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Ethnic flag of Borelians
|Great Borelian Corpus|
Official language in
Distribution of the language
>30% of native speakers
- 1 Alphabet
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Predicate-subject complex
- 4 Nouns
- 5 Example of the language
/ʟ ~ l/
/q ~ kv/
/ʀ ~ ɾ/
/k ~ x/
/ʀ ~ ɾ/
/ʟ ~ l/
Note: The letter Î/ was very often ignored and written as I/
|Alphabetic version||IPA Symbol||Example of a common word with the sound|
|5||E||e||Ⲉ||ⲉ||/ɛ/||Bed (General American accent)|
|9||I||i||Ⲓ||ⲓ||/ɪ/||Bit (General American)|
|12||L||l||Ⲗ||ⲗ||/ʟ/||Middle (Southern US accent)|
|Q||q||—||—||/q/ ~ /k͡v/||Caught|
|Ƿ||ƿ||W||w||—||—||/ʋ/||Vine (Indian accent)|
|X||x||—||—||/k͡s/||A bigram of /k/ and /s/, for example in Maximal|
|Y||y||—||—||/ɨ/?||Lip (London accent)?|
|?1||-||-||-Silent symbol-||Used for connection between linked words|
|?2||Symbol for a stop between words|
|?3||.||.||Used on the end of the sentence|
Controversy about alphabet systems
Although the latin alphabet is now the most used alphabet for the Borelian language, some people have criticised the distinction (or lack of, depending on what side of the argument the person supports) between k and ȝ. Although the phonemes /k/ and /x/ are interchangable in Borelian, they are sometimes distinguished in multiple accents, which lead to the distinction of the two phonemes in the alphabet. As of now, Yogh (Ȝ) is a optional character, you can, but are not required to write (many people replace it with K).
Ampersand has been included in the alphabet as the 27th/28th character, with a miniscule ε (simplified from ɛ̗́), which may make the language visually difficult for non-borelians.
Multiple linguists proposed the change in the writing system, replacing Ampersand (&) with the letter Schwa (Ә), which was already implemented in the Storvani language in 1930's. As of now, the proposal is opposed by the majority of the populace as well as the office for literal language. The support for this movement however still rises, as the Ampersand is visually difficult to write correctly when making quick notes.
Similar problem exists with the letter for the phoneme /ʋ/, which is not present in Borelian alphabet. While originally, the letter Wynn (Ƿ) was used on all occasions, same as in the Zhoushi language and by proxy by influence from the Storvani language, which in turn took it from Krenyan alphabet, but later, with the rise of the internet, letter "W" became more wide spread because of the adresses starting with "www.". This problem was later solved by auto-redirecting system update, which allowed users to type "ƿƿƿ." and it automatically redirected to "www."
|Long vowels||aː ~ ɛː ~ ɪː ~ ɔː ~ əː ~ uː|
Bold are the common sounds, while regular sounds may happen in dialects and/or in a world for easier pronunciation
While the Borelian language does not have a seperate predicate and subject in sentence, it has one word, which is both a noun phrase and a verb phrase (so called Predicate-subject complex). It is created out of a subjectual prefix, verbal (predicate) root and a optional adjustment suffix.
Borelian has three grammatical cases for the complex:
The predicate-subject complex can be distinguished from other forms of other complexes, as it uses the predicate term in subjective case.
|Common term||Borelian term (Alphabet)||Borelian term (Boto)||Person|
- Filler literally meaning "search for a closest word in subjective"
- Filler literally meaning "search for a closest word in objective or in adjective"
- Filler literally meaning "search for a closest word in possessive
Predicate-subject complex has three suffixes, that are added to denote tense, mood and situation respectively. The first suffix (the one closest to the root) denotes tense, the middle suffix denotes mood and the last suffix denotes situation.
Borelian language has 15 tenses, subdivided into 3 groups:
- Past tenses
- Present tenses
- Future tenses
Borelian language has 5 grammatical moods:
- Indicative - No suffix
- Imperative - Suffix -ti
- Conditional - Suffix -bo
- Questional Indicative - Suffix -ȝa
- Questional Conditional - Suffix -boȝa
Situational suffix can show multiple adjusting information:
- Negation - Suffix -be
- Doubt - Suffix -pε
- Possibility - Suffix -sa
- Passivity - Suffix -mε
(multiple of those can be used at the same time, there is no rule on the sequence in which those must be used)
Following table shows example of the complex with verbal root "-tari-" (root for "to win") and a subject "rutu" (term for "friend").
|Borelian term (Alphabet)||Borelian term (Boto)||Borelian parts||Common term|
|Zatari.||- .||I win.|
|Zatariȝa?||- - ?||Do I win?|
|Zatariȝabe?||- - - ?||Do I not win?|
|Zataribaȝabe?||- - - - ?||Didn't I win?|
|Zataribaboȝabe?||- - - - ?||Wouldn't I have won?|
|Jutaribabobe.||- - - - .||Somebody wouldn't have won.|
|Jutaribaboȝabe?||- - - - ?||Who wouldn't have won?|
|Rutu &ditaribaboȝabe?||ㅤ - - - - ?||Friend wouldn't have won?|
|Rutu &ditaribaboȝabepε?||ㅤ - - - - - ?||Friend wouldn't have won, would he?|
|Zamarutu &ditaribaboȝabepε?||- ㅤ - - - - - ?||My friend wouldn't have won, would he?|
The complex is always written with a first capital letter.
Nouns in Borelian have 2 genders:
- Masculine - End with a vowel
- Feminine - End with a consonant
- Indifferent - Impossible to distinguish a gender (End with I/Î)
It also has five grammatical cases for nouns:
And seven grades for nouns:
- Negative - Object lacks the said property - Prefix Be-
- Positive - Object has the said property - No prefix
- Comparative - Object A has the said property more than Object B - Prefix Meî-
- Superlative - Object has the most of the said property - Prefix Sul-
- Diminutive - Object has very little of the said property - Prefix Mol-
- Augmentative - Object has a lot of the said property - Prefix Sti-
- Excessive - Object has too much of the said property - Prefix Rεk-
Each of the nouns can be created by adding suffix to the Noun root, which can also serve in creating a adjective out of the word:
|Gender||Number||Common term||Borelian term|
|Subjective||Objective||Possessive||Adjective||Adverb form||Verbal form||Subjective||Objective||Possessive||Adjective||Adverbative||Verbal form|
|Masculines (Root ending with a vowel)|
To be a friend
|Feminines (Root ending with a consonant)|
|Indifferents (Root ending with I/Î)|
- Note: If the last letter is "I" read as /ʝ/, it is considered to be a feminine word and should follow the feminine declension rules
- Rules on the formation of the verbal form:
1) It is created by removing all the consonants behind the last vowel in the root, unless:
2) The last letter is a L, R, M or N, but:
3) The letter "Î" read as /ʝ/ counts as a consonant and should be removed as well, unless:
4) The root is monosyllabic. In that case the letter should be read as /ɪ/ in the verbal form and be symbolized by "I"
Or if the root is monosyllabic but with no "Î" on the end, "&" is added
- If the root ends with a "Î", "I" is added. If the root ends with "I", nothing changes
Words in adjective are always tied with a "-" to a nounal form or to a suffix linking it to a couse:
Note: Words are "zlit" (goodness), "rutu" (friend), "cukleî" (help)/"cukle" (to help)
|Borelian term (Alphabet)||Borelian term (Boto)||Borelian parts||Common term|
|Zlitino-rutu||- –||Good friend|
|Zlitino-rutu &dicukle zati||- – ㅤ - ㅤ||Good friend helps me|
|Zamacukle Zliti||- ㅤ -||I help the good (concept)|
|Zamacukle Zlitino-î||- ㅤ - –||I help the good (person)|
|Zamacukle Juzlitino-î||- ㅤ - - –||I help somebody good|
|Zamacukle zlitnilo||- ㅤ -||I help well|
|Zamacukle Juzlitino-î zlitnilo||- ㅤ - - – ㅤ -||I help well somebody good|
A word can be "owned" by another word in possessive case, if the filler prefix "&dε-" is included. Nouns are not written with a capital character, unlike the complex, so in most cases, you would see a miniscule version "εdε-".
Examples of nouns
Here are some examples of sentences using multiple noun's:
Note: term Unolot can represent both Clan and a Cooperation as a action, as well as it was taken as a term for "Federation", term "unolo" is a verb for cooperate.
|Borelian term||Borelian parts||Common term|
|Zamarutu &ditariba ubi unolotili.||- ㅤ - - ㅤ ㅤ .||My friend won thanks to the cooperation.|
|Unolot &ditariba ubi zamarutuî.||ㅤ - - ㅤ ㅤ - .||The clan won thanks to my friend.|
|Rutudime-unolot &ditariba ubi zamarutuî.||– ㅤ - - ㅤ ㅤ - .||The friendly clan won thanks to my friend.|
|Rutudime-unolot &ditariba ubi zamarutudi εdεrutuî.||– ㅤ - - ㅤ ㅤ - ㅤ - .||The friendly clan won thanks to my friend's friend.|
|Rutudime-unolot &ditaribabopε ubi zamarutudi εdεrutuî, jda Caunolobaribobe.||– ㅤ - - - - ㅤ ㅤ - ㅤ - , ㅤ - - - - .||I doubt the friendly clan would have won thanks to my friend's friend, had he not cooperated.|
Example of the language
Sonnet 18 translation into Borelian:
|Common||Borelian (latin)||Borelian (boto)|
|Q1||Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?||Zakaviboȝa dati iz-claȝεdime-îuvaci?|
|Thou art more lovely and more temperate:||Deba Fildi meîtulraîno- e meîhmarino-:|
|Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,||Ȝrtiîno-Fucitic &ditεrcε tulratime-budeni εdεdivlini,[a]|
|And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:||E claȝεdi εdεdendu Zamabapo molklertino-îuvaci:||4|
|Q2||Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,||Moltliknilo rεkclakino pnimadi εdεkukna &dizermε,|
|And often is his gold complexion dimmed;||E stitliknilo Malkedime-canastiîεd &diofzipo;|
|And every fair from fair sometime declines,||E Sul-&-zlit moltliknilo &diofzi,|
|By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimmed:||Ti-flivini lim ti-retnaîni εdε-alenino-fnelȝ, beofzinino:||8|
|Q3||But thy eternal summer shall not fade,||Iliî Dama-sultlikino-claȝε &diofzifubobe,|
|Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;||Belim Zamat de-cεdi zliti datihεokε &diaȝijafubo;|
|Nor shall Death brag thou wander’st in his shade|
|When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st:||12|
|C||ㅤSo long as men can breathe or eyes can see,|
|ㅤSo long lives this, and this gives life to thee.||14|