafting, writing, and ratification of the Armistice of Nagymező by all representatives at the Congress. The congress was cooperatively chaired by both Fidél Égető and Zoltán Somogyi. The Armistice of Nagymező was signed to become a framework for a future treaty that would be negoigated by the Citizens Republic and the Noble Republic, as the Armistice was signed with the expectation of a full peace treaty to be ratified in a year.

The First Congress

Second Congress of Nagymező

Aftermath

War Crimes

Blue Scare

Noble Terror

Military analysis

Grand Tribal Conference

Economic Consequences

Post-War Politics

Third Noble Republic

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Citizens Republic