Hytekojuznik Civil War
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|Hytekojuznik Civil War|
|Part of the Fall of Communism in Aeia|
|Date||January 28, 1986 – October 31, 1989|
(3 years, 9 months, 3 days)
|Caused by||Oppression of Juzniks by majority Hytek government|
Fall of communism
|Resulted in||Juznik victory|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Total casualties: 547,756–667,600|
Total displaced: c. 1,100,000
The Hytekojuznik Civil War, also referred to as the War of Independence or War of Liberation in Juznia was a civil war and war of independence fought mainly along the border of Hytekia and Juznia from Juznia's unilateral declaration of independence in January 1986 to the signing of the Višnevas Accords at the end of October 1989. The war is one of the largest civil conflicts in Aeian history, involving over 1.5 million military personnel (including volunteer divisions from supporting countries) at its peak in 1989, and saw the displacement of over a million civilians as well as the destruction of many important Hytek and Juznik buildings throughout its duration.
The majority of Juzniks living in Juznia wanted the country to secede from the People's State of Hytekojuznia and become independent, while Hyteks in Juznia, supported by much of the communist world, advocated for the country to remain part of the union to share a common land with all Hytek peoples. With anti-Juznik sentiment growing ever since the sacrifice of many Juznik soldiers, disputably willingly by the Hytekojuznik government, at the Siege of Anlaufhafen, and the fall of communism affecting and weakening many communist regimes across Asura, Juznia declared independence on January 26, 1986 with the support of the majority of ethnic Juzniks as well as some staunch anti-communist Asuran nations, such as Cuirpthe and Liiduria. Chairman of the Hytekojuznik Communist Party and de facto leader of Hytekojuznia Aivars Muceniece issued an ultimatum to Juznia on the same day, instructing them to rejoin the country or face invasion. When Juznia rejected the ultimatum two days later, Hytekia issued a declaration of war and invaded with the support of communist Veleaz.
The Hytek forces tried to keep hold of Juznia during the ultimatum period by attempting to occupy most of the country to effectively force it back into the union, but when this failed, full mobilisation was ordered. Throughout 1986 and 1987, the front lines of the conflict were entrenched and several costly offensives were made into both the belligerent's territory. The war was mainly confined to the Hytek-Juznik border, save some militia conflicts in Anlaufhafen. Juznia first broke through the Hytek lines in December 1987 after the Battle of Ikskile. Hytek leadership was weak after Muceniece's 1985 purge, and the war effort was almost solely spurred on by Muceniece himself. Facing possible seizure by Juznik forces, Muceniece fled to Veleaz at the beginning of 1988, severing effecting the morale of the remaining professional Hytek troops that were still fighting. Several western-supported offenses began in 1988, culminating in October when the Hytek-controlled stronghold of Purvėnai was retaken. Intense militia fighting ensued for most of the remainder of the war, with many civilians being displaced by militia bombs as well as targeted attacks by the Hytek Air Force. The Hytek Nāvečuksti continued their massacres on Juznik civilians along the border, and by the end of the war in 1989, the death toll from massacres carried out by the Nāvečuksti reached almost 20,000.
Muceniece returned to Hytekia in October 1989 to sign the Višnevas Accords, a peace treaty largely proposed by Juznia and its Asuran allies which ensured Hytekia would recognise the complete independence of the new Juznik Republic and would cede various border territories, including the city of Grobina, to Juznia as reparations for the war. While Juznia won the war, around 20% of its economy was destroyed and a cost of over $25 billion has been incurred over infrastructure damage, lost output and refugee-related costs. Over 500,000 were killed in the war, with more than double that displaced on both sides. Muceniece continued to lead as President of Hytekia and the governments began to progressively cooperate until the culmination of the Grobina Wars between 1991 and 1996. The governments of Hytekia and Juznia today still reluctantly cooperate but tensions still remain extremely high, with only one border crossing in Uznavas being operated - heavily militarised by both sides.
In 2007, the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations (CDN) launched an investigation into the war crimes committed by both Hytek and Juznik forces during the war, over a hundred people, from both sides, were found guilty of war crimes. The CDN later demanded that both countries take actions against the accused individuals, and while both countries claim they "took appropriate action" against the individuals, it is unclear whether they were actually imprisoned. The CDN reaffirmed the genocidal intent of the killings during the war in 2010 in a bid to encourage further cooperation between both nations and the democratic bloc, but ultimately ended in failure.
- 1 Background
- 2 Course of the war
- 3 Impact and Aftermath
- 4 Veleazan role
- 5 Western role
- 6 Role of the international community
First Great War and aftermath
During the first Great War many young Juznik men were conscripted by the Kingdom of Hytekojuznia with most of those that were conscripted sent to the frontline of the Siege of Anlaufhafen. During the siege the mostly Hytek commanders of the Hytekojuznik armed forces elected to send most of the Juznik conscript units over the top of the trenches first as the frontline chargers with one of the commanders, Arke Visser, describing them as "the meatshields". As a result of this most scholarly estimates place the percentage of Hytekojuznia's casualties in the siege which were Juznik as high as 60 to 70 percent.
The loss of over a hundred thousand young men stirred anger in Juznia and saw Anti-Hytek sentiment come to the fore for the first time in Juznia. In Višnevas, at the time a city with a large Hytek minority, rioting broke out with over 1,000 killed as a result.
Course of the war
1986: Open hostilities begin
The Juznik declaration of independence was unexpected by much of the new communist government of Hytekia after Muceniece's 1985 purge. The Hytek portion of the now-defunct Hytekojuznik Army was unprepared for combat and were mostly conscripts who had received only basic training. Decades of reliance of the FSR for military protetcion had left both the Hytek and Juznik armies inexperienced, weak and small. The extent of their incapability was shown on the Hytek declaration of war on January 28 and the beginning of the first offensive into Juznia. Hytekia initially planned to strike quickly against the Juznik forces, using the turmoil created by their sudden independence as leverage to initiate the invasion. The Hytek 2nd and 4th armies were tasked with the invasion, which aimed to use their numbers to overwhelm the Juznik forces guarding the border near the coast. The Hytek navy was also tasked with a blockade and bombardment of the Juznik coast, which would go unimpeded for three days due to lack of a Juznik navy until March 1, when the government of Liiduria issued a warning to Hytekia to keep hostile naval warfare out of the Gulf of Alemannia or face Liidurian intervention on the Juznik side. Fearful of the impacts of a two-front war, the Hytek High Command accepted the offer and retracted the Hytek Navy back to their port in Lielosta.
The invasion had stagnated just north of the city of Grobina as Juznia committed most of their active forces to repelling the initial Hytek invasion, which they deemed necessary to keep morale high for the war. A miscommunication in the Juznik ranks caused the Hyteks to win the decisive Battle of Pamerkai around 20 miles north of Grobina, just over the modern Juznik border. The Hyteks advanced into the city of Laukapė after the victory in the battle, but it is here where the first urban militias of the war would be used, a trait that would come to define the war. The Hyteks were forced out of the city as the JLA militias used their knowledge of the city and guerrilla tactics to repel the invasion. Suffering heavy losses, numbering around 5,500, the Hyteks retreated back to Grobina almost immediately after the Battle of Laukapė. Hytekia attempted another spearhead invasion of the city a few weeks later, but JLA militia again forced the Hyteks back to the border. The three battles in Laukapė claimed over 15,000 Hytek lives and essentially decimated the Hytek army, at this point only around 45,000 in strength, forcing them to also resort to militiamen as their main fighting force.
Until July, the conflict on the border stagnated as both countries began to recuperate from their earlier losses. The JLA reformed its militia ranks and consolidated many independent militias into one central army commanded by ex-Hytekojuznik commander and Juznik nationalist Karolis Savickas, fielding a force of over 190,000 by late-July. The Hyteks chose not to pursue such acts of centralisation and consolidation, but it is known that the independent militias fighting for Hytekia and Hytekojuznik unionism numbered at least 200,000 - and likely upwards of 250,000. Juznia began a spearhead offensive into central Hytekia with the aims of taking the border city of Uznevas before the Hyteks were ready to put up a good fight to protect it. Juznia broke through the Hytek lines as the gates of Uznevas fell but urban militias in the city again forced the invading army to retreat, utilising a tactic of dropping grenades and firing on Juznik forces from the roofs of buildings within the city. Seeing the Juznik retreat, Hytek militias pursued and inflicted damage onto the fleeing Juznik army in the First Battle of North Uznevas. The Hyteks entrenched the northern border with the city with camouflage fortifications, basic artillery and FSR-era tanks and indiscriminately fired on any Juznik forces that were nearby, often killing civilians and bystanders. The border again remained a stalemate as the Hyteks were reluctant to leave their fortifications and the Juzniks were unable to penetrate the Hytek fortifications. During this time, Muceniece offered peace to Andrijauskas in November, conceding more autonomy for the Juzniks given that they remain a part of Hytekojuznia. Andrijauskas emphatically rejected the peace, famously saying:
"In war, you can only be killed once, but in politics, many times."— Donatas Andrijauskas, 1986
The rejection of the peace caused Muceniece to lash out at the Juznik forces, ordering a full on assault and invasion of Juznia, involving over 300,000 personnel, by the end of the month. On November 11, the Hyteks left their fortifications and attacked the Juzniks, whom they outnumbered 3 to 1, in the Battle of Purvėnai. The battle is renowned for its brutality and Purvėnai saw the introduction of the Hytek Nāvečuksti (lit. "death whisperers"), who murdered over 10,000 innocent civilians in the Purvėnai Massacre during the battle. The battle lasted a mere three days and the Hytek forces overwhelmed the Juzniks and forced them to concede the city completely on November 15. An overwhelming morale victory for the Hyteks, Muceniece delivered a speech in Krasno regarding the "Juznik traitors" which garnered increased support for the war and an increased amount of volunteers to fight for the Hyteks during the war. This support quickly dwindled, however, as rumours of the massacre began to creep out into the wider world, with Hytekia facing condemnation by the CDN as well as the reiteration of the demands of March by Liiduria and the sending of volunteer divisions from Cuirpthe. With the threat of CDN involvement beginning to increase, Muceniece lobbied now-independent Veleaz for political support for the war, which was given. The threat of a war against Veleaz was enough to deter the CDN from intervening, although economic support was still given for the war.
The Hytek offenses continued into December, with successive losses imposed on the Juznik army in the battles of Rudomino and Sukra, Hytekia had now advanced over 50 miles north of Uznevas into Juznik territory. Rudomino in particular, a city with a population of almost 90,000 at the time, would become the base of Hytek operations in Juznia, with the Nāvečuksti also operating there. They entrenched and fortified the city with armour similar to that of Uznevas and began using tank shells as siege equipment to destroy nearby towns, leading to an influx of Juznik refugees throughout Asura but mainly concentrated in the capital, Višnevas. On December 19, the Hyteks reached their furthest into Juznia, just south of the small town of Šiauduva, which the Hyteks saw no reason to take, as they planned to push east towards the capital, a push they would undertake on the outbreak of the new year.
1987: Juznik military advances and Operation Horseback
Juznia launched their first major offensive into Hytekia with the support of Cuirpthean volunteer divisons during Operation Horseback in 1987, successfully taking the city of Grobina, which would switch hands at the end of the war. The JLA often recruited ethnic Juzniks to their cause in the Hytek border cities, arming them with weapons seized from Hytek towns, but more often employing them as carriers or messengers. After Horseback, Hytekia retaliated with a counter-offensive just east of Grobina in the April of 1987, the first offensive to utilise aerial warfare in the conflict. The Laukapė bombings were carried out during this counter-offensive, in which over 3,000 were killed, including many children after a hospital was bombed near the city's centre, much to the condemnation of the international community. The war crimes of Hytekia during the war would ultimately ramp up support in other belligerent nations for war in support of Juznia and the Juznik people.
1988: Hytek support erodes
1989: End of the war
Integration of Grobina
Impact and Aftermath
Assessment of name and class of the war
The term usually applied to the war internationally is the Hytekojuznik Civil War, but translated directly from Juznik, the war is more frequently called the War of Independence (Juznik: Nepriklausomybės karas) or War of Liberation (Juznik: Išlaisvinimo karas) - taking from the Juznik goals of the war. Early Newreyan sources also cite the war as the Hytek-Juznik War, the War in Juznia and less often the Conflict in Hytekojuznia.
Different translations for the Juznik names for the war are sometimes used by native Juznik speakers, one of which is the Patriotic War (Juznik: Tėvynės karas), which is in less use today and rarely used at all by native Newreyan speakers. The official term, War of Independence in the Juznik language is in the most widespread use today. Another iteration of the war is the Hytek Aggression (in Juznia) or Northern Aggression (in Hytekia), both of which were used widely during the war and are sometimes still used by their respective media and politicians to this day.
Multiple views exist arguing whether the war was a civil or international one. The government of Hytekia remains adament that the war was a civil war, although Juznia, the CDN and most other nations refer to it as an international war, both due to Juznia's recognised independence by many nations at the time as well as the international involvement in the war. Juznia never formally declared war on Hytekia, but Hytekia did declare war on Juznia, thus the war is often cited as an act of Hytek aggression to undermine the will of the Juznik populace. Donatas Andrijauskas, leader of the Juznik resistance, did everything he could to avoid an all-out war with Hytekia without retracting Juznik independence, and believed the country could not take on the Hytek forces by itself.
Crimes charged against the accused for violations of the X Conventions of YEAR occurred during the international conflict in Juznia. Juzniks were killed en masse at genocidal levels and displaced persons were prohibited from returning to their homes following the war's conclusion.— The CDN's accusation against Sprūde
Casualties and refugees
Wartime damage, minefields and the economy
War crimes and CDN investigation
During the war
After the war
During the war
After the war
Role of the international community
- Hytek Humanitarian Report, c.197.iv - 19/7/2007, p. 14