Transcendent Kingdom of Jashnagar
Yam'gonra Ilo'lona Mai
Motto: "Tasi B'u"
"Stay the course."
Anthem: Sevar's Farewell to Sevratan
Jewel of the Sea
|Recognised national languages||Jash, Mahkeen, Pa'ea|
|Ethnic groups||Jash, Mahkeen, Pa'ea|
• Prime Minister
|House of Warriors|
|House of Fathers|
• Establishment of Kingdom of Jashnagar
• End of Monarchy
|June 6th, 1913|
• Declaration of Modern Jashnagar
|September 21st, 1945|
|473,902 km2 (182,975 sq mi)|
• 2019 estimate
|128/km2 (331.5/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|604.426 Billion (XX)|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC-7 to -8|
|Date format||mm/dd/yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||JN|
Jashnagar, officially the Transcendent Kingdom of Jashnagar, is a country in Greater Olympus. Located in Southeast Nori, Jashnagar shares maritime borders with Sepura and Tauke Manuye. An exclusively island nation, Jashnagar is composed of thousands of islands that make up the Jashnagari Archipelago, and is located completely in the Magnostrium and Muroan oceans.
The sovereign state is a Ecclesiastic-Republic ruled by current or former members of the Anomai clergy, with an elected legislature. It is notable as a nation combining religious and secular law into its framework, and on top of being an independent country, also wields Ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Anomai faith worldwide. The Bas'kan is considered not only the formal leader of Jashnagar, but also of the Anomai church.
Jashnagar has notable natural resources in the forms of oil and hardwoods. The nation's economy is built primarily on agriculture, where crops such as rice, coffee, tea, palm oil, spices, copra, tropical fruits, and ornamental flowers are the main exports of the economy. Jashnagar has a GDP of 604 billion and hosts the XXth largest economy in the world. Tourism plays a large part in the national economy, where historical, religious, cultural, eco, and resort tourism is growing in size.
The Jashnagari archipelago has a long history of feuding states and kingdoms, and is tied closely to the history of southeast Nori and the Oceanus Magnostrium. Jashnagari sailors mastered the art of wayfinding navigation and out-rigger construction, allowing travel of far distances and used these inventions for trade and settlement both west and eastward. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Anomai faith had become widespread and drastically influenced political and cultural life. The later medieval period saw the expansion of larger states and foreign crusades launched against neighboring lands, with conflict arising against the newly arrived Liran powers. The archipelago was politically unified in the early 18th century by King Ilo'gnara, formerly bringing the nation under a religiously sanctioned monarchy till the late 19th century. The modern state emerged in the 1920s, ruling an instability racked country till the 1980s.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Early History (Prehistory-9th century CE)
- 2.2 Middle Ages (9th century-14th century)
- 2.3 Age of Exploration (14th century-17th century)
- 2.4 Early Kingdom (18th century-1844)
- 2.5 Late Kingdom (1844-1913)
- 2.6 Olympic War (1913-1922)
- 2.7 Reconstruction (1922-1946)
- 2.8 Civil War (1946-1968)
- 2.9 Golden Decades (1970-1990)
- 2.10 Modern Era (1990-Present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
The name Jashnagar is the Lorianized term for the Produese name Jaixnágar, given to the archipelago when Produzland became the first Liran power to discover it. The Produese name stems from combining Jash, the name of the dominant ethnic group in the archipelago and the Jash term nagar meaning "whole" or "mass". The original term was likely used locally in reference to the entirety of Jash polities, separating them from those of other local cultures.
The native name, an admixture of native languages, translates into "The Great Gate that Ilo'lo built for God" (Lit: "Great Gate of Ilo'lo God"). This name came to be applied when Jashnagar became a united country under the Ilo'lo dynasty in the 18th century. With the Bas'kan guiding the Ilo'lo kings in matters of religion and the Anomai faith becoming incorporated into law, the country was seen as divinely inspired and sanctioned.
The nation is often referred to as just Yam'gonra or "Great Gate" by native inhabitants.
Early History (Prehistory-9th century CE)
Evidence suggests modern Humans first arrived in the Jashnagari archipelago 40,000 years ago as part of the first expansion of Homo Sapiens into the south-east region of Nori. The first group of the modern populations in the archipelago were the Norese, followed by the Muroans who settled on the eastern most islands. Ofraxan peoples migrated from Belshik around 500 BCE, an event recorded in Jashnagari mythological history, and settled on Samratan as the Jash ethnic group. Before the arrival of the Jash, several cultures from the previous two groups existed. Among these were the Norese Sava culture of northern Samratan, the Aukhine culture of Lambou, and pre-Pa'ea Muroans. The arrival of these migrations brought changes to the ecological landscape, as the Norese introduced rice cultivation and the Muroans brought new forms of tuber and coconuts with them.
Damic religion had spread into the archipelago early, and by 300 BCE, various temples to both Damic and indigenous faiths had become prominent in power. Between this period and 140 BCE, Anomai began, likely a result of consolidation between several temple traditions, but attributed to abbot of Kauloon Temple Gana Rashin
This marked a turning point in early Jashnagari history, as for the next several centuries, Maism would continue to spread through coastal settlements across the archipelago, and by 200 CE had begun to gain considerable political power within the courts of local rulers. By this period, Maism had begun to fully compete with other Damic religious in neighboring areas outside of the archipelago, and by 600 CE had become the dominant faith inside the archipelago.
Middle Ages (9th century-14th century)
The political influence the Maist faith began to wield saw many small polities grow in size to encompass greater areas of influence, splitting much of the northern and central archipelago into rival feudal states. One notable example of such was the Yuram Maharan, whose growing trade wealth from their capital, Yuram, set it on the course of dominating the Jash polities and eventually influencing the entire archipelago. Rajan Yaragupta of the Yuram Maharan constructed Yuram Temple in the early 10th century, founding a competing center of Maist authority.
The rivalry between Kauloon and Yuram temples would come to a head during the War of Flames, an archipelago-wide religious conflict between Anomai and other religions. This conflict represented the first time the Jashnagari polities had any semblance of coordination, as well as set a unified standard for Maist temples to operate together in matters of religious conflict. During this war, Yuram temple's abbot, the Bas'kan, would become the primary organizer and commander of Maist forces, solidifying the Yuram temple's position as the ultimate authority in the faith, usurping founding temple Kauloon. In 1366 Bas'kan Naramel I organized the religious canon of the Maist faith, linking the Jai schools of the north and Kali schools of the south together, and giving clearer credence to proselytizing monks.
The War of Flames rid Jashnagar of competing faiths, and while the various rajans, princes, and kahles sought domination over their neighbors, the abbots turned their attention outward to foreign lands as outlets for spreading the religion. Maist monks began traveling to foreign soil as teachers. In addition, the newly found cooperative power established in the War of Flames saw the Bas'kan of Yuram launch many crusades against outside powers.
Age of Exploration (14th century-17th century)
By the 14th century, the northern and central islands had been brought under the control of a few strong kingdoms, particularly the Yuram Maharan and Inzali (Mahk). The Pa'ea island chains had remained fractured among various Loa, but had experienced states of unity in the previous centuries where powerful rulers would conquer large swathes of territory. There, O'kahle had become a kind of de-facto capital where trade was conducted from places as far away as Magnostria and Taveteaux.
In 1543 Produese explorer Jorge Adão da Coutinho landed on the coast of Mitta, becoming the first Liran to set foot in Jashnagar. The following decades saw a flock of Liran explorers and merchants arriving in southeast Nori, where the Produese primarily used Yuram as a trade node, raising the wealth of the city. Meanwhile, increasing military expeditions in the Pa'ea island chains saw Produzland forcibly acquiring colonies. After the death of King Philip I and IV, Meronnia entered the colonial game in SE Nori, taking an approach of trade and concessions where they would diplomatically gain influence or control of coastal cities around the Jashnagari archipelago such as Sa'pua. These cities and others in SE Nori would form Meronnia's Pearl Necklace Cities.
The vast amounts of wealth gained from the acquisition of Jashnagari spices and teas further tempted the military-minded Produese who had already desired to conquer and convert the natives of the archipelago. By 1610, they had subjugated the islands of Mitta and Ulelu, as well as several smaller islands in Maharaba. They also created outposts on Namoa, O'kahle, and Lambou.
In 1614, a coalition of Pa'ea Loa and Kahle formed the Pa'ea Confederation to resist Produese colonization. After several intense military conflicts, they appealed to the Bas'kan in Yuram for aid, and he in turn called for a gathering of Maist leaders. This council had decided to resist the foreign invaders and the Conquest of Jashnagar began in proper when the Jashnagari Coalition was formed under the leadership of Bas'kan Mahkzen.
The war was the bloodiest in Jashnagari history until that point and featured many large, notable battles such as the Battle for O'kahle, Battle of Harjayana, and the failed Produese Invasion of Mae. Initially, the Produese had the upper hand, where upon increasing their military manpower and invading multiple points across the archipelago consecutively, they created a situation where even Yuram was at threat of conquest, however, involvement in Lira with the 20 Years War drained and sapped at the resources Produzland could sink into war with Jashnagar. Additionally, the distance between Lira and SE Nori was great and created massive logistics problems for the Produese in the face of an organized enemy. Gradually, the Jashnagari pushed their enemy back to the islands of Mitta and Ulelu, but were unable to dislodge the Produese who had reverted to primarily defensive tactics. By 1620, the conflict had dwindled and the Produese would retain possession of the islands they still occupied, creating the permanent borders of the Viceroyalty of Anacleto.
In 1644, Bas'kan Rastan I would launch a crusade against Sepura. While the Maist forces enjoyed initial success, conquering many Sepuran cities, they were defeated in the Battle of Senengka in 1647, marking the end of the last great crusade. The era of crusading ended with Rastan's death in 1653.
Early Kingdom (18th century-1844)
The ages of the crusades and colonization left the archipelago politically fractured. Though the Sepuran crusade and the Conquest of Jashnagar saw the archipelago unified, the heavy economic and life tolls of these conflicts left many states in ruin. The former large powers such as the Yuram Maharan were split and fractured by feudal chieftains consistently fighting for resources.
In 1710, the young Loa Ilo'gnara of Ilo'lo on Namoa began military subjugation of his neighboring chieftains, becoming Kahle of Namoa in 1715. His ambitions did not stop at just his native island, and he began campaigns against nearby Pa'ea chiefdom, culminating in the conquest of O'kahle in 1721. Having united the eastern Pa'ea islands, Ilo'gnara then sent envoys to threaten the western Pa'ea islands, where his threats were rebuked. Instead of risking a fleet campaign against the western islands, Ilo'gnara turned his attention to the nearby Mahkeen polities, where he began conquests in early 1722. By 1724 he had conquered most of Lambou and many remaining Mahkeen rulers joined his fledgling kingdom. His expansion and ownership of nearly half of Jashnagar turned the attention of the northern states against him, where they formed a coalition to resist his invasion of Samratan.
Ilo'gnara's military success came as a result of effectively mixing gunpowder troops with phalanx-style spear armies, which performed outstandingly well against his less-cohesive Pa'ea opponents and the Mahkeen princedoms. The coalition formed against him eventually stalled his expanse in central Samratan, and by 1726 his campaign had ground to a halt. Growing older, Ilo'gnara had tempered in personality over the years, and instead of military might turned to diplomacy to achieve his goals. He successfully and shrewdly convinced many of his enemies to turn to his side, playing on memories of de-facto unification to squash cultural rivalries. In late 1727, the western Pa'ea islands willingly joined his kingdom, and finally in 1728 the gates of Yuram were bloodlessly opened to his army. In return, Ilo'gnara affirmed the Bas'kan's position as head of the Anomai faith and was crowned king of Jashnagar, founding the Kingdom of Jashnagar. Ilo'gnara abdicated as king in 1737 in favor of his son, Ilo'Kaili, setting a tradition of abdication among the Jashnagari monarchs. During his reign, he officially abolished slavery and serfdom, as well as used his military to defend against piracy and banditry, creating an early form of police.
With the country unified, several successive monarchs ruled Jashnagar and made their impact on the country. The Produese Viceroyalty of Anacleto provided a particular nuisance to Jashnagar, as it occupied two main Pa'ea islands and several smaller isles through out the archipelago. Foreign policy began to shift in response to this, seeking contact and alliances that could allow Jashnagar to oust the Produese.
In 1796 King Muro died and appointed his son-in-law, Rashin Ranaman as his heir, ending the Ilo Dynasty and establishing the Ranaman kings. Rashin's son, Sevar I increased contact with Liran powers, particularly that of Meronnia, sending diplomats to the court of Augustin Calvet in hopes that alignment with the Merons would possibly allow Jashnagar to reclaim Anacleto. Many Jashnagari from around the Pearl Necklace Cities even fought in Calvert's army during the Great Continental Wars, but Sevar was never able to turn the tumultuous political landscape in a direction that would allow them to oust the Produese.
Late Kingdom (1844-1913)
With the death of Sevar I and the ascension of King Tavu II, the Jashnagari monarchy began a trend of modernization that would last throughout the remaining years of the kingdom. Tavu began wearing Liran dress and sought to make Jashnagar recognized by foreign powers in strength and prestige. In 1866, Tavu abdicated to his younger brother, King Aren who built a new royal palace in Yuram for the royal family.
Aren's short reign lasted only three years and ended with his untimely death by accident. His eldest daughter and heir, Imae became the second ruling queen in Jashnagari history. Unfortunately for her, the Ranaman dynasty had begun to experience high degrees of factionalism within the royal court, and machinations between various members towards the throne had already begun under the reign of her father. The strongest of these was from her younger brother, Naram, who had managed to gain the support of several Liran businessmen who had come in a recent wave of renewed interest in Jashnagar's economic value. So it was that within the same year of her ascension, 1869, she was forced to abdicate in favor of her brother when the palace was stormed by an armed guard.
Naram began the strongest bout of modernization of the nation yet seen, which had been a major selling point for support in overthrowing his sister. He greatly looked toward the east for influence in reforming his nation's society, and in particular, he sought to fully modernize the Jashnagari education system. To this end, he founded Naram University and built early forms of primary schools across the archipelago. He also invited and encouraged foreigners to immigrate and create business in the largest influx of such in the nations history, even handing out land freely to anyone with technical knowledge. Naram married a Liran queen to further tie his country to the east. He was a major proponent of secularism, inspired by Meronnian, Wintonian, and Carelian philosophy which earned him the ire of the Maist establishment. In 1884, King Naram was assassinated.
Naram's only child, Sevar II became king after him. Sevar continued his father's reform program and saw Jashnagar's potential reach that of the eastern nations. Unlike previous Jashnagari monarchs, Sevar did not lean towards Meronnia, but instead aligned himself with Produzland, often visiting the Viceroyalty of Anacleto to study the latest eastern inventions and ideas. Taking a grand tour from 1905 till 1907, Sevar was by far the most renown Jashnagari monarch to the outside world. His pale complexion and eastern dress made him less alien to Liran audiences, and his refined dignity brought the existence of his kingdom to the minds of the masses in far off nations. In Jashnagar, his fatherly approach to government made him a beloved ruler and inspired great support for his reign, though his personal life was unhappy and fraught with misery. In 1913, a group of military generals repeated the events of 1869 and stormed the palace in Yuram, overthrowing the government. Sevar had instructed his guardsmen not to fire upon his assailants and so the coup was bloodless.
Olympic War (1913-1922)
The coup clique, known as the Shan Government, moved quickly to establish control over the country. Through intimidation and military force, they tenuously held onto the capital and the surrounding area. Meanwhile, supporters of the monarchy began to gather around the country. One such supporter, the Carelian Ferdinand Juteau, began forming his own militia in response to the military crackdowns. Juteau had immigrated to Jashnagar in the 1890s to start his own plantation. His crop of choice was pineapple followed by copra and coffee, where he made initially only mild success shipping to west Nori and Mu-kal. Something of an adventurer, Juteau explored the Jashnagari archipelago in the first years of his residency and came to appreciate it deeply. Converting to Maism, Juteau was a minor advisor to the king's government. The militia Juteau created was initially staffed by fellow foreign plantation owners and business men Juteau had contact with, many of them converts to Maism and supporters of the king. Quickly, this militia grew to include many of the foreign advisors in the government of King Sevar, and soon began to attract not just resident foreigners, but adventurers and guns for hire as well, forming the beginning of the Jashnagari Foreign Legion.
Immediately the Shan junta moved against Juteau, and a war between the two factions erupted. At first fighting was restricted to central and northern Samratan as royalist forces moved to push towards Yuram, but a pincer movement by Shan forces from the south forced the royalists to consider the conflict a nation-spanning one. In summer 1913, a detachment of the JFL landed in Lanu harbor on O'kahle and raised the royal flag without opposition, much to the cheering of the locals. Likewise similar actions took place on Namoa, Mae, and the Bajabar isles. These quick events marked the beginning of the end for the Shan, as by late 1915 royalist ranks had been strengthened vastly by native recruits and the only remaining areas in Shan control were those where their own forces could keep martial law. In spring 1916, Juteau's victorious army marched into Yuram with the JFL in the lead. The remaining Shan leaders either fled or committed suicide, and the conflict was seemingly over.
Juteau immediately set about restoring order. His first action was to invite King Sevar to return to the throne, but the king declined and passed away not long after. This left Juteau in a strange position, as not only did Sevar not return to the throne, but he also renounced his relatives rights to the throne as well, leaving the monarchy with no legitimate heir. To maintain order, Juteau remained in his key position as temporary ruler and appointed his four closest compatriots into key leadership positions. Juteau and his junta became known as the Yuram Five, as they directed from the royal capital of Yuram.
During the conflict with the Shan government, Juteau had organized and equipped a modern army, spending considerable resources and time training not only the JFL but also the native Jashnagari troops he had amassed. Furthermore, his army had collected actual combat experience, and even though it was against an eventually inferior enemy, it was still more than many armies of other nations could claim. Ever ambitious, Juteau pondered on how to use this new model army, and decided that it would best work as a tool to achieve what the monarchs of Jashnagar had desired to do from the beginning: unite the entire archipelago. To do that, all foreign concessions would need to be returned to Jashnagar, starting with the largest, that of Anacleto. Near the end of 1916, the Juteau government issued first an ultimatum to the government of Produzland and then an official declaration of war between the two powers. This marked the official entrance into the Olympic War for Jashnagar.
Like elsewhere, the combat against Produzland was bloody with high casualty rates on both sides. Produese forces found themselves at the advantage when engage in conventional warfare, and while under the monarchy Jashnagar had begun building a strong navy, Produese ships based in Anacleto had no difficulty achieving control of the sealanes. The Jashnagari turned to guerrilla tactics in the tropical environment, which all but the most seasoned Anacletan light troops were unfamiliar with. After an extensive four year war, in 1920, the Produese government negotiated a peace with the Treaty of Cojazeira, where Anacleto would be returned to Jashnagar in order for resources and effort to be turned towards the war in Lira.
Destruction wrought by the Shan coup and the Olympic War was devastating across Jashnagar. Immediately, the Yuram Five moved to retain power, using reconstruction as the basis for their continued leadership and military loyalty to enforce it. Though Juteau had originally intended to turn his military against the Pearl Necklace Cities, the war against Produzland cost too heavily in lives and resources, and so he decided against war with another eastern power. Instead, Meronnia's colonial possessions became important import and scholarly assets.
The Yuram Five had as early as 1914 discussed rebuilding Jashnagar into a fully modern nation, with the capital of Yuram being the crowning jewel of such a product. While Juteau was a business man and adventurer, he had in his council of four highly skilled reformers. Most notably was Arkadiy Sergeev Vishnegradskiy, a Tanayan engineer, and XXXX an infrastructure pioneer.
The damage caused by the wars had given a cleaner slate to work with and the next two decades were fit with large-scale construction that spanned the nation. Yuram became the center-ground of the most innovative ideas, where great care was placed into updating the city while leaving its historic landmarks. The Juteau administration built upon the framework of the late monarchy by deeply expanding the amount of public schooling available across the nation. In 1925, primary schooling (ages 7-16 in period) became mandatory, with heavy fines brought upon parents who did not take their children to school. Juteau also continued supporting foreign innovators to come into the country, but instead planned to use this as base work for future Jashnagari to reversely study abroad rather than a permanent solution.
Politically, the Yuram Five struck an uneasy balance among the factions within the administration. They reaffirmed the Bas'kan's position of spiritual power, but Juteau used secular Meronnian and Carelian models to reform Jashnagar's court systems. Meanwhile, more radical schools of thought took root in the population as a result of the wars. Socialist and democratic ideas in particular began to hold sway over much of the population. Authoritarian philosophies also sprouted in some areas, and a return to cliques started to form in regional administrations across the country. Juteau's administration held the loyalty of the main military, and he very carefully sought to appease both the religious and democratic camps while holding onto power.
Despite the rapid and successful modernization and rebuilding projects across the country, the political balancing act became an untenable situation. In 1945, Juteau had come to a conclusion regarding the future of the nation, and had the rest of his junta sign a shadow-pact, later known as the Kaska Compromise promising to continue that vision after his death. Publicly, Juteau announced on September 21st, 1945, that his administration would continue until the death of three of its original five members, and then afterwords a peaceful shift of power would see the Bas'kan and a semi-democratic regime rise. In this proclamation, he outlined his plans for continued prosperity and how political changes would gradual move the nation towards his end goals. On December 4th, the anarchist radical Yambai Gorudin shot Juteau pointblank with a handgun as he approached him in public. Miraculously, the aging Juteau survived and even walked a majority of the distance to the hospital. The bullet could not be safely extracted, and the health complications involved with the shooting would lower his lifespan drastically.
Civil War (1946-1968)
Following the assassination attempt on Juteau, the Yuram city police enforced a lockdown the nights of December 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th. No announcement as to the leader's health was given until the 8th, and elderly but sprite Vishnegradskiy has temporarily taken control of the government. On December 7th, a bombing took place in Lanu on O'kahle leading to a lockdown of that island issued by the local government. Protests erupted in support of and against the Juteau government throughout December, and by middle January 1946, a state of emergency was declared and the military geared for security.
On February 15th, a bomb went off in the middle of a democratic protest in Yuram, killing 40 people and later that afternoon, the 6th Infantry Regiment based on Ulelu stormed the island's capital building and overthrew the local government. Han O'leaku, a renown Jashnagari Socialist writer declared the creation of the People's Republic of Jashnagar from the governor's house, marking the beginning of the Jashnagari Civil War.
In late February, Juteau's health had not improved enough to allow a direct response from him on the developing situation with the socialists. Vishnegradskiy vehemently attacked and denied the separatist movement, and issued orders for the military to remove the rebels on Ulelu, but violent combat had already broken out on the island. Within days, several large groups of soldiers and officers deserted the army, and on February 20th, the garrison at Paranaka island in Bajabar province declared their own splinter state. Several more divisions followed, with factions breaking away from the central government in rapid succession. By March 1st, firefights in the streets of Yuram had broken out between police and insurgents.
Fighting continued into 1947 between Centralist and separatist forces, but the Central government was unable to dislodge rebel positions and instead began to slowly loose ground. This trend continued into the 1950s, when the worst of the fighting began in earnest. In 1953, the Prudhomme government of Meronnia signed the Treaty of X and returned the Pearl Necklace Cities to Jashnagar, marking an end to nearly 360 years of colonial rule in those locations as well as lending further international legitimacy to the Central government . By now, the growing conflict in Jashnagar began to receive international attention, especially as the weakening Juteau campaigned towards foreign audiences for his government, promising "Peace and Stability" to the nation and denouncing his opponents.
In 1954, Ferdinand Juteau's health continued to rapidly decline amid his international campaigning and he collapsed while viewing the frontline near Masaba on April 23rd. He clung onto life long enough to be brought to Ranaman Palace in Yuram but passed the night of April 25th. With Juteau's passing the already 86 year old Vishnegradskiy took control of the government. Due to his advanced age, the Tanayan had to delegate much of the decision making to his staff, but continued to involve himself daily in reports and summaries of the war effort, as well as meeting with foreign diplomats.
In 1955, the Meronnian Crevier government came to power in Meronnia and began to dedicate larger amounts of military and material support unofficially to the Central government, which continued until the 1959 election. Meanwhile, the Tanaya Soviet People's Republic began to intervene in favor of O'leaku and the People's Republic of Jashnagar. While TSPR was unable to provide ground support due to recovering from the Second Tanayan Revolution, several ships and air units provided bombardment and covering fire for the socialists forces and routinely attacked Centralist positions on the coast.
In 1959 the administration of Jean-Philippe Lahaye officially involved Meronnia in the civil war by unilateral intervention. The arrival of MFL and Meron troops was done without Central government permission and several high-tension incidents arose between Vishnegradskiy and Lahaye's administrations, culminating in an overwhelming Meron military presence in the former Pearl Necklace Cities. While the influx of nominal support helped start to drastically turn the tide against the rebels, especially the smaller cliques and outer island factions, the price for Meron aid increasingly became questioned, with Vishnegradskiy remarking whether the "Merons had come to help or to occupy".
In 1963 Meronnia saw Carine Cortot elected First Deputy and an easing of tensions between the Meron intervention and Vishnegradskiy junta occurred. Meron support slowly started to withdraw while providing the Centralist forces with continued aid and resources, and by July 1967 only the socialists remained with outposts of smaller islands and inlets. In 1969 Vishnegradskiy passed away at 101, being the oldest Head of State in history. In February 1970 the People's Republic of Jashnagar officially surrender to Centralist forces, marking the end of the Jashnagari Civil War. The conflict had lasted 24 years. Though officially over, pockets of resistance continued to wage a guerrilla war against the government, mostly on tiny islands or deep within the jungle. These rebels were urged on by Han O'leaku who had fled Jashnagar to avoid persecution.
Golden Decades (1970-1990)
While the Jashnagari Civil War had brought deep destruction to the country, the capable leadership of the Yuram Five had already begun rebuilding operations during the war. The second Jashnagari reconstruction was slated to last a decade, but the worst of the damage had already been under-repair since 1963. For the average Jashnagari family, excluding the cost in lives, the civil war had stopped being felt as early as 1961. Jashnagar also benefited from the international economic upturn of the 70s, and as the country finally began to feel a sense of stability, a sudden explosion of Jashnagari culture erupted and the average citizen began to be flooded with foreign and domestic music, dress, technology, and outlook.
The average quality of life rose dramatically and the government continued its programs of modernizing infrastructure. With Vishnegradskiy's passing, X took over the administration and began planning for his eventual death and the shift of political power. Juteau had compromised by promising the Maist clergy the top of administration in return for a devolution to democratic lower ministries. X kicked off this process in 1973 with Jashnagar's first democratic election to the newly formed Clerical Council which acted as an official legislature. That same year, Han O'leaku was captured trying to re-enter Jashnagar, tried, and executed, causing diplomatic strain with socialist nations in Olympia.
In 1975 the very last pocket of rebel resistance was destroyed and the defense budget was slashed heavily in favor of civilian spending. Throughout the decade, Jashnagari students began to travel abroad for study, most notably to Meronnia, signalling that Juteau's goal of forming Jashnagar's own core of domestic intellectuals had come to fruition.
The economy continued to boon, with Jashnagar exporting more agricultural product than at any point in its history. The literacy rate had jumped to 90% and climbing, with universal primary education achieved. X passed away in 1978, bringing an end to the Yuram Five junta and shifting power to the Bas'kan. Juteau's secret outline was revealed and the Kaska Compromise was fully disclosed, with the following year seeing elections held for all provincial governments as well as continuing elections for the Clerical Council, bringing into action Jashnagar's contemporary system.
Jashnagar entered the 80s with a soaring economy, vibrant cultural life, and unprecedented political freedoms for its citizens. The growing pains surrounding the government change were minimal due to efficient preparation by the Yuram Five, and immediately devolution of political power to the regional governments began. The Clerical Council of 1982 was marred by a consistent fight with the Maist clergy over the amount of religiously derived laws and governance, but by the sessions of 1983 had come to an agreement.
Elsewhere in Southeast Nori things had become more unstable, and Jashnagar became more outwardly involved in global affairs. 1985 marked the beginning of the Melian Anti-Piracy Campaign seeking to defend and root out the increasing droves of pirates feeding off the shipping in the Melian channel and other waters around Southeast Nori. Besides the small military conflicts around the region, Jashnagar remained stable throughout the decade.
Modern Era (1990-Present)
By 1993 the economic boon had slowed and the country no longer benefited from increasing prosperity. Still, Jashnagar had become a fully modernized nation and was capable of competing with foreign powers, namely by focusing and tapping into its natural resources as a means of economic domination. The financial growth during the golden decades had allowed Jashnagar to equip itself with a sizable navy, nominally for defense, and the rest of the military had been brought up to standard. A population explosion was beginning to be felt, and the capital of Yuram had grown to one of the largest metropolitan cities in Nori.
The 90s were marked with a turn to more conservative politics. The Maist church was better supported politically, and the clergy became more dominant in Clerical Council politics. Elsewhere, provincial governments also saw more conservative outlooks, looking primarily towards stricter laws, military buildup, and conservation. The Kali Maist majority in the Clerical Council for most of the 90s gave rise to the term "Kali Decade" to describe the political environment.
The turn of the millennium marked the end of this, with Umyathar IV becoming Bas'kan on November 4th, 2000. A monk of the Pamamori order, Umyathar instituted a faith-wide plan dubbed Maism Forward. This plan saw many older faith doctrines become obsolete, and stressed commitment to pacifism, neutrality, and social progress. Throughout the 2000s, Maism Forward saw the faith make amends with technology and social progress, and a relaxation on many of the spiritually derived laws of the country. Umyathar IV's reign saw Jashnagar take a path of international neutrality, and relationships with many of the nation's historical rivals were smoothed. His tenure also created a focus on inter-faith dialogue and the denouncement of Maism's historical crusades. Though Umyathar sought sweeping changes, many of his planned policies were caught up in the Clerical Council which still retained a large left-over from the Kali decade. Steadily, the legislatures saw an influx of Avalaran adherents, but Pamamori orderlies were decreasing in number.
On June 7th, 2019, Umyathar IV passed away and was succeeded by Rastan II, with Enri Tale'va voted Prime Minister. The new government seemed to angle towards a return to conservative politics. On February 2nd, 2020, Rastan II delivered a speech at Yuram Temple outlining his dedication to a righteous world, and allowed his picture to be taken, becoming the first Bas'kan in history to allow a photograph to be published showcasing them.
In March 2020 tensions between Jashnagar and the Tanaya Soviet People's Republic were heightened due to Tanayan Naval Maneuvers in Magnostria. July 2020 saw Jashnagar begin the largest military mobilization since the end of the Jashnagari Civil War. The government continues to fight the effects of the 2020 international economic recession, and the after-effects of cyclone Yue.
Jashnagar is one of the largest archipelagic countries in the world, and is part of the Southeast Nori region of the Nori continent. It extends 16,696 kilometers (10,374 miles) kilometers at its furthest points from east to west, and 11,370 kilometers (7,065 miles) from north to south. It has a total of 6,432 islands and atolls, with nearly 4,000 of them inhabited in some capacity. All of these islands lie below the equator. The archipelago is made up of the seven primary islands of Samratan, Lambou, O'kahle, Namoa, Mitta, Ulelu, Mae, with half of Moruratan and six recognized island chains of Jash, Mahk, Pa'ea, Mae, Ta'u, and Wiki.
At 13,797 feet, Mount Lanu on O'kahle is Jashnagar's highest peak. The longest river in Jashnagar is the Puaga. Most of the large rivers flow on Samratan, but sizable rivers exists on the Pa'ea and Mahk island chains.
Jashnagar lies below the equator, and its climate remains relatively stable year-round. Most of Jashnagar has a consistent year-long wet season, with a dry season
appearing in the southern most islands. Where applicable, the dry season lasts typically from May till September and the wet from October to April.
Jashnagar's climate is entirely tropical, with a tropical wet climate dominating a majority of the nation. The southern most islands are home to a tropical wet and dry climate providing the drier seasons in those areas.
Tectonically, Jashnagar is unstable with many volcanoes and frequent seismic activity. It lies in a ring of fire generated by the Magnostrian plate being pushed under the Muroan plate. Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas, but it has also resulted in unusually fertile soils, historically allowing high population densities in the Jash and Mahkeen islands.
Many of Jashnagar's islands are formed by coral reefs, especially smaller ones in the south and western most areas of the country. Much like how black sand beaches can be found across Jashnagar's volcanic islands, white sand beaches formed out of calcium from ancient corals and sea organism are a main beach type across the archipelago. Though rare, some pink colored beaches can be found throughout Jashnagar, caused by crushed corals much like the more common white-sanded beaches. Jashnagar is home to one of the only green sand beaches on the globe, Meamata, formed by volcanic rock high in Olivine that has been eroded from Mount Lanu
Biodiversity and Environment
Jashnagar's tropical climate and archipelagic geography lends itself to a high level of biodiversity. Large species such as the Samratan tiger, Norinese elephant, pongo, rhinoceros, and leopard were once abundant on all islands north of Lambou, but have since dwindled due habitat loss brought about by human development. Jashnagar is divided between the Muroan Line which separates the species of Nori and those of the Muroan and Magnostrian island chains. Jashnagar shares species with nearby Meniti as well as the mainland of Nori. Tropical seas surround the nations coastline, creating a range of sea and coastal ecosystems that include beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, mudflats, tidal flats, algae beds, and small island ecosystems. Jashnagar is part of the SE Nori coral triangle, hosting an immense biodiversity in coral and coral reef species as a result.
Human development posses serious threats to the state of the Jashnagari environment. Destruction of habitat brought about by expanding urbanization and economic development has threatened and endangered many of the species native to the archipelago. Palm oil plantations stand as an example of economic development that while generating wealth for local communities, changes the native ecosystems drastically. Over-exploitation of marine resources, waste management, and oil drilling also contribute to the degradation of the environment. Global warming is a considerable problem for the future of Jashnagar. Rising global temperatures will drastically increase the number of scorching days in Jashnagar's already tropical environment, affect the seasonal weather cycles that fuels the agricultural economy, increase wildfires that destroy rainforest, and raise the number of droughts and food shortages. Climate change will also affect the marine resources of the nation, impacting directly the coral and shallow water habitats of the coast. Rising sea levels risk submerging large portions of the coastal country. Impoverished communities are likely to be the most affected by climate change.
Government and Politics
Jashnagar is an Ecclesiastic-Republic, with the current government established in 1970. Before the unification of Jashnagar, the various polities throughout the archipelago often cooperated under the leadership of the Yuram clergy, be it in religious crusade or political crisis. This cooperation formed the basis to a united Jashnagar and became a precursor to the modern governmental system. When King Ilo'gnara united Jashnagar in 1728, he affirmed the Bas'kan of Yuram temples leadership over the Maist faith. After the overthrow of King Sevar II in 1913, the country underwent a period of political turmoil and civil war that lasted until the 1980s. The foundation for the modern government was created by the Yuram Five a pro-monarchy junta founded by Ferdinand Juteau, which lead governmental forces from 1914 till 1978.
The government is spearheaded by two individuals in the form of the Bas'kan and Prime Minister. The two have separate, but complimentary duties. The Bas'kan is considered the head of state, being the official leader of not just Jashnagar, but the Maist faith in total. He is responsible for the ecclesiastical components of the Jashnagari government and the Maist clergy internationally. The Bas'kan is chosen by a council in a secret process. The head of government, the Prime Minister, is responsible for the more secular affairs of the government and is elected by the Clerical council. Both must be in agreement before policy can be enacted, though the Bas'kan nominally has the ultimate say.
Jashnagar has a bicameral legislature, with an upper and lower house, each with their own requirements before election eligibility. the Council of Elders is the lower and larger of the two houses. the Council of Warriors is the upper and smaller house. The members of the Clerical Council are elected from the Jashnagari provinces, by universal general election. All legislative members must have served a five year stint as a Maist monk, with members in the House of Warriors additionally requiring to have served a full term of military service. The legislature is not only responsible for the creation, review, and passing of laws, but is also responsible for electing a group of five High Ministers that head ministries aiding the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court of Jashnagar is the nation's highest judicial body, typically dealing with cases involving provinces, national administrative bodies, or high appeals. The judicial system is unique in that is was created completely separate of the religious bodies. A result of Juteau's administration, the courts were based off of democratic models. Though Jashnagari courts may enforce and rule on laws with direct religious foundations, they are, by oath, to take a secular approach to judgement and review.
Parties and Elections
Parties in Jashnagar are influenced by the ecclesiastical nature of the government. While traditional political parties do exist such as those found in other countries, candidates more commonly list and are elected on the monastic orders they belong to. As a results, candidates belonging to legal, but deeply unpopular political parties, such as the Socialist Union of Jashnagar (SUJ) are able to be generally blocked from governmental seats. No party or monastic order has been able to hold a majority of the seats, however, members belonging to monastic orders of the Jai school of Maism are more numerous than those of other schools. As of 2019, Incumbent Bas'kan Rastan II is a member of the Avalaran order of the Jai school, and incumbent Prime Minister Enri Tale'va is a member of the Suramaya order of the Kali school. Both men and women can run and hold offices, with term limits set at 2 years. In 2017, voter turnout was 87%. While seats for the House of Elders were mixed, they followed historical provincial trends. Likewise, a Kali dominated House of Warriors was also selected, possibly leading to the resulting election for Prime Minister in 2019.
Jashnagar uses a hybrid law system influenced heavily from Meronnian, Wintonian, and Carelian philosophy. Like Meronnia, Jashnagar uses a Civil legal system where law is derived from statutes and the court maintains an investigative duty. However, though it lacks an adversarial court system, Jashnagar operates with a "dismissive" ruling for minor crimes that involve an alleged direct victim, which extends not just into criminal but also private suites. That is to say, if a crime or complaint is raised by or on behalf of a purported victim, that victim can dismiss a case regardless of the court findings.
Though the nation reports having a secular law system, many laws are directly based on religious or cultural leanings. Unlike in Republican Lira, Jashnagari law considers "societal freedom" alongside individual freedom and seeks to balance the implementation of both. As a result, Jashnagar has come under criticism and claims of human rights abuse, especially with maintaining a strong use of capital punishment.
Though national law supersedes Provincial laws, Provinces and administrative units are granted the right to implement and rule on their own laws. In many areas, particularly in Loadom, large amount of legal jurisdiction have lead to significant portions of customary law implemented on the district level.
Jashnagar has several levels of divisions. The first level and highest level is Councils, which are representative divisions with their own elected bodies. Some examples are the Pa'ea Confederation, and the Mahkeen Council. The second and most relevant level are the provinces, each with their own legislature and an elected governor. The Special Capital Region of Yuram is treated as a full province. Thirdly, provinces are split up into districts, each with their own court. Fourthly is municipalities, usually cities or towns and their subsidiary settlements. Finally, the fifth and lowest division are administrative villages. In Pa'ea cultural areas, a type of administrative village called a faloa exists, following traditional chiefly lands.
Following de-centralization efforts beginning in 1980, the municipality and district governments have become the most influential administrations on the average citizen's daily life.
Jashnagar is a projecting international power. The country adheres to a policy of increasing foreign involvement in relation to its military and economic status, where it seeks a significant role in local and international affairs. It maintains 30 diplomatic missions abroad, including 22 embassies.
Historically, Jashnagar had been considered a periphery power in relation to the east. After unification in 1728, the nation became a dominant force in South-East Nori, and sought official diplomatic relations with foreign powers, particularly those in Lira. Past conflict and occupation of land saw Meronnia gain in upper hand in an influence battle with Produzland, where the Jashnagari monarchy aligned itself the government of Augustin Calvet during the Great Continental War. For much of the 19th century, the Jashnagari monarchy sought to intertwine itself in eastern politics, strengthening its position domestically and bringing greater relevancy to its diplomacy. Following the Olympic War, Jashnagar became an emerging global power and began establishing and reinforcing ties to foreign states, particularly that of Meronnia who became involved in the Jashnagari Civil War. It also entered the attention of governments to the west, such as Tanaya and Velkanika.
More recently, Jashnagari foreign policy has been primarily at the whim of the ruling Bas'kan, changing depending on the personal convictions of the leader. Generally, the Bas'kans have followed a trend that sees warm relations kept with Meronnia, a greater emphasis on cooperation in Nori, and a restoring of cordiality with historical colonial powers.
Jashnagar is an active member of the Organisation Internationale de Soliçophonie, citing historical and cultural ties as reasons for membership. It maintains cool relations with most nations in Olympia, but due to emergent economic clout is expected to increase diplomatic jockeying among more distant areas of interest. Ideologically, the country is opposed to the International Revolutionary Pact, and strained relations are held between its members, particularly Tanaya and Sepura. Due to issues of piracy and sovereign waters, Taukye Manuye remains one of the only nations that Jashnagar does not hold a diplomatic mission with. More recently, Jashnagar has been dramatically warming relations with Parthonopia.
The Bas'kan's position as leader of the Maist faith adds an extra layer to the nation's international relations, where nominally the country has influence over Maist followers within the borders of any country. As a result, the Bas'kan must be approached not only as a Head of State but as a international religious leader.
The Armed Forces of Jashnagar are the serving military forces of the Transcendent Kingdom. Traditionally, the Armed Forces owes its allegiance to the Monarch of Jashnagar as commander-in-chief, but functionally is under jurisdiction of the Bas'kan with stipulation from the Clerical Council. The Jashnagari military is split into four official branches, with various sub-branches within them. These branches are the Jashnagari Army, Jashnagari Navy, Jashnagari Airforce, and Jashnagari Special Forces Division.
The Jashnagari Army is largest branch of the military, but is considered to be primarily of average quality in comparison with others in Olympus. It is the oldest branch of the military, stemming back to the forces of King Ilo'gnara, and maintains notable political power. Originally the Army focused on a smaller, but higher quality force, however in recent decades it has begun to shift towards balancing quality and quantity. Like the other military branches, the army suffers from considerable equipment strain, where it struggles to maintain quality while growing in number. Recent years have seen difficulty in obtaining modern military assets, which posses as the largest weakness for the army.
The Jashnagari Navy is the second largest, second eldest, and most well-funded branch of the armed forces. The navy wields significant political power and national prestige, and has a tradition spanning to the early middle ages when Jashnagari merchants and explorers sailed the waves from Magnostria to Meridiq. The Jashnagari navy is considered a blue-water navy and is placed within the ranks of the world naval superpowers. It maintains a force level of 525 ships including auxiliaries and support ships. It is in possession of 4 CATOBAR-system aircraft carriers and a large array of surface combatants. Currently the navy exercises soft-power projection in surrounding regions, but uses its strength to combat piracy in home regions such as the Melian Anti-Piracy Campaign. Budget considerations as well as equipment importation remains the navy's largest limiter.
The Jashnagari Airforce is the youngest and least developed branch of the armed forces. Founded during the late Olympic War, the airforce did not receive the time or experience to reach levels comparable to other military air services. During the Jashnagari Civil War, the airforce was supplemented by the Meronnian Air Army and took a backseat approach in the war. Only in recent decades has the Airforce seen attention and has accomplished significant upgrades in both weaponry and staff, however, it is still a notable under-performer when compared to peers.
The Jashnagari Special Forces Division (JSF) is split into three main sub-branches. These being the Jashnagari Marines, Special Operations Unit (YSSMF), and the Jashnagari Foreign Legion (JFL). The JSF retains a tradition hearkening itself back to the Maist crusades, where it maintains itself as the successor the the crusading armies. Unlike the other three branches, the JSF is heavily tied to the Maist clergy and is considerably less secular in approach. The Jashnagari Marines were separated from the Navy in 1960, but retain close working relations and ethos with the Navy. They are primarily responsible for the conduct of amphibious warfare and opening landing zones, which is particularly important in Jashnagar's archipelagic homeland. The YSSMF is the intelligence branch of the military, responsible also for strategic, infiltration, and commando operations. The Jashnagari Foreign Legion, founded during the Olympic War, is made up of Maist foreign and domestic volunteers, typically from countries with notable Maist populations or historic ties to Jashnagar such as Meronnia and surrounding Southeast Nori. As a whole, the JSF is expected to be the first response to disaster and international aid efforts by the military.
The Jashnagari Military as a whole is a volunteer-based force standing at a current peace-time counting of 790,264 personnel split between the branches. Jashnagar maintains a reserve system that can bring the total active number well above a million. Service is open to both men and women across all four branches, though combat positions may be restricted depending on branch. The minimum age of recruitment is 17 years old. Jashnagar does not legally possess conscription of any kind and instead relies on social and financial incentives to boost recruitment. Historically, military service was seen as a legitimate and prestigious option and many families are considered part of a warrior-caste with nearly universal enlistment rates. Service terms are two years each, leading often to re-enlistments. Certain political positions, namely that of the Council of Warriors require military service for eligibility to run.
Jashnagar has a Non-Industrial economy, with a primary system of free-trade capitalism. It holds the largest economy and highest GDP in South-East Nori, estimated at ฿604,426,989,054, with a wealth per capita higher than some Liran nations. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, followed closely by the services, and in deep last by industry.
Historically, the economy was agriculture-based, however beginning in the late 19th century, shifts towards industry and development took place. The Olympic War and Jashnagari Civil War ravaged the country and infrastructure but paved the way for greater shifts towards services. Following a global food deficit brought about by rapid industrialization, the nation began making lucrative profits on its agricultural exports and used that money to finance large moves into a service-based economy.
The unit of currency, the Sei, has been in use since the founding of the kingdom in 1728, but has changed forms through the centuries. Originally, it took the form of trade-specific flowers and shells, but developed into hard coinage and then into paper fiat money as the complexity of the economy required it. Before its national implementation, the various polities of Jashnagar used bargaining tokens, coinage, and precious commodities as currency.
The largest and most lucrative sector of the Jashnagari economy is agriculture. The country stands as a food producing capital of Olympus and is the single largest producer of tropical agricultural products. Much of the archipelago is volcanic soil, producing unusually high levels of fertility that lead to an overabundant success for Jashnagari farmers and was a main factor in historical population growths. Much of the non-settled land in the country is dedicated to agriculture or forestry, producing population patterns centered around large coastal cities with rugged inland.
Rice is the primary grain produced in the country and forms the carbohydrate base for the Jashnagari diet. Though large amounts of rice are exported, the majority is consumed domestically, and much of the exported rice is done so through proxy companies, thus the origin often goes unnoticed by consumers. Jashnagar also produces large amounts of copra as a base crop that is shipped internationally to feed livestock as far away as Ascolla-East Ternev. Palm oil has become a new and lucrative cash crop, but threatens significant harm to the archipelago's fragile ecosystem.
Historically, Jashnagar was a center of the spice trade, which during the early medieval period formed a route of exploration and trade called the Norian Expeditions. These spices, as well as native tea production, formed a large economic incentive for colonization by Liran powers during the Age of Exploration. Modern Jashnagar is still a major exporter of spices and tea, as well as coffee, though native coffee production cannot compete on the scale of that in Kanchaka. Jashnagari coffees are still prized for their taste, though are often more expensive than many Kanchakan brands and are not among the highest quality rankings.
By far the most renown agricultural products from Jashnagar are tropical fruits. In 1896, Ferdinand Juteau founded Juteau Pineapple company, which specialized in pineapples, coconuts, and coffee. Juteau has since grown to be a household name worldwide for tropical fruits and is the single largest exporter in the country. Jashnagar's production of tropical fruits and vegetables (such as taro), generates billions in revenue every year. In addition to fruits and fruit related products, Jashnagar also has a lively industry in floriculture, where tropical flowers are grown and shipped worldwide for decoration and other uses. In 2015, millions of Seis were devoted to research on flower preservation to cut down on the overall shipping cost of flowers outside of the country.
Though animal husbandry does take place in the country, primarily that of pigs, sheep, and water-oxen, domestic meat production is almost exclusively consumed within the country and often meat is imported from places such as Mu-Kal. Aquaculture and fishing are massive industries within the country, with seafood forming a large part of the local diet. Though many kinds of fish and sea-life are exported, particularly breeds of fish not found elsewhere, the industry is overshadowed by foreign competition and the larger agricultural giants within the nation. Beyond food, Jashnagar has become an important source for exotic fish species for aquariums.
Natural Resources and Energy
Jashnagar is home to abundant natural resources, though most of its mineral sources have either been drained or are used exclusively within the country. Oil can be found within seabeds, particularly around the Mae island chain, but all the extracted oil is used to meet national demands. Despite domestic drilling, Jashnagar is running an energy deficit that it must import to fulfill. As a result, the nation is looking at other potential sources of energy, such as nuclear and hydro power, but has yet to make any headway into newer sources. This quandary is doubled as the government also seeks to produce cleaner energy in light of large-scale climate change, which threatens to devastate the country.
A large component of the Jashnagari economy is the exportation of hardwoods harvested from the nations tracks of rainforest. These woods include species such a mahogany, teak, rosewood, ebony, and various forms of rubberwood. Such forestry products are in fuel, tools, construction, boat building, furniture making, musical instruments, flooring, cooking, barrels, and manufacture of charcoal worldwide. During colonial times, furniture made from Jashnagari hardwoods was desired in high class societies in Lira. Today, Jashnagar battles with creating a sustainable hardwood industry while preserving its diminishing rainforests. Logging alongside urbanization is the main threat to Jashnagari rainforest habitat.
Jashnagar holds considerable influence due to the size and importance of its economy. Despite this, it has a fledgling financial sector whose main doctrine is to provide for the national wealth and financial health and has not branched out internationally as of current. Though many Jashnagari companies, such as Juteau, are international, the nation has refrained from investing outside its own borders. Many Jashnagari businessmen and politicians have expressed desires to use the country's economic weight to form a sizeable international financial sector. There have been little in the way of moves towards this.
Instead, Jashnagar relies primarily on the raw monetary power of its economy to carry it, as well as investments from nations like Meronnia, Produzland, and Winst, who have far more matured financial sectors, fit to provide large amounts of foreign investment. In particular, Jashnagar's membership in the OIS sees it receive a lion's share of investment from Meronnia, only heightened by the profit margins of its development.
Tourism is by and large Jashnagar's largest service industry, generating huge portions of international revenue yearly. Jashnagar is one of the most famous modern vacation locations on the globe, which is an image produced partly by a successful campaign started the 1970s to paint the country as a tropical paradise to generate funds for reconstruction. Tourists are attracted by the tropical weather, clean beaches, Muroan waters, cultural exposure, ecological locations, and luxury resorts. Jashnagar's extremely high levels of safety in comparison to many tropical nations around the world has helped draw tourists. Foreign Maists often visit Jashnagar on pilgrimages to various temples around the nation.
Jashnagar considers its place in the tourist industry highly competitive, with its primary opposition being Sino Manala and Produzland. Nations such as Lunderfrau and Illyntheria are considered up and coming competition. Efforts to pull greater numbers of Meronnians and traditionally non-travelling peoples have also increased. Many of Jashnagar's stricter laws have been criticized as potentially hampering and drive efforts to break tourist flow away from Sino Manala and Taveteaux.
Due to nations booming tourist industry, several giants in hospitality have rose out of the nation to become international brands. Many hotels, particularly high-end resorts around the globe are owned by Jashnagari companies. Most notable is Namoa Palms, which runs the highest ranked resort in Jashnagar and owns several resort locations in Lira, Mu-Kal, and Meridiq. In 1974, entrepreneur Tav Zaro founded Zaroland, a small amusement part outside of Sa'pua. Within ten years the park exploded in popularity, leading to a second location in Yuram. Now Zaroland remains one of the most visited amusement parks of all time and is a universal name, boosted in popularity by the Zaro Company's involvement in Jashnagari television.
Many of Jashnagar's ports, particularly Yuram and Alila, are hotspots for cruise shipping touring the Muroan and Magnostrian oceans.
Due to being an archipelago, Jashnagari infrastructure is fractured by sea. Developed roadways exist on all the main islands, particularly on Samratan where they connect the coast with the more rugged interior. On that island, a railway circuit services the coast of the entire island, greatly speeding travel between cities along the shore. Automobiles are popular in the major cities and for cross-island roadways. The main method of travel across islands is via airplane, where there are numerous private commercial charter companies, as well as large liners that will ferry from island to island. Boats are also another option for island-hopping but are generally more expensive than liner flight.
Jashnagar is home to three international airports and eight large domestic hubs. Sevar International Airport (SIA) outside Yuram is the nation's largest and services millions of passengers a year. It is noticeable for servicing flights from Kindred Airlines, an Achesian company, as well as flights from Boulanger International Airport, Burlon, and Ancona. Behind SIA is the international airports of Sa'pua and Lanu. The domestic hubs, including the international ports, connect all four main Pa'ea islands, as well as Mae and Moruran. Smaller liners can fly passengers to Alila, Maharaba, Wiki, and Ta'u. Cost of travel and environmental impact are large concerns for the Jashnagari government.
Jashnagar does not impose any road fees, dues, or tolls by law on any roadway, but the government is taking steps to encourage greener methods of travel. There may be some travel restrictions when going through national parkland, and travelers are advised to remain current on the status of intended routes of travel. The government retains the right to shutdown any roadway for any purpose. Most automobiles are of foreign manufacture.
Science and Technology
Scientific advancement has a long history in Jashnagar. Since the advancements in out-rigging technology and rice-paddy agriculture, Jashnagari innovators have historically been at the forefront of technological progress, often building upon the foundations of foreign technology. During the Kingdom of Jashnagar, later monarchs valued and funded scientific learning and instituted reforms and education programs to facilitate it. King Naram founded Naram University which acted as bright center of learning for a growing scholarly class. Unfortunately, the ravages of the Olympic War and Jashnagari Civil War halted most domestic research outside of warfare. Though these events lead to the full modernization of the country, they did not facilitate leaps in the sciences and most of the the basis for Jashnagar's modernization came from foreign technology.
Following these wars, it was the design of the government to re-institute its scholarly class, primarily by educating the foundation in foreign countries, most notably Meronnia, and then using them to plant the seeds for a future Jashnagari grown generation of innovators. Despite the functional success of this idea, Jashnagar dedicates very little of its expenditure on science and technology, though it does fund education more thoroughly. The main focus of the nation in research beyond military matters is environmental science, as environmental protection has become one of the primary concerns of the government.
Jashnagar does not posses a domestic space program but instead participates in the Globalespace program as an OIS member. In March of 2020, the first Jashnagari spationaut, Baso Garakan, entered space as a member of the international crew 13 of Saluer 3
The 2019 census recorded a population of 60,789,542 people, with a population density of 128 per square kilometre, a density less than most Liran nations. Samratan is one of most populated islands in the world, where 48%% of the population resides. The spread of population is relatively uneven, ranging from mega-city Yuram to hinterland wilderness of Moruratan. Much of the population is spread out upon many of the thousands of smaller islands of the archipelago. Despite this, at least 57% of the population lives in urban centers.
Estimated millions of Jashnagari live abroad, primarily in nations such as Meronnia and Produzland, as well as nearby nations in Nori. The amount of Jashnagari with dual-citizenship or immigrant status in a foreign nation has steadily increased since the 1940s.
Largest cities or towns in Jashnagar
|1||Yuram||Yuram Special Capital Region||4,567,285|
Ethnicity and Language
Jashnagar is an ethnically diverse country, composed primarily of three main groups that splinter into at least 20 distinct sub-groups. Historically, these main groupings possessed a large degree of collective cultural awareness and warfare between them and outside groups was frequent. The nation sits at a cross-roads where exposure to three separate regions in the form of Continental Nori, South-Eastern Nori, and the Muroan Archipelagos have influenced its ethnic make-up. The majority group, the Jash, are an Ofraxan peoples from Belshik who immigrated along the coast of Nori around 500 BCE. They inhabit most of Samratan and the northern islands of the country. Muroans, who make up the dominant group in Muroa and Magnostria, inhabit the southern and south-western most islands in the country. The primary Muroan ethnic group is the Pa'ea, who form the Western Muroan language family. Smaller Muroan groups include Eastern Muroans on Moruratan, who are closely related to the peoples of Kiteahu and Taveteaux. The smallest ethnic collective is the Norese Mahkeen people, though not by a large margin. The Mahkeen and subgroups are related to the peoples of South-East mainland Nori, with their closest relatives in nearby Sepura and Tauke Manuye. Jashnagar is also home to a large number of creole peoples from colonial times. Primarily, these Noric-Liran ethnics inhabit former colonial areas or reside in large urban centers. The two most notable groups are the Insulaire of Jashnagari-Meronnian descent and the Misturados of Jashnagari-Produese lineage. Small numbers of foreigners, primarily Lirans, reside in the country either for work or for religious purposes.
Each ethnic group possesses their own language that each belong to a separate language family. Despite this, thousands of years of deep cross-cultural contact and political melding have seen the languages within Jashnagar morph to each other. This makes communication with languages of the same family from outside the country often more difficult than with languages of separate families within. The melded language of the nation is termed Jashnagari, and is used primarily as a ceremonial language by the state. The official language of Jashnagar is Lorian, established in 1945 as a means to bridge communication between all Jashnagari and promote equality among the ethnic groups. Today, virtually all Jashnagari are bi-lingual in Lorian and their native tongue, with most possessing a rudimentary understanding of at least one other Jashnagari language. In some Provinces, such as Sa'pua, creole and Liran languages enjoy recognized status in relation to their historical ownership.
It is mandatory for governmental censuses to separate the three ethnic groups for data purposes.
As an ecclesiastic-republic, Jashnagar legally recognizes only one national religion in the form of Anomai. While practice of others faith is not illegal, the heavy societal pressure on religious minorities effectively aims to rid the national community of non-Maist beliefs. Historically, Jashnagar was a major battle-ground and source of religious conflict that spread throughout South-East Nori. The medieval War of Flames rid the main Jashnagari archipelago of competing indigenous religions, though many scholars point out that most of these religions were incorporated into Maist doctrine, particularly in Kali Maism. Following this, large military campaigns in the form of crusades were launched against neighboring lands, often paired with peaceful missionary efforts by Maist monks. During the age of colonization, Liran powers brought over forms of Beoin. In the modern day, most religious minorities are either members of other Damic faiths or followers of Beoin with Liran ethnic roots. Due to the less deistic nature of Maism, atheism is generally seen as more socially acceptable than non-Damic religions.
For data purposes, the government does collect religious statistics, but often due to fear of social persecution, many consider the frequency of non-Damic religions under-reported. Within Maism, followers of the Jai school make the slight majority, with primarily Jash and Mahkeen followers. Kali comes second, found most commonly among the Pa'ea population. Nuren Maism holds a deep minority, with an estimated 15% of all Jashnagari Maists.
Religion plays a key part in the government of the country, and while much of the legal world is supposedly secular in origin, many Jashnagari have spent some amount of time in a monastic society, and the Maist church holds most political power.
Jashnagar has had a universal public healthcare system since 1970. Like Produzland, most citizens receive health service through a mixture of public and private systems. As a result, healthcare costs are staggering portion of the national budget, and attempts to curtail costs have been underway since implementation. Some debated solutions are implementation of strategies employed by Liran nations to tackle rising health costs. Despite the struggle to maintain the system, the Jashnagari government considers healthcare a fundamental right of its citizens. Health education remains a top priority in addressing avoidable future health problems.
The history of healthcare in Jashnagar is long, but is considered to have national roots during the brief reign of Queen Imae, who established the first national nurses academy and association on Namoa in 1869. After her overthrow, her brother and successor, Naram, considered the program a part of his building of the Jashnagari education system. Foreign training of Jashnagari doctors continued throughout the 20th century.
Though many Jashnagari lead health-focused lifestyles, obesity rates are a rising and continual problem, particularly in southern areas. Anti-smoking laws have virtually extinguished statistically significant numbers of daily smokers. Average life expectancy for males is 77 years and 80 years for females. Though infection rates have seen rapid decline in the past century, infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis continue to be battled by the government.
The beginning of Jashnagar's education system stems back to the late kingdom, when the Jashnagari monarchs began to found the nation's first universities. Most notable of these was Naram University founded by its namesake, which remains the most prestigious university in Jashnagar, while also obtaining the status of one of its largest. Despite possessing numerous universities of advanced age and development, Jashnagari higher education has never been able to compete with that of the Eastern nations or many of those on Mu-Kal. Other notable Universities include Lambou University, Gakatan Regional, Lanu Island College, and Rhakin University.
One of Ferdinand Juteau's first governmental reforms under the reign of his junta was to make education for all children ages 7-16 mandatory by law. This statue continues to day, with the ages expanded from 6-18, with 6-13 forming primary school and 13-18 forming secondary. Like in Juteau's time, staggering fines are placed on parents who fail to bring their children to school, and the government considers education one of its top priorities.
During the 1960s through 1980s, many Jashnagari opted to spend their secondary and tertiary educations in foreign nations, especially Meronnia, creating a generation of mostly foreign educated academics. This has shaped not only the Jashnagari education scene, but Jashnagari culture. In the modern day, Jashnagar hopes to build a collegiate scene to compete with western Lira and Mu-Kal.