Consolidated Army

(Redirected from Themiclesian Army)
Consolidated Army
并兵, bjengs-prjang
Consolidated army.fw.png
Consolidated Army flag
Foundedtime immemorial
Current form1921
Service branchesConsolidated Army
Reserve Army
Territorial Forces
Militias
HeadquartersAdmiralty Building
№323 Drjang-'an Rd., Kien-k'ang, TJ-N 101992
Leadership
Secretary of State for DefenceNtrjang Kr′êm (張謙)
Prolocutor of Consolidated BoardRui Gw′rarh (雷煥)
Manpower
Military age20-59
18 with parental assent
Conscriptionnot in effect
Reaching military
age annually
(2017 est.)
Active personnel151,000
Reserve personnel102,300
Deployed personnel12,200
Expenditures
BudgetOSD$19.5 billion
Percent of GDP1.17%
Related articles
HistoryPre-modern army of Themiclesia

The Consolidated Army (聯兵, rjon-prjang) or Themiclesian Army (震旦兵, tjerh-tanh-prjang) is a group of services and departments primarily responsible for military operations on land. The force employs over 200,000 career officers and men as of 2019. Statutory conscription is not in force but may be activated by government order. The Army's civilian staff have been transfered to the Ministry of Defence since reforms in 1970.

The Army is subordinate to the Under-Secretary for the Army (兵曹郎), who in turn is responsible to the Secretary of State for Defence. The ranking professional officer is the Chief of Army Staff. It is currently most focused on land defence against Maverica, which is perceived as the greatest threat to Themiclesian security; it also participates in international expeditions and peacekeeping. Most forces meant for external deployment are organized in brigades for flexibility, though they also retain divisional identity in case conscription is imposed.

The Army permits and encourages female service, and there are no roles (other than certain medical ones) that statutorily exclude females. Despite these measures, women have yet to appear in a handful of positions. As part of a pan-military effort to combat sexism and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, the Army has also appointed investigators to suppress those problems. Themiclesian soldiers are amongst the more well-paid in Septentrion, leading to a mildly competitive recriutment scene. Currently, military age is 20 years.

Name and structure

The name "Themiclesian Army", which is most frequently encountered, is an exonym applied to the land forces of Themiclesia. Historically, foreign authors much more typically used the term (and its Sylvanate equivalent exercitus thimiensis) to refer to the Meridian and Columbian Colonial Armies and the Themiclesian Marines. The domestic, militia-based force was left untranslated for centuries. Though some authors consider the militia deprecated during this era, A. A. Ascott asserts that the state machinery to assemble militiamen into a functional force was "absolutely functional" and calls it the "unprefixed army", i.e. the principal army of the nation.

The Shinasthana glyph prjang (兵, "military") depicts two hands holding an wood-cutting axe. Philologists interpret that this meant peasant levies once dominated military activity, as they would have been armed with work tools, such as wood-cutting axes and hoes, in lieu of weapons. Glyphs representing true weapons, such as the battle-axe (王, 戉), have been used to write concepts such as kingship, which some scholars have considered elucidating of the nature of kingship in archaic Menghean society.

The term "Regular Army" (庸, ljong) was once applied widely in fiscal legislation, referring to all military units that were not naval, not the subject of a vassal lord, and served at least 60 days per year. It was, however, not a branch of service in the modern sense, as it encompassed multiple chains of command.

History

Early 19th century

While the roots of some of the Army's components may be traced to antiquity or even protohistoric times, its modern structure only emerged in the 19th to early 20th centuries. Prior to this time, Themiclesia fielded a long list of separate military units, supported through numerous organizations, to defend its geographically-diverse interests. Other than a shared leadership in the War Secretary, they were institutions managing recruitment, remuneration, ranking, honours, and appointments with varying degrees of independence from the bureaucracy.

In the latter half of the 18th century, Themiclesia suffered consecutive defeats against the Tyrannians (1791), Sieuxerrians (1793), Camians (1795), and Mavericans (1796), yet her forces at the same time consumed as much as five-sixths of a government budget already augmented by rampant taxation. At the end of these wars, a Conservative faction gained power at court and dramatically reduced the size of all the forces, hoping to curb taxation in a nation already burdened by fiscal and political challenges. The wars of the 1700s most seriously ravaged the treasuries of the aristocracy and formed the core of the Conservative hostility towards warfare. This ethic would continue to provide considerable resistance to attempted expansions of the armed forces, even in face of foreign challenge.

However, the government that reduced the size of the armed forces from a peak of 310,000 men one-tenth that size recognized extant threats and attempted to improve the forces' ability to defend the nation's shrunken territories and narrowed interests, at a lower cost. After culling the forces, subsequent reforms awarded primacy to eliminating waste and reference to Casaterran scholarship and experience. The officer academy was founded in 1813 as an autonomous institution studying Casaterran military thought and development, though it evolved into a liberal arts college by the middle of the century. Its students realized the connections between Casaterran philosophy, history, economics, and politics and its military schools of thought. The Academy acquired regional renown for its liberty and scope of research work.

Despite these political and paradigmatic shifts, the dogmata governing the organization of Themiclesian forces remained virtually unchanged under fiscal conservatism and bureaucratic inertia. States such as Sieuxerr and Ostland developed highly-integrated and flexible armies based on a levée en masse, but Themiclesia retained its imperial-era military of units of various geographic or weapon specializations, each in a defensive niche. Some niches were extensions of hostilities from the imperial period: the South Army, for example, was known for its light and mounted infantry and familiarity with Camian tactics when Camia remained deeply hostile,[1] and the Marines specialized in naval combat when four or five navies regularly appeared in the Halu'an Sea. Others niches appeared around new weapons or tactics, usually first argued for in the Army Academy.

In terms of civil-military relations, the War Secretary oversaw a multitude of militia regiments, ethnic-minority volunteer corps, professional units, and civil authorities of various sizes and functions. In modern analyses, the hierarchy was exceptionally flat. The lack of large formations or standing national or regional commanders, combined with executive unaccountability in the wars of the late 1700s, also discouraged the forces from higher-level strategization, defaulting to Parliament, civil service, and government ministers and their advisors. According to historian G. Kro, "early-19th-century military officers, even colonels and lieutenant-generals, were functionaries discharging Parliament's directives, formed by civil servants' recommendations and parliamentarians' diplomatic acumen and military knowledge; the military itself had no strategic initiative in the modern sense. Parliament between 1801 and the mid-1850s must be regarded as both strategist-in-chief and commander-in-chief."

Regiment Act of 1850

Many historians aruge the most influential military reform of the 19th century is the Regiment Act of 1850, proposed and passed under the administration of the Lord of Rjai-lang. This law was legislatively simple, commanding every force (except the navy and units pledged by minority groups) that could appoint its own officers to limit its commissions to graduates of the Army Academy. A great deal of scholarship has been done to explore the effects of this law, whose authors may not have intended some of them. Aside from the obvious benefit of imposing a quality-check on officers-to-be, the other consequences are often considered as follows, bringing the military into total reconciliation with Themiclesian society after the loss of all its imperial holdings.

It is generally held, first, the law implicitly harmonized the upper ranks of at least the six extant units that were originally raised in and for the defence of colonial communities. While most of these had been repatriated, some still lived separately from metropolitan ones, and units associated with these former-colonial communities still tended towards them as recruitment sources. As the colonies lacked true aristocracies, the rank and file had a better chance to become promoted as officers in these units, compared to those based in the metropole. The Regiment Act sealed off this avenue by restricting new commissions to graduates of the Academy, whose fees effectively restricted matriculation to the metropolitan elite.

As a result of this restriction, the upper leadership of all the forces was firmly embedded within the social elite,[2] which some authors find a factor that nurtured unity and suppressed munities. They provide that Themiclesian elites have shown a considerable of cohesion in establishing a democratic form of government and tolerating differing ideas about the future of the country, within a certain limit. This resolve some consider a reaction to the capricious rule of Emperor ′Ei, which injured the interests of the entire aristocracy and inspired them to remain united on a fundamental level, to prevent the return of autocratic rule.

A third effect, also generally held, is that even though the forces were organizationally disunited, their leaders were both socially and intellectually united, and in this the apparent institutional weakness of the forces actually enabled many government policies developed beyond them to be accepted within them. Shared education at the Army Academy both allowed future officers to develop intellectual discourse and fraternity with each other and strengthened their allegiance to the elite lifestyle, income model, and cultural millieu, given their dependence on their households to support their studies and procure opportunities to take commisisons.[3] Furthermore, the singular academy eroded regional preference, for officers in standing regiments, in consequence of the act. "The breathtaking genius of this law," K. Gro wrote, "is that its effects were all implicit, which gave the imperial regiments an illusion of institutional independence."

While most historians assess the Regiment Act positively, there are also observations and reservations that tease out a distinct narrative. This law was passed five years into Rjai-lang's premiership, universally considered enabled by a major franchise reform in 1845 that expanded the electorate tenfold to reach the bourgeoisie and less elites; political ramifications "can hardly be over-estimated."[4] Amidst a Conservative reaction in the late 1840s about bringing "new men" into positions of power, the Regiment Act also functioned as a barrier to social advancement through the military, by limiting commissions to a familiar class of individuals whose tendencies and demands are articulated through political institutions and thus unlikely to manifest as munities or military coups.[5] Thus, while the Act had a progressive function, it also had a "highly reactionary" character, according to K. Gro.

Late 19th century

During the 1850s, the Board of War came to prominence in terms of defence policy. As an committee of senior officers divided into sub-committees, it supplanted the pragmatic functions of the War committees of both houses of Parliament. According to many historians, this body's maturity was key to the transition from the 19th-century army of many independent forces to their eventual consolidation in 1920. While Themiclesian politicians were perenially weary of the influence the Camian military had in their government, that most senior military figures were closely affiliated with elite society lent an air of legitimacy and familiarity to the Board of War. Additionally, its operational principles resembled that of a deliberative assembly, which soothed many fears, according to K. Gro.

The Regiment Act gradually spread an intellectual commitment to create a "consolidated army", first proposed by Liberal MP Kaw Sun in 1859. Despite the idea's popularity within the Army Academy and the forces themselves, it conflicted with the reactionary parts of the Conservative party, under the Lord of Ghor (prime minister 1859 – 60) and Lord of Nja′-′rjum (1864 – 68). Though a consolidated army was officially born a staggering 60 years after initial proposal, the Liberal Party began to take steps towards it since the 1870s. Military finance was centralized by Lord Tl'jang-mjen in 1873 under the new Consolidated Exchequer (并內, bjêngs-nubh),[6] though this was under the Finance Secretary. Tl′jang-mjen also established direct administration over government and private factories and regimental armouries to ensure consistent supply, effectiveness, and good upkeep.

The Battle of Liang-la toppled Nja′-′rjum's government in 1868 and paved the way to the second permiership of the Lord of Sng'rja. His administration focused on improving the armaments in the army, replacing smooth-barrel muskets with rifles for units still fielding the former. Sng′rja′, riding on the wave of public shock from Camian embargo and threatened invasion, raised three infantry and two cavalry regiment, as well as enlarging the Capital Defence Force by almost 2,000 men and the South Army by 1,700. Though Sng′rja′s contribution to the defences of the realm was limited to increasing the quantity of regular troops, his war secretary, Lord L'ong-mjen, directed supplies to transit via railway, removing this task from corvée labour. While Conservatives ideologues criticized the policy as expensive, it reduced commoners' obligations towards the state, which both Conservative agrarians and Liberal merchants appreciated.

In 1871, the Sng'rja' administration announced a policy to raise 100 companies of volunteers from guilds, universities, clubs, and religious groups. The so-called Hundred Companies never reached full strength even at the end of Liberal government in 1878, with only 59 being ever raised; however, the Liberals argued that many of these men were skilled labourers or even middle-class professionals and represented a "defensive resolve across all classes". The Honourable Company of the Bar, for example, consisted almost wholly of lawyers, law students, and clerks of courts; the Government lavished this unit with press and decorations, as it pierced the notion, rife in Kien-k'ang, that soldiers were mostly criminals, idlers, or other undesirables. To designate their special status, professional groups serving at least part-time in the forces were prefixed with "the honourable".


Early 20th century

The period between 1891 and 1910 was a period of stagnation for the military in general. By this point, the Regiment Act had extinguished any opportunity for enlisted men to seek advancement in the military and re-affirmed a "strong alignment" of the military to social class, where the upper and middle classes became officers and the labouring classes the enlisted men and petty officers. In this wise, it was preferable to parliamentarians that believed that a military could only be stable and loyal if it was structurally a mirror of society, or "at equilibrium" in contemporary language. Under the same line of thinking, firm, mutual relationships were set up between the forces and civilian organizations, e.g. physicians may do two months' military work every year, returning to civilian practice at other times. Each of these bonds was "a helping hand by good men to the forces", according to Conservative prime minister the Lord of Snur-ljang (綏陽侯; in office 1891 – 94), "for the maintenance of the civic character of the army."

As it was not possible to seek promotions on the strength of military activity alone, military rank was attached to social standing. A captain was expected to have more social connections than a lieutenant, and a major more than a captain. Though social standing is a strong component of military rank, it was not generally possible to substitute expenditure for performance; however, in the late 19th century, standards revolved around administrative ability and were not challenging to qualified officers. Promotions were granted to officers who made social advancements, from a pool of equally qualified ones. This situation was perceived by both Liberals and Conservatives as a virtue, as it awarded power to those that elites approved, scrutinized, and trusted. Some critics pointed out that the system grossly favoured the rich even amongst the elites, though this did not become a significant problem as money alone could not purchase social standing, which, according to M. G. Graw, was "a mutually-reinforcing mixture of achievements in diverse fields".[7]

The Krungh administration and the Rjem-′an administration following it reduced the size of the regular army from around 35,000 men and officers to 26,000 men and officers, pressed by the need to reduce taxation in response to falling export volume. The Liberal Lord of Mik provided renewed attention on armaments and relaxed the upper limit of enlisted men to 37,500 men during peacetime.[8]

Mik's government passed the Civil and Military Services Segregation Act of 1915 that restricted the sale of commissions in some units that the Government deemed important or possessed more reliable promotion schemes. After a brief interlude from the Conservative ministry of the Lord of Sloi, the Army Acts of 1921 were passed, creating the modern Consolidated Army by the merger of the Capital Defence Force, South Army, the Tank Corps, the infantry and cavalry of the Royal Signals Corps, and several other independent units. Historians have elaborated on the importance of creating consensus amongst political and social figures, particularly in the House of Lords. Graw writes, "the reputation of the Army Academy was indispensible to the acceptance of a consolidated army, and that reputation was founded on the social success of its graduates in every profession, in turn earning credence for its long-time advocacy for the creation of that body. Ironically, the decision to reform the army was taken completely outside the army."

There was a dispute between the Admiralty and many officers of the marine corps whether the latter should become part of the Consolidated Army. As alumni of the Army Academy, most of the Marines' officers gravitated towards the idea, but the admirals were vehement against it. In 1916, they presented to Parliament that merger would not provide economies, but internal documents strongly suggest the motive was at least partly sectarian, affecting the naval independence over its facilities and ability to conduct coastal operations. Graw writes, from the social perspective, that the admirals were "envious of the Army Academy's social success" and started to rear Marines officers in the Naval Academy to replace the Army Academy graduates. This planned purge culminated in the Admiral Affair of 1916, where 90 Marines officers sued the Admiralty for breach of the Regiment Act, which commanded all regiments the regular army to immerse officers from the Academy's graduates. The Supreme Court ruled in the plaintiffs' favour, but in view of the Admiralty's objection and the Government's plans to increase the Navy's roles, the Marines were dropped from the Consolidated Army as passed in 1921.

Prairie War

The Prairie War is the first major conflict that involved the Army after the 1791–96 war in Maverica. In 1926, Dzhungestani cavalry crossed into Themiclesia to raid copper mines that lay just across the border; after a few months of copper extraction, the Army was ordered to repel the Dzhungestani cavalry. The invasion was repulsed in 1926 but recurred in 1927. Under foreign abettance, the governemnt planned to take the Dzhungestani capital city, in hope of forcing negotiations to prevent future incursions. The Army leadership informally regarded this as an opportunity to test the efficacy of the new tanks procured from the Organized States only a few years before, though this was not presented as such to the government, since the War Secretary recently said in parliament that the Army will "not fight a war to use a weapon". To lead this expedition, the Eastern Expedition HQ was established in Feb. 1927, later taking command of the 12th, 15th, and 21st Infantry Brigades, the 3rd and 7th Cavalry Wings, and the newly-formed 101st Motor Chariot Wing (later renamed to Armoured Brigade in 1930).

Dzhungestan's defence forces failed to repel the Themiclesian invasion, despite much effort and some appeals to other states. Dzhungestan's capital city, Dörözamyn, fell only two months after the border was crossed. However, the Army broke into the capital city to find the administration fled, with only the Khan's under-aged nephew. Presenting the nephew with the draft treaty, the nephew declined to ratify. The Themiclesian government was entirely flustered, and management of the desired treaty was returned to the Foreign Office in May, 1928. Slightly later, the Prime Minister retired, provoking a cabinet reshuffle that pushed the foreign secretary into the premiership. The new PM then ordered the Army to pay, out of its own pocket, for some infrastructure improvements in Dörözamyn, hoping, on the one hand, to persuade the absent Khan that Themiclesia had no ambitions in the wealth or land of his state; on the other hand, if the Khan were to persist in exile, the improvements would lend political credit to the nephew, who could be expected to be amicable towards Themiclesia. The Army was unhappy to pay for these projects, but the War Secretary was sounded out as the next Foreign Secretary, garnering his enthusiasm to follow the PM's scheme.

1960s

1970s

since 1980

Structure

Leadership

Like the navy and air force, the army is subordinate to the Secretary of State for Defence, who makes defence policy and creates secondary legislation called ordinances. His principal assistant relative to the army is the Army Secretary, though ministers and under-secretaries of state in the MoD may participate in army administration and supervision, with his instruction. The professional head of the MoD is the permanent secretary, who is usually confined to civilian administration but has much influence over the forces as well. The professional heads of the army are the Prolocutor of the Consolidated Board (臺中錄事令, le-trjung-rjuk-dzrje′-ringh), the Colonel-general of the Reserve Army (聯戲尉, rjon-ng′jarh-′judh), the Marshal of Territorial Forces (屬邦尉, tjo′-prong-′judh), and Marshal-general (邦太尉, prong-ladh-′judh).   All four members are represented on the Ministerial Council, along with the heads of the navy and air force. Within the Consolidated Army itself, the Consolidated Board or Board is the governing authority; the Army Secretary sits on this board, which consists of the same four officers and other staff officers.

Branches

The army consists of four primary branches, defined through the Army Acts of 1921. The Consolidated Army (聯兵, rjon-prjang) is the main standing army, and the Reserve Army (聯戲, rjon-ng′jarh) functions as a training organization for reservists and has numerous domestic security duties. The Territorial Forces (方兵, pjang-prjang) are an umbrella organization for the units pledged by ethnic and cultural groups, mostly residing in the north and east, under Themiclesian authority. These units are placed under a separate organization due to some treaty limits on their operations agreed upon between Themiclesia and these groups, which retain a significant degree of autonomy. The militias (郡邦兵, kljur-prong-prjang) are traditionally under the jurisdiction of the prefectures, though this has, to a large extent, been subsumed by the Ministry of Defence.

Within the Consolidated Army, there are a number of combat and support branches. In the past, the support branches have been highly autonomous, co-ordinated by statutes and the civil service, or the Secretary of State for War to support of field formations. The Board of War has acquired authority over these departments subsequently and gradually replaced civilian officers with military ones to improve control, with the Secretary of State's permission. In the mass mobilization of the Pan-Septentrion War, most departments (such as medical, convalescence, field transport, river transport, railways, manufactories, etc.) lost their autonomy, since demands placed on them outpaced their ability to react.[9] Today, the service branches are more salient as professional specializations rather than separate departments.

Combat Branches Native name Insignia Colour Function Founded
Palace Guards gwrjaih Wall and gate Reddish-grey Palace guards (infantry) inherited
Infantry 中外 trjung-ngwadh Wall and gate Reddish-grey Infantry and certain types of special forces inherited
Cavalry gjar Horse Silver Mostly confined to aides-de-camp and batmen inherited
Field Artillery p′ruh Cannon Light maroon inherited
Aerial Artillery ljegh Rockets Pearl 1935
Field Engineers 兵工 prjang-kong Mallets, cogs Muddy green inherited
Armoured 輕車 kljêng-tl′ja Chariot Grey Tanks 1921
Aviation 航空 k′ong Jets Sky blue Air support 1941
Digital s.rok Vacuum tubes Black, neon blue Hackers, virus 1999
Support Branches Shinasthana Insignia Colour Function Founded
Quartermaster gwrjêng′ Books Black Keeping supplies inherited
Medical ′je Almonds White Treating the sick and wounded inherited
Veterinary 獸醫 sljuh-′je Fruits White, green Treating animals inherited
Engineers 寺工  mlje-kong Cogs Gold Military infrastructure and development inherited
Pharmaceutical ghjawk Herbs White, grey Procurement of medicine inherited
Convalescence ghoh Beds White, blue Care for recovering individuals 1870
Civil Affairs st′ja Pen Knife and pen Public and external relations 1954
Field Transport 重車 drjongh-tl′ja Wheels Red Road transport 1920
Railways 鐵路 l′ik-ragh Railway tracks Maroon Rail transport and railway infrasturcture 1894
Military Police 直史 drjêk-srje′ Dove Green, grey Maintenance of order and investigations 1920
Judicature 推官 l′jui-kwar Balance Green, blue Adjudication 1930
Training krawh Swords Blue, silver Training and civil defence 1972
Logistics 轉輸  l′jo-trjon′ Tree Dark grey, blue Logistics 1925
Intelligence krên Eye Black Intelligence-gathering 1932
Signals 中都 trjung-ta Elephant Rainbow Music, communications inherited

Other facilities

  • Army Academy, where Army officers are trained.
  • Army Officer Training School, where non-commissioned officers are trained.
  • Army Preparatory Centre, where volunteers are introduced to the Army and receive rudimentary training.
  • General Army Hospital, the Army's hospital; has a number of branches.
  • Army Museum Management Board, manages the Army's numerous museums and has custody over valuable Army artifacts.
  • Army Veteran Guidance and Support Board, assists veterans to re-integrate into normal society and help prevent and cure, on a less intense level, PTSD.
  • Ombudsman's Office, manages public complaints.

Formations

The Themiclesian Army, at its inception in modern form, designated regiments as the basic administrative and operational unit. Brigades comprised two regiments, while a regiment contained four battalions, each of four companies. This structure remained largely static until the outbreak of the Pan-Septentrion War. Increased staffing prompted the leadership to introduce divisions composed of two brigades and additional artillery and aerial units in 1935. As conventional war abated, the regimental system resurfaced, and brigades again assumed the place of the largest peacetime formation, retaining this place in at least a titular aspect today.

Over 90% of the Army was demobilized between 1949 and 1952, leaving 16 brigades consisting of mostly volunteers; these were compressed into 14 in 1952. Prior to the war, each infantry brigade had 32 companies of riflemen; due to casualties, the average brigade by 1940 had shrunken to around 24 companies; rather than consolidating the formations, the Army elected to follow the international trend of the triangular division by skipping one brigade and place 48 companies in three regiments under one division, which, after their dissolution, left the newly-restored brigades with fewer than two pre-PSW regiments under it. At this stage, the regiment evolved towards an administrative unit, while the brigade became more operation-oriented. Into the 1960s, most brigades had three battalions rather than two regiments. Though the communist takeover in Maverica and Menghe alarmed Army leadership, which was then pursuing further economies in personnel, the government took the view that only the Air Force could defend the country against the hypothetical threats; hence, in the 60s, the Army did not increase in size by any significant amount.

The détente between the first and second worlds, consummating in the 70s, allowed the Army to streamline itself further. In 1970, the Army possessed sixteen brigades; in 1979, there were but eleven remaining, and they survive into the present day.

  • 101st Mechanized Infantry Brigade (T′ing-tju), Adventurers (歷人)
  • 109th Mechanized Infantry Brigade (Kraw-tju), Wraiths (魅)
  • 401st Armoured Brigade (Ton-ning), Fulminators (電)
  • 402nd Armoured Brigade, Wind Riders (馭風)
  • 405th Armoured Brigade, Raiders (屏襲)
  • 542nd Mixed Brigade (Krong-ning), Guardians of Peace (守平)
  • 651st Airborne Infantry Brigade (Kwang-'an), News From Above (上報)
  • 652nd Airborne Infantry Brigade, High-fliers (翔高)
  • 701st Mountain Infantry Brigade, Unflinching Conquerors (賢功)
  • 704th Mixed Infantry Brigade, Wanderers (遊人)
  • 710th Mixed Infantry Brigade, Light of Justice (宜光)

Though the number of brigades have decreased, the total number of troops have not decreased by the same margin. Realizing that in manpower it could not compete with potentially inimical states in its periphery, the Army invested heavily in more specialized units, such as independent rocket missiles, mountain infantry, special, aviation, potamic, digital, and rapid-response forces. These are "non-divisional" troops in the sense that they do not belong to any single brigade and probably cannot achieve larger objectives alone, though co-operation between them and their "divisional" comrades is expected and anticipated by internal policies. The pursuit of a "well-rounded force" is the explicit dogma in the Army currently, one which takes into account environments and resources that foreign policy has made available and makes the most effective use out of them and domestic resources.

Organization

Ranks

Uniforms

Though dress uniforms vary by regiment and branch, attire for field work has been standardized; insignia are found as patches and other ornaments over an eronomic uniform designed to enhance physical performance. Camouflage patterns are altered based on expected terrain.

Dress uniforms are issued by regimental (for combat units) or departmental (non-combat) authority and reflect the looser organization prior to the Army Acts (1921). Themiclesian military uniforms formerly conformed to civilian standards of formality. When Casaterran-style uniforms were first issued in 1807, to the Royal Guards, uniform designers provided a tailcoat, worn with waistcoat and knee breeches for official activity, though this varied drastically from regiment to regiment. Some specified trousers rather than breeches, and others did not provide a formal coat at all, due to costs. Following Casaterran fashion, a knee-length frock coat was introduced in the late 1820s, first in the Capital Defence Force then to most professional regiments. Militias that did issue uniforms did so inconsistently. The frock coat was preferred for day activities due to its length, providing more warmth and cover; the tailcoat was promoted to full-dress status in some regiments, worn at evenings, and withdrawn in others. This did not apply to cavalry units, where tailcoats are worn at all times. In larger forces such as the Capital Defence Force and South Army, regimental insignia were applied on waistcoats, while the overcoat is uniform; the same is true in the Marine Corps.

Army uniforms entered a period of stagnation between 1860 and 1920, as civilian society adopted black as the sole colour for formal occasions. This occurred under the influence of fashion at Queen Catherine's court in Anglia (r. 1837 – 1901). Brightly-coloured overcoats thus gave way to darker ones, and insignia were made less prominent. Waistcoats then became more ornate to compensate for the loss of distinctiveness. Lapels saw some changes during this era: old-fashioned frock coats normally had wide, open lapels, not always to be buttoned together, but under foreign influence, some units adopted closed-lapel frock coats, particularly the South Army. This obscured the waistcoat, which bore regimental insignia, and was not welcome for all. Towards the end of the 19th century, military uniforms varied only in neckwear, cut, lapel pins, pleating, and colour within a narrow range that would be acceptable in civilian society. While the Themiclesian Air Force adopted a closed-lapel frock coat in imitation of the Anglian Royal Army, the TAF ultimately became famous for loud blazers as a less formal but more expressive alternative. Such blazers, bearing unit emblems and other honours, became standard at inter-service sporting events, where pride in one's service was acceptable in public. After Catherine's reign, expressiveness returned to civilian fashions, while allowed regimental blazers to be adopted as day wear without social backlash.


Policies

Time and date

The official language of the armed forces, as a whole, is Shinasthana, but there are common exceptions to this rule. In the Army, after several costly and fatal misunderstandings ensued between Themiclesian and Columbian units during the PSW over telling time, it was made mandatory in 1942 to specify time in the 24-hour clock. This guideline governs all punctual time (in the sense of specific times of day) but not durative time; under it, what would have been specified as "Hour C, 4 Ticks" became "0400". In spoken form, this was read as "four-o'clock, zero minutes" during the 40s through the 50s. Furthermore, there was some confusion in the early stages over how general this principle was, and in some cases, the public opposed this change as it made delivery times less transparent. In 1951, it was further decided that the rule to use "numeral time" extends only to internal documents and verbal communication.

Date was somewhat less of an issue, since both the Themiclesian and the Gregorian Calendars have been used in parallel for some years prior to the PSW. This is particularly true in the Army, which interacted with the Columbian Marine Corps frequently between 1920 and 1929; letters between them specified dates in the Gregorian Calendar, though their drafts still bore the same dates in the Themiclesian one. Into the PSW, Army leadership decided that dates should be specified in both calendars for maximal clarity, and equally that conflicts with existing events (especially ones recurring based on the Themiclesian Calendar) would be more apparent. Hence, Jan. 1st, 1943 would have been recorded as that and as "17th Year, 11th Month, 56" (永康十七年十一月己未). Other differences between Themiclesia and the OS (and other Allies) in specifying dates abated to the credit of Under Secretary of State for the Army, who vehemently objected to any dissention from the ranks to halt the use of the Gregorian Calendar.

Language

As Themiclesia began intensive contact with the Organized States in the late 1800s, it quickly became necessary for officers of a comparatively junior grade to communicate with counterparties speaking Tyrannian, the official language of the Organized States. This was not a serious problem, as the Officer Corps were taught by a selection of lecturers who spoke different languages; most officers there graduating knew at least one or two Casaterran language, if only because otherwise he would not have been able to understand the lecture material. But many officers commissioned in 1936 (under conscription) were unable to communicate in any foreign language, severely hampering their ability to engage alongside Casaterran and Columbian allies. In redress, the Army created a new (now defunct) branch dedicated to translation; members of this branch enjoyed privileges from menial tasks, in return for translating Tyrannian and Rajian information for the unit commander. In principle, any unit larger than a company had one such functionary, and divisions and corps typically had multiple.

By the middle of the century, and in combination with mandatory Tyrannian courses in primary and secondary education, a considerable portion of the Army was conversant in Tyrannian. Given its international currency and ubiquity in literature pertinent to equipment and theory, Tyrannian terminology littered the Army's documents to such an extent that translating them was found uneconomical. In 1952, it was decided that Tyrannian proper names and technical terms would thence appear in the original language, since some officers complained that translated terms made less sense or were more ambiguous than the original, which is most likely found on the physical item anyway. In 1957, the Army further proposed that all communication should be in Tyrannian.

Salute

As inherited from the unreformed Army before the 19th century, Themiclesian soldiers did not render any salute to officers or enlisted men. The justification whereof was that salutes constituted a superarogatory requirement on those who have committed with their lives to defend the country.

夫求人之死不索尊,竭人之力不責禮,故古者甲冑之士不拜。

One does not demand obeiscance from another whom one has required to die, or impose ceremonies on another whose strength one is to exploit; therefore, in ancient times men in armour do not prostrate.

This remained the situation even after the officer academy with Casaterran faculty formed. In 1842, the Tonning Foot Regiment, then commanded by Colonel Rik Miw, became the first regiment to adopt a Casaterran-style salute, modelled after the Tyrannian Army. Miw himself studied in the Kingdom of Tyran and later mediated the tenures of several Tyrannian lecturers at the officer academy. The 14th Regiment of Foot, which was heavily under Sieuxerrian influence, also adopted the salute in 1851. However, the use of salutes largely fell to the individual commander, and many regarded it as unnecessary or foreign. Throughout the 19th century, salutes were offered inconsistently; however, it should be noted that records indicate that a shallow bow from the neck was still usual, if only social etiquette demanded it towards a superior.

At the end of the Macmillan Mission in 1930, the OS advised the Themiclesian Army, which was consolidated into a single command structure only several years before, to adopt the salute. For various reasons, its implementation was delayed several times, and ultimately the outbreak of the Pan-Septentrion War prevented many units from becoming accustomed to it. The dispersal of the pre-war officer corps to lead new formations further diluted any desire to see its immmediate implementation. Rajian and Tyrannian units fighting in Themiclesia observed the inconsistency in saluting and nicknamed Themiclesias' the "non-saluting army". During the war itself, conscripts were trained with such haste that the Ministry of War ordered any "non-combat instruction" to be delayed in favour of combat training. After the war, the Army endured two extensive war crime trials between 1947–49 and again in 50–51, resulting in yet further delays to necessary changes. Finally, in Dec. 1951, the Ministry of War ordered non-saluting regiments to adopt the Casaterran salute. At this point, 22 regiments emulated the Tyrannian Army salute, 10 regiments the Sieuxerrian Army salute, and 18 regiments the OS Army salute; newer regiments adopted the OS Army salute. Hence, in the modern day, different units practice slightly differing salutes.

Gender equality

Historians have noted that, as far as surviving laws and regulations indicate, nothing explicitly prohibits females from serving in the Army; however, custom has generally been of the same effect in limiting female participation. Most importantly, females from military households were required to take care of agricultural work and tend after children when their husbands were called away, in the unreformed Army (to 1801); some argue that, since these roles were crucial for the maintenance of a functional force, these women can be regarded as being part of the Army, and indeed their were regularly in contact with the military authorities. Others argue that, since the military households were under the portfolio of a minister other than the one responsible for combat branches, they should not be regarded this way. Still others believe this dispute is pointless because the Army was not a monolithic statutory organization until 1931.

After the Army reforms began, females have been employed in producing supplies and medicine, but they were not accorded military rank or part of combat formation. In 1918, females were accorded rank in the Convalescence Service, the Medical Corps, the Corps of Communications, and the Paymaster-General's Corps. Female commissioned officers were first appointed in 1934. During the PSW, one unit was formed out of women serving in clerical positions and saw combat in the defence of Drjang-'an in 1939–40, but the name of their unit, "Brigade of Righteous Women", suggests that their enlistment was extraordinary and impermanent. In 1950, the Supreme Court, with 16 justices in banco, issued a per curiam opinion, stating that there was no legal objection to women serving in the Army. The Army's chief attorney argued that such a decision may cause "untimely disturbances" within the ranks and asked for leave to appeal the decision; the Supreme Court refused leave, making the ruling absolute. The Army further appealed to the Chancery to arrest the Supreme Court's decision, on the grounds of "equity towards the security of the nation for the temporary delay in inclusion of females in the Army for the development and provision of more adequate preparatory measures". This case was found without merit in 1952.

Currently, the 1950 decision is upheld by the legal system and requires the Army to permit qualified women to "have the opportunity and choice, as much as the one of the other sex", to serve in any position. This decision does not require the Army to establish units of mixed gender, and, while mixed-gendered units do exist, the Army has regarded them as somewhat experimental and not ideal for implementation across the entire service, citing fiscal burdens of providing adequate, gender-specific facilities, such as separate lavatories and baths. For highly elite units, for which candidates of any one sex are not numerous enough to form a functional group, exceptions exist; this is the case in the 16th Special Operations Unit, Digital Corps, where nine women and eight men work together.

Sexual orientation equality

Historically, the unreformed Army did not have prejudices against any sexual orientation, since this reduced the number of soldiers fit for service. This paradigm is in common with broader Themiclesian culture, which does not discriminate against homosexuality, though open displays of any form of sexuality was deemed indecent.

Equipment

Rifles and Machine Guns

Name Origin Type Cartridge Photo Notes
C24-25 Eisenmaat Rifle tba HK416.jpg Used by some active units and some reserve units.
C24-30 Eisenmaat Rifle tba HK 417 (7029721321).jpg Used primarily by units stationed in the Eastern Desert and some reserve units.
C25-30 Reberiya Rifle tba FN SCAR-L - FN SCAR-H.jpg Currently employed in the 4 of 9 brigades that compose of the active force and some reserve units.

Culture

The Themiclesian Army enjoys worldwide renown for its meticulousness in not only operation but as "a form of orthodoxy"[10], which the service is keen to maintain. Precursors to the current condition may have originated as far back as the reforms in the early 19th century. Prior thereto, soldiers had a social status lower than "decent" commoners, conditioned by historical factors and social stigma. Soldiers were conscripted form a pool of hereditary "military households" prohibited to seek other profession or migrate. When that was lifted in 1801, a small group of soldiers remained in service and were protective of their newfound status as "decent" individuals. A culture of "sensitivity and due care" towards the expectations of wider society, avoiding previous errors, developed around this nucleus, lasting to this day and becoming the norm.

A second source of influence on the Army is the new officer corps, which graduated from the newly-established Army Academy. These officers typically had learned backgrounds and possess the qualifications as high-ranking civil servants, a far more prestigious career choice at the time. At the time, the atmosphere of the Army Academy did not differ by much from contemporary universities; cadets, like university students, listened to lectures, published articles, and were assessed by each other. Though ostensibly part of the government's plan to lend prestige to the military by including men of reputation, the Army between 1830–1900 possessed the same cultural such as that of the civil service. In combination with the care and attention with which the enlisted men upheld themselves, the Army developed a very prim, conscientious image. The quirks of the Army has often led to inter-service rivalries or comparisons that have fed many a entertainment.

Uniforms

The Themiclesian Army is noted for its wide variety of uniforms, though its uniformed history is shorter than many Casaterran armies. Before 1800, virtually all units simply wore civilian clothing, in the militias or under the central government. Prior to the PSW, each prefecture issued uniforms to its own militia units, and these were, by and large, not standardized, save for most being in the Casaterran style by 1880. There could even be considerable variation within each prefecture's militias, as new units were created and granted new designs. Each department of War Ministry that controlled its own troops also followed this rule, issuing distinct uniforms for both support and combat branches. The semi-independent Capital Defence Force issued one uniform for its infantry units and another for its cavalry units. The ceremonial Capital Chariotry was the only one not to have issued Casaterran-style uniforms by 1900. The units of the Royal Guards were treated likewise, each palace's troops possessing distinct uniforms. This situation would persist to the early 20th century, when an Illustrated Reference to Military Uniforms was published by the War Ministry to document all of the Army's uniforms, which numbered 284 styles as of 1915. Hence, in contrast with most armies, the Themiclesians distinguished branches and units through entirely different uniforms, rather than badges or insignia. Rather than considering this a source of inefficiency, the War Ministry considered it a measure to develop unit cohesion and pride.

During the first (defensive) phase Pan-Septentrion War, the central government commanded the prefectures to recruit and train militiamen, to furnish troops to the central government. For these militiamen, their uniforms were, in general, hastily designed and made, as the prefectures could not have anticipated such a large demand for troops in such short notice. To enhance morale and show concern for their troops, prefectural governments often changed their militias' uniforms at unexpected times. While conscript soldiers were generally enthusiastic to receive new uniforms, many officers were not convinced that frequent uniform re-issuance was an efficient use of the prefecture governments' time and resource, though they did not voice these concerns with the government. These views are recovered from private letters between officers published after their deaths. The prefectural-issued uniforms often did not providing sufficient camouflage; in some regiments, there was little distinction between dress and combat uniforms. When commanders did complain, some prefectures such as Sngrên-′rjem issued camouflage Mackintoshes. In the worst cases of confusion, some units were attacked as enemies, confused for their uniforms that resembled those of the Imperial Dayashinese Army or Imperial Menghean Army. In 1939, the War Ministry obtained a statute requiring all soldiers to wear a centrally-issued olive-brown uniforms it designed, for combat. To circumvent legal problems, the new uniform was described in statute as an overcoat—to be worn over their existing uniforms.

After Themiclesia-proper had been recovered in 1943, the War Ministry called for volunteers (aged 18 and over) to join forces with the Hallians and Tyrannians to invade Menghe and Dayashina. Some were sent to reinforce the East Expedition Force, but most were placed into the newly-created South Expedition Army. As the latter was a force explicitly created by Parliament wholly under the War Ministry's direct control, logistical matters including uniforms were "not as nightmarish" as it had been with militia units. The War Ministry designed and issued the SEF's dress and combat uniforms, which became the most iconic uniform of the Themiclesian Army, or even all her armed forces, for the war, as portrayed in foreign media. This is attributable to its general issue (the SEF numbered half a million men at peak) and visibility during the occupation of Menghe. The uniform had summer and winter variations. However, its issue was limited to the SEF and was never extended to militia units, where were called home starting in 1944 to serve as rear-line units. Conversely, it was virtually carbon-copied by the ground forces of both the Navy and Air Force in 1945, with minor adaptations. This created the strange situation where some of the Navy and Air Force's troops were uniform with those of the Army, while the Army was itself not uniform, generating much confusion for Casaterran forces.

Challenges

Order of precedence (2000)

The following order of precedence was revised from the last version issued in 1951, to accommodate new units that have been inserted by order-in-council until then. The title of the list is officially "Order of Precedence of Other Bodies and Regiments" to include the traditional bodies such as Privy Chariotry and Gentlemen-at-Arms, which have at times appeared with the forces during the recent decades.

  1. Privy Chariotry
  2. Gallery Cavalry
  3. Royal Guards
    1. Hên-lang Guards
    2. South Guards
    3. Middle Guards
    4. East Guards, Infantry before Cavalry, Cavalry before Artillery, Artillery before Engineer
    5. North Guards, in order of founding date
  4. Capital Defence Force, Cavalry before Infantry
  5. South Army
  6. Capital Engineer Corps
  7. Coastal Artillery
  8. Prefectural forces
    1. Demesne forces of the Inner Region forces take absolute precedence
    2. In order of prefectural founding (where it can be ascertained);[11] then
    3. Infantry before cavalry, cavalry before artillery, artillery before other combat units, combat units before support units; then
    4. Regular unit before reserve unit, reserve unit before pure militia unit
  9. Territorial Rangers, in order of founding date
  10. Royal Signals Corps
  11. Royal Engineer Corps
  12. Consolidated Army Infantry, in order of founding date
  13. Department of Logistics and Transport
  14. Receiver-General's Department
  15. Paymaster-General's Department
  16. Ordnance Department
  17. Department of Barristers and Solicitors
  18. Department of Physicians
  19. Department of Veterinarians
  20. Astronomy Department
  21. Department of Civil Affairs
  22. Metereology Department
  23. Department of Commerce
  24. Armoured Corps, in order of founding date
  25. Convalescence Service
  26. Civil Defence Service
  27. Army Training Service
  28. Aviation Corps
  29. Digital Service
  30. Army Intellgience Service
  31. Consolidated Army Reserves
  32. Army Academy, Student Body before Faculty, Emeriti before Current

Training

Officers

Until 1915, there was no strict distinction between civil and military officialdom in the militia system; civil servants may become military officers and vice versa. In the more highly organized Capital Defence Force, South Army, and Royal Signals Corps, officers were appointed on the basis of internal recommendations with some degree of supervision. Cadets would have followed commissioned officers and learned various leadership techniques. While not outright problematic, this system created factions that bode ill for co-operation between these forces that looked progressively normal for Themiclesia, whose military conserved many structural legacies of its former dispersal in Meridia and Columbia.

In 1813, the Army Academy was set up for the gentry to study military knowledge, as many of them proved inferior to expectations in the devastating Maverican Wars of 1791 – 96. The graduates of this academy would, in the view of its creators, resemble a corps of reserve officers who filled the civil service during peacetime and led militamen into battle in war. However, the institution soon transformed into a liberal arts university, resisting restrictions on the grounds of academic freedom and with profitable managment of its endowment. The Conservatives and Liberals passed a law in 1850 restricting new commissions to its graduates. By the late 19th century, the Academy had become the second-most prestigious domestic university, in no small part due to high tuitions that restricted admissions to the gentry, and as the Academy held a monopoly on the degrees that were legally required to take commissions, the officer corps of the forces developed connections with each other as alumni.

While historians are usually affirmative of the Academy's role in shaping the modern army, doubts about this system existed as early as the 1870s, voiced by Lord L'ong-mjen, that some graduates drew an officer's salary to finance further studies in subjects not clearly connected to the forces. Such officers stayed on campus for extended periods of time and virtually never tended to their military duties. Progressive Liberals argued in the 1910s that a "degree from the Academy was no longer a inspiring guarantor of good officership", but the rest of the Party believed the system was functional as long as good petty officers existed. But leading politicians believed that a purely-military education would create dangerous men who had few attachments to society or felt unconstrained by decency and reputation.

The deficiencies of the commissioning system did not fully appear during the early stages of the Prairie War. First, there was a consensus by the Ministry of Administration and Ministry of War to place graduates who studied military knowledge intensively in forward and active regiments, which were responsible for most of the early fighting. Second, the preponderance of Themiclesian resources dwarfed those at Dzhungestani command. However, in 1933, the entry of Menghe impelled the marshalling of many other regiments to the front, which exposed the inefficacy of many officers. Additionally, from 1934, many students refused to graduate, for fear of commission, rendering some regiments short of officers; thus, on domestic territory, Themiclesia fought at a numerical disadvantage.

It was not until 1936 that Themiclesia achieved Burgfriedenspolitik and formed a national unity government that the Academy was, for the first time, forced by statute to expand its admission, alter its curriculum (providing mandatory military courses), and to graduate its students forcibly and quickly. However, the Academy's role in the war was not wholly negative. Due to its broad academic activities, the Consolidated Army was able to find qualified officers immersed in many niches, such as analytics, accounting, and logistics.

After the war, the War Committee of the House of Commons concluded that the Academy needed alterations to prevent future trouble with overly-centralized education. The 1850 law that restricted regimental commissions to graduates of the Academy was repealed, providing the War Ministry with greater latitude in establishing particular criteria for various specializations. Additionally, military instruction offered at other institutions was also given statutory recognition.

While the fear that military education might create dangerous men did not fully abate until the 60s, several factors reduced its relevance. First, the wartime performance of the forces altered the views of many, recanting their mistrust of the military, with as many as one-tenth of Themiclesians have been in it. Second, many Themiclesian servicepersons would have experienced issues caused by excessive or inappropriate oversight. Thirdly, the collapse of the gentry, as a social and political class, ultimately killed the notion that only "gentlemen" were sufficiently invested (i.e. had enough to lose) to be reliable in their loyalty to the nation and the quality of their discharge of office. The Government also assuaged the fear of "dangerous men" by ensuring that military education took place in a civilian and transparent setting, offering cadets civilian careers if they ultimately decided against entering the forces.

Symbols

Flag

The Consolidated Army's flag consists of a crimson field and a golden shield divided into quadrants, with three orange leaves on top. The top-left quadrant is inhabited by the colours of the Capital Defence Force, and the bottom-right that of the South Army. The top-right and bottom-left quadrants are subquartered, chequered blue and white.

Like many other symbolic objects, such as a putative motto or hymn, the flag of the new army was heavily disputed by military officers in the years leading to its establishment. The CDF and South Army both desired to impose their existing flags as that of the new army, prompting the Board of War to advise the War Secretary to create a compromise flag that represented both forces equally. A Casaterran-style coat-of-arms was adopted because it could be quartered and sub-quartered, as the need might arise in the future. The two unoccupied quadrants were subquartered with blue and white, the nation's colours, to represent the units whose colours were not on the new flag.

Hymn

Motto

A motto was proposed in 1921, as an amendment to the Consolidated Army Act, the law constituting the force, but never received sanction due to prorogation.

Notes

  1. Some argue that hostility against Themiclesia was a nation-building tactic deployed by Camian elites during the 18th and 19th centuries.
  2. Which was a very distinct class of individuals that enjoyed political, economic, intellectual, and social privileges that reproduced their class.
  3. Commissions were not automatically granted after graduation. They had to be purchased as a considerable investment, which meant the the cadet was financially dependent on his household for his entire career.
  4. The franchise in the late 1830s reached only 13,549 electors, mostly large landholders that have also selected candidates of the senior civil service.
  5. "Political appeasement to Conservative skepticism about the reliability of military institutions, especially in a newly- and more liberalized political environment.
  6. As against the civilian agency, the Great Exchequer (大內, ladh-nubh) and Minor Exchequer (少內, smjaw′-nubh).
  7. He said, "social standing has components of lifestyle, reputation, family history, cultural and behavioural sophistication, public service, charitable work, private morality, political access, academic success, publicity, charisma, marriage, and last but not least, a consistent and appropriate amount of money and a seemly way to earn it. It was very possible in late-19th-century Themiclesia to tell apart instantly a gentleman from a lesser man."
  8. It should be noted that the number of enlisted men in the "regular army" includes all the professional regiments, professional petty officers, and any men in militias that serve more than 60 days per year. It also includes all of the marines in the navy. It does not include militiamen who serve 59 days or less (regardless of compensation), ethnic-minority forces, or other units Parliament created for various reasons.
  9. Prior to the PSW, support departments generally set their own policies, recruited and trained men, commissioned officers, negotiated contracts with suppliers, and even had relationships with various civilian organizations in lieu of reserves. In the more extreme cases, they also had civilian functions, e.g. the Royal Signals Corps operated the government telegraph network, which was open to civilian use and a source of government income.
  10. Barrister, 1990
  11. For prefectures whose founding date cannot be ascertained, the first time it is mentioned is taken as its founding date

See also